Renunciation of Astrology

Proclamation of Renunciation of practice of Astrology. I renounce it. Now I have seen that it is something that God does not condone and doubtless can bless since he has said through his word that those who practice this craft cannot enter Heaven. Therefore, I desire no part in it.




Tammuz (deity)
Tammuz (Syriac: , Hebrew: תַּמּוּז, Transliterated Hebrew: Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew: Tammûz, Arabic: تمّوز Tammūz; Turkish: Temmuz Akkadian: Duʾzu, Dūzu; Sumerian: Dumuzid (DUMU.ZI(D) “faithful or true son”) was the name of a Sumerian god of food and vegetation.

Ritual Mourning
In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar. The Levantine Adonis (“lord”), who was drawn into the Greek pantheon, was considered by Joseph Campbell among others to be another counterpart of Tammuz, son and consort. The Aramaic name “Tammuz” seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damu-zid. The later standard Sumerian form, Dumu-zid, in turn became Dumuzi in Akkadian.
Beginning with the summer solstice came a time of mourning in the Ancient Near East, as in the Aegean: the Babylonians marked the decline in daylight hours and the onset of killing summer heat and drought with a six-day “funeral” for the god. Recent discoveries reconfirm him as an annual life-death-rebirth deity: tablets discovered in 1963 show that Dumuzi was in fact consigned to the Underworld himself, in order to secure Inanna’s release, though the recovered final line reveals that he is to revive for six months of each year.
In cult practice, the dead Tammuz was widely mourned in the Ancient Near East. Locations associated in antiquity with the site of his death include both Harran and Byblos, among others. A Sumerian tablet from Nippur (Ni 4486) reads:
She can make the lament for you, my Dumuzid, the lament for you, the lament, the lamentation, reach the desert — she can make it reach the house Arali; she can make it reach Bad-tibira; she can make it reach Dul-šuba; she can make it reach the shepherding country, the sheepfold of Dumuzid
“O Dumuzid of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes,” she sobs tearfully, “O you of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes,” she sobs tearfully. “Lad, husband, lord, sweet as the date, […] O Dumuzid!” she sobs, she sobs tearfully.
These mourning ceremonies were observed even at the very door of the Temple in Jerusalem in a vision the Israelite prophet Ezekiel was given, which serves as a Biblical prophecy which expresses Yahweh’s message at His people’s apostate worship of idols:
“Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the Lord’s house which was toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz. Then said he unto to me, ‘Hast thou seen this, O son of man? turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations than these.” —Ezekiel 8:14-15
Ezekiel’s testimony is the only direct mention of Tammuz in the Hebrew Bible.

In Arabic Sources
Tammuz is the month of July in Iraqi Arabic and Levantine Arabic (see Arabic names of calendar months), and references to Tammuz appear in Arabic literature from the 9th to 11th centuries AD.[10] In a translation of an ancient Nabataean text by Kuthami the Babylonian, Ibn Wahshiyya (c. 9th-10th century AD), adds information on his own efforts to ascertain the identity of Tammuz, and his discovery of the full details of the legend of Tammuz in another Nabataean book:
“How he summoned the king to worship the seven (planets) and the twelve (signs) and how the king put him to death several times in a cruel manner Tammuz coming to life again after each time, until at last he died; and behold! it was identical to the legend of St. George which is current among the Christians.”
Ibn Wahshiyya also adds that Tammuz lived in Babylonia before the coming of the Chaldeans and belonged to an ancient Mesopotamian tribe called Ganbân. On rituals related to Tammuz in his time, he adds that the Sabaeans in Harran and Babylonia still lamented the loss of Tammuz every July, but that the origin of the worship had been lost.
Al-Nadim in his 10th century work Kitab al-Fehrest drawing from a work on Syriac calendar feast days, describes a Tâ’ûz festival that took place in the middle of the month of Tammuz. Women bewailed the death of Tammuz at the hands of his master who was said to have “ground his bones in a mill and scattered them to the wind.”Consequently, women would forgo the eating of ground foods during the festival time. The same festival is mentioned in the 11th century by Ibn Athir as still taking place at the appointed time on the banks of the Tigris river.

