Machine d’Anticythére

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Français : Fragment principal de la machine d’Anticythère. Le mécanisme consiste en un système complexe de 32 roues et plaques portant des inscriptions relatives aux signes du zodiaque et aux mois. L’étude des fragments suggère qu’il s’agissait d’une sorte d’astrolabe utilisée pour la navigation maritime. L’interprétation désormais généralement acceptée remonte aux études du professeur Derek de Solla Price, qui fut le premier à suggérer que le mécanisme est une machine à calculer le calendrier solaire et lunaire, c’est-à-dire une machine ingénieuse pour déterminer le temps sur la base des mouvements du soleil et de la lune, leur relation (éclipses) et les mouvements des autres étoiles et des planètes connues à cette époque. Le mécanisme fut probablement construit par un mécanicien ingénieux de l’école de Poséidonios à Rhodes. Cicéron, qui visita l’île en 79/78 a. C. rapporte que de tels engins étaient en effet conçus par le philosophe stoïcien Poséidonios d’Apamée. La conception du mécanisme d’Anticythère paraît suivre la tradition du planétarium d’Archimède, et peut être reliée aux cadrans solaires. Son mode opératoire est basé sur l’utilisation de roues dentées. La machine est datée de 89 a. C. environ et provient de l’épave trouvée au large de l’île d’Anticythère. Musée archéologique national, Athènes, n°15987.

English: Main Antikythera mechanism fragment. The mechanism consists of a complex system of 32 wheels and plates with inscriptions relating to the signs of the zodiac and the months. The study of the fragments suggests that this was a kind of astrolabe used for marine navigation. The interpretation now generally accepted dates back to studies by Professor Derek de Solla Price, who was the first to suggest that the mechanism is a machine to calculate the solar and lunar calendar, that is to say, an ingenious machine to determine the time based on the movements of the sun and moon, their relationship (eclipses) and the movements of other stars and planets known at that time. The mechanism was probably built by an ingenious mechanic school Posidonius in Rhodes. Cicero, who visited the island in 79/78 B.C. reported that such devices were indeed designed by the Stoic philosopher Posidonius of Apamea. The design of the Antikythera mechanism appears to follow the tradition of Archimedes’ planetarium, and may be related to sundials. His modus operandi is based on the use of gears. The machine is dated around 89 B.C. and comes from the wreck found off the island of Antikythera. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, No. 15987.

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