Dumuzid in the Sumerian king list
In the Sumerian king list two kings named Dumuzi appear:
• Dumuzid of Bad-tibira, the shepherd (reigning 36 000 years), the fifth King before the Flood
• Dumuzid of Kuara, the fisherman (reigning 100 years), the third King of the first dynasty of Uruk, reigning between Lugalbanda and Gilgamesh
Other Sumerian texts showed that kings were to be married to Inanna in a sacred marriage, for example a hymn that describes the sacred marriage of King Iddid-Dagan (ca 1900 BCE)

Dumuzid and Inanna
Today several versions of the Sumerian death of Dumuzi have been recovered, “Inanna’s Descent to the Underworld”, “Dumuzi’s dream” and “Dumuzi and the galla”, as well as a tablet separately recounting Dumuzi’s death, mourned by holy Inanna, and his noble sister Geštinanna, and even his dog and the lambs and kids in his fold; Dumuzi himself is weeping at the hard fate in store for him, after he had walked among men, and the cruel galla of the Underworld seize him.
A number of pastoral poems and songs relate the love affair of Inanna and Dumuzid the shepherd. A text recovered in 1963 recounts “The Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi” in terms that are tender and frankly erotic.
According to the myth of Inanna’s descent to the underworld, represented in parallel Sumerian and Akkadian[6] tablets, Inanna (Ishtar in the Akkadian texts) set off for the netherworld, or Kur, which was ruled by her sister Ereshkigal, perhaps to take it as her own. She passed through seven gates and at each one was required to leave a garment or an ornament so that when she had passed through the seventh gate she was entirely naked. Despite warnings about her presumption, she did not turn back but dared to sit herself down on Ereshkigal’s throne. Immediately the Anunnaki of the underworld judged her, gazed at her with the eyes of death, and she became a corpse, hung up on a nail.
Based on the incomplete texts as first found, it was assumed that Ishtar/Inanna’s descent into Kur occurred after the death of Tammuz/Dumuzid rather than before and that her purpose was to rescue Tammuz/Dumuzid. This is the familiar form of the myth as it appeared in M. Jastrow’s Descent of the Goddess Ishtar into the Lower World, 1915, widely available on the Internet. New texts uncovered in 1963 filled in the story in quite another fashion, showing that Dumuzi was in fact consigned to the Underworld himself, in order to secure Inanna’s release.
Inanna’s faithful servant attempted to get help from the other gods but only wise Enki/Ea responded. The details of Enki/Ea’s plan differ slightly in the two surviving accounts, but in the end, Inanna/Ishtar was resurrected. However, a “conservation of souls” law required her to find a replacement for herself in Kur. She went from one god to another, but each one pleaded with her and she had not the heart to go through with it until she found Dumuzid/Tammuz richly dressed and on her throne. Inanna/Ishtar immediately set her accompanying demons on Dumuzid/Tammuz. At this point the Akkadian text fails as Tammuz’ sister Belili, introduced for the first time, strips herself of her jewelry in mourning but claims that Tammuz and the dead will come back.
There is some confusion here. The name Belili occurs in one of the Sumerian texts also, but it is not the name of Dumuzid’s sister who is there named Geshtinana, but is the name of an old woman whom another text calls Bilulu.
In any case, the Sumerian texts relate how Dumuzid fled to his sister Geshtinana who attempted to hide him but who could not in the end stand up to the demons. Dumuzid has two close calls until the demons finally catch up with him under the supposed protection of this old woman called Bilulu or Belili and then they take him. However Inanna repents.
Inanna seeks vengeance on Bilulu, on Bilulu’s murderous son G̃irg̃ire and on G̃irg̃ire’s consort Shirru “of the haunted desert, no-one’s child and no-one’s friend”. Inanna changes Bilulu into a waterskin and G̃irg̃ire into a protective god of the desert while Shirru is assigned to watch always that the proper rites are performed for protection against the hazards of the desert.
Finally, Inanna relents and changes her decree thereby restoring her husband Dumuzi to life; an arrangement is made by which Geshtinana will take Dumuzid’s place in Kur for six months of the year: “You (Dumuzi), half the year. Your sister (Geštinanna), half the year!” This newly-recovered final line upset Samuel Noah Kramer’s former interpretation, as he allowed: “my conclusion that Dumuzi dies and “stays dead” forever (cf e.g. Mythologies of the Ancient World p. 10) was quite erroneous: Dumuzi according to the Sumerian mythographers rises from the dead annually and, after staying on earth for half the year, descends to the Nether World for the other half.”

Church of the Nativity and Shrine of Adonis-Tammuz
According to some scholars, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is built over a cave that was originally a shrine to Adonis-Tammuz.
The Church Father Jerome, who died in Bethlehem in 420, reports in addition that the holy cave was at one point consecrated by the heathen to the worship of Adonis, and a pleasant sacred grove planted before it, to wipe out the memory of Jesus. Modern mythologists, however, reverse the supposition, insisting that the cult of Adonis-Tammuz originated the shrine and that it was the Christians who took it over, substituting their own worship.



THEOSOPHY, Vol. 52, No. 6, April, 1964
(Pages 175-182; THE CHALDEAN LEGEND(1)

Of the dead sciences of the past, there is a fair minority of earnest students who are entitled to learn the few truths that may now be given to them.

THE Chaldean religion is entirely lost to the world now, except in its disfigured Sabeanism as rendered by archeologists. It is the outcome of three great religions, the Indian, the Mazdean, and the Egyptian, and bears direct relationship to all of these. The Chaldean Book of Numbers was derived from the “Book of Dzyan” described in theosophical literature. And of the Chaldean works which are translated into Arabic and preserved by some Sufi initiates, it is asserted that the public knows nothing. The Sabeans were astrolaters, so called; those who worshipped the stars — or rather their “regents.” Sabeanism was thus the religion of the ancient Chaldees. They believed in one impersonal, universal deific Principle, although they never mentioned It, but offered worship to the solar, lunar, and planetary gods and rulers, regarding the stars and other celestial bodies as their respective symbols. The Chaldeans, or Kasdim, were at first a tribe, and then a caste of learned Kabbalists. They were the savants, the magians of Babylonia, astrologers and diviners. The famous Hillel, the precursor of Jesus in philosophy and ethics, was a Chaldean.

In every cosmogony, behind and higher than the creative Deity there is a superior Deity, a planner, an architect, of whom the Creator is but the executive agent. And still higher, over and around, within and without, there is the UNKNOWABLE and the unknown, the Source and Cause of all these Emanations. In Chaldea the great First Cause as the ONE, the primordial germ, the unrevealed and grand ALL, existing through himself — was Ilu. This was the Kabbalistic En-Soph (No-thing). Whenever the Eternal awakes from its slumber and desires to manifest itself, it divides itself into male and female. It then becomes in every system the double-sexed Deity, the universal Father and Mother, the Anu-Anata (male-female) of the Chaldeans. From the union of the two a third, or creative Principle — the SON, or the manifested Logos — is the product of the Divine Mind. In Chaldea the Son was Bel. Moreover, every such system has a triple male trinity, each proceeding separately through itself from one female Deity. In Chaldea the trinity of Anu, Bel, and Hea, blend into One who is Anu (double-sexed) through the Virgin Mylitta.

To place it still clearer, the Babylonian system recognized first the ONE (Ad), who is never named but only acknowledged in thought, as the Hindu Swayambhuva. From this he becomes manifest as Anu, the one above all — Monas. Next comes the Demiurge (the “Builder” or executive Architect of the Universe) called Bel, who is the active power of the Godhead. The third is the principle of wisdom, Hea, who also rules the sea and the underworld. Each of these — Anu, Bel, and Hea –has his divine consort, giving us Anata, Belta, and Davkina. These, however, are only like the Shaktis, the “forces” of Nature. But the female principle is denoted by Mylitta, the Great Mother, called also Ishtar. With the three male gods we have the Triad, or Trimurti. “The fact is, that all the three ‘persons’ of the Trimurti are simply three qualitative attributes of the universe of differentiated Spirit-Matter; the self-formative, the self-preserving, and the self-destroying, for purposes of regeneration and perfectibility.” With Mylitta added to the Trimurti we have the Arba or Four (Tetraktys of Pythagoras), which perfects and potentializes all.

Bel was the oldest and mightiest of the gods of Babylonia, one of the earliest trinities. He was “Lord of the World,” father of the gods and “Lord of the city of Nippur.” Hea was the maker of fate, Lord of the Deep, God of Wisdom and esoteric Knowledge, and Lord of the city (i.e., Mysteries) of Eridu. Anu was the earliest god of the city of Erech. The “doctrine of the Trinity” is first met northeast of the Indus; and, tracing it to Asia Minor and Europe, one recognizes it among every people who had anything like an established religion. It was taught in the oldest Chaldean, Egyptian, and Mithraic schools. The Chaldean Sun-god, Mithra, was called “Triple” and the trinitarian idea of the Chaldeans was a doctrine of the Akkadians who, themselves, belonged to a race which was the first to conceive a metaphysical trinity. According to the archeologist Rawlinson, the Chaldeans were a tribe of the Akkadians who lived in Babylonia from earliest times; but according to others they were Turanians who instructed the Babylonians into the first notions of religion. But these same Akkadians, who were they? The only tradition worthy of credence is that these Akkadians instructed the Babylonians in the Mysteries, and taught them the sacerdotal or Mystery language. These Akkadians were then simply a tribe of the Hindu-Brahmans — now called Aryans — and their vernacular language, the Sanskrit of the Vedas; and the sacred or Mystery language, that which, even in our own age, is used by the Hindu fakirs and initiated Brahmans in their magical evocations. They were emigrants on their way to Asia Minor from India, the cradle of humanity, and their sacerdotal adepts tarried to civilize and initiate a barbarian people.

The Babylonian civilization was neither born nor developed in that country. It was imported from India, and the importers were Brahmanical Hindus. Whether the latter were Brahmans from the Brahmanic planisphere proper (40° north latitude) or from India (Hindustan), or again from the India of Central Asia, we will leave to philologists of the future to decide. Science has discovered enough to inform us that Sanskrit originals of Nepal, were translated by Buddhist missionaries into nearly every Asiatic tongue. Likewise Pali manuscripts were translated in Siamese, and carried to Burma and Siam; it is easy therefore to account for the same religious myths circulating in so many countries. But Manetho tells us also of Pali shepherds who emigrated westward; and when we find some of the oldest Ceylonic traditions in the Chaldean Kabbala and Jewish Bible, we must think that either Chaldeans or Babylonians had been in Ceylon or India, or the ancient Pali had the same traditions as the Akkadians, whose origin is so uncertain. Suppose even Rawlinson to be right, that the Akkadians did come from Armenia, he did not trace them farther back. As the field is open to any kind of hypothesis, we submit that this tribe might as well have come to Armenia from beyond the Indus, following their way in the direction of the Caspian Sea — a part of which was also India once upon a time — and from thence to the Euxine. Or they might have come originally from Ceylon by the same way.

Genesis is purely a reminiscence of the Babylonian captivity. The names of places, men, and even objects can be traced from the original text to the Chaldeans and the Akkadians, the progenitors and Aryan instructors of the former. The garden of Eden as a locality is no myth at all; it belongs to those landmarks of history which occasionally disclose to the student that the Bible is not all mere allegory. In the Chaldean Book of Numbers the location of Eden is designated by numerals, and in the cipher Rosicrucian manuscript left by Count St. Germain it is fully disclosed. The Elohim may be accepted in one sense for gods or powers, and taken in another one for the Aleim, or priests; the Hierophants initiated into the good and evil of the world. For there was a college of priests called the Aleim, while the head of their caste, or the chief of the hierophants, was known as Java Aleim. In the Chaldean as well as in every exoteric scripture, Beings who refuse to create, i.e., who are said to oppose thereby the Demiurge, are denounced as the spirits of Darkness. The “Fallen Angels” and the legend of the “War in Heaven” is purely pagan in its origin and comes from India via Persia and Chaldea.

The fable of the Deluge — both the Hindu and the Chaldean account — has been considered by orthodox commentators to have been borrowed from the Mosaic scriptures. But surely if such a universal cataclysm had ever taken place within man’s memory, some of the monuments of the Egyptians, of which many are of such tremendous antiquity, would have recorded the occurrence. But till now there has not been found the remotest allusion to such calamity. On the other hand the Chaldeans preserved the tradition, as we find Berosus — a priest of the temple of Belus — testifying to it, and the ancient Hindus possessed the legend as given by Vaivasvata. Now, there is but one explanation of the extraordinary fact that of two contemporary and civilized nations like Egypt and Chaldea, one has preserved no tradition of it whatever, although it was the most directly interested in the occurrence — if we credit the Bible — and the other has. The deluge noticed in the Bible, in one of the Brahmanas, and in the Berosus Fragment, relates to the flood which, about 10,000 B.C., according to Bunsen, and according to Brahmanical computations of the Zodiac also, changed the whole face of Central Asia. Thus the Babylonians and the Chaldeans might have learned of it from their mysterious guests, christened by some Assyriologists Akkadians, or what is still more probable, they, themselves perhaps, were the descendants of those who had dwelt in the submerged localities. The Jews had the tale from the latter as they had everything else; the Brahmans may have recorded the traditions of the lands which they first invaded, and had perhaps inhabited before they possessed themselves of the Punjab. But the Egyptians, whose first settlers had evidently come from Southern (Dravidian) India, had less reason to record the cataclysm, since it had perhaps never affected them except indirectly, as the flood was limited to Central Asia.

It was Berosus who wrote for Alexander the Great the history of the Babylonian cosmogony, as taught in the temples, from the astronomical and chronological records preserved in the Temple of Belus. The only guide to this cosmogony may now be found in the fragments of the Assyrian tablets, evidently copied almost bodily from the earlier Babylonian records which — say what the Orientalists may — are undeniably the originals of the Mosaic Genesis, of the Flood, the tower of Babel, of baby Moses set afloat on the waters, and of other events. As the Babylonian accounts are restored from hundreds of thousands of broken fragments, the proofs here cited are comparatively scanty; yet such as they are, they corroborate almost every one of our teachings, certainly three at least. These are (1) That the race which was the first to fall into generation was a dark race (Zalmat Gaguadi), which they call the Adami or dark Race; and that Sarku, or the light Race, remained pure for a long while subsequently. (2) That the Babylonians recognised two principal Races at the time of the Fall, the Race of the Gods (the ethereal doubles of the Pitris) having preceded these two. These “Races” are our second and third root-races. (3) That the seven (primeval) Gods, each of whom created a man, or group of men, were “the gods imprisoned or incarnated.” All these gods or “Lords” collectively “who bestow Intelligence” are our incarnating Dhyan Chohans, connected as well with the Elohim, and the seven informing gods of Egypt, Chaldea, and every other country. Hea, their synthesis, the god of Wisdom and of the Deep, is identified with Oannes-Dagon, at the time of the fall, and called (collectively) the Demiurge, or Creator.

Our races, all cosmogonies show, have sprung from divine races, by whatever name they are called. The Chaldeans had their ten and seven Anedots, which was the generic name for their Dragons of Wisdom. The name of the Dragon in Chaldea was not written phonetically, but was represented by two monograms, probably meaning, according to the Orientalists, “the scaly one.” We find the priests assuming the names of the gods they served, the “Dragons” held throughout all antiquity as the symbols of Immortality and Wisdom, of secret Knowledge and of Eternity. The allegory of Oannes, the Anedot, reminds us of the Dragon and Snake-Kings; the Nagas who in Buddhist legends instruct people in wisdom on lakes and rivers, and end by becoming converts to the good Law and Arhats. Musarus Oannes, the Anedot, known in the Chaldean “legend,” transmitted through Berosus and other ancient writers as Dagon, the “Man-Fish,” came to the early Babylonians as a reformer and an instructor. Appearing from the Erythraean (Red) Sea, he brought them civilization, letters and sciences, law, astronomy, religion, teaching them agriculture, geometry, and the arts in general. There were Anedoti who came after him; but Musarus Oannes was “the first to appear, and this he did in the reign of Ammenon, the third of the ten antediluvian Kings whose (divine) Dynasty ended with Xisuthrus, the Chaldean Noah.” The meaning of the allegory is evident. The “fish” is an old and very suggestive symbol of the Mystery-language, as is also “water;” Hea was the god of the sea and Wisdom, and the sea serpent was one of his emblems, his priests being “serpents” or Initiates. The hidden meaning becomes clear to the Occultist once he is told that “this being (Oannes) was accustomed to pass the day among men, teaching; and when the sun had set, he retired again into the sea, passing the night in the deep, for he was amphibios,” i.e., he belonged to two planes, the spiritual and the physical. … Oannes is dimly reflected in Jonah, and even in John the Precursor, both connected with Fish and Water. Layard showed long ago that the “fish’s head” was simply a head gear, the mitre worn by priests and gods, made in the form of a fish’s head, and which in a very little modified form is what we see even now on the heads of the high Lamas and Romish Bishops. Osiris had such a mitre. The fish’s tail is simply the train of a long stiff mantle as depicted on some Assyrian tablets, the form being seen reproduced in the sacerdotal gold cloth garment worn during service by the modern Greek priests.

What is known of Chaldean Moon-Worship, of the Babylonian god Sin, is very little, and that little is apt to mislead the profane student who fails to grasp the esoteric significance of the symbols. As popularly known to the ancient profane philosophers and writers (for those who were initiated were pledged to silence) the Chaldees were worshippers of the moon under her (and his) various names, just as were the Jews who came after them. Lunar magnetism generates life, preserves and destroys it, psychically as well as physically. The worshippers of the Teraphim (the Jewish Oracles) “carved images and claimed that the light of the principal stars (planets) permeating these through and through, the angelic VIRTUES (or the regents of the stars and planets) conversed with them, teaching them many most useful things and arts.” Seldenus explains that the Teraphim (idols) were built and composed after the positions of certain planets, and according to figures that were located in the sky and called the tutelary gods. With the Chaldeans the moon was Sin, and Nannak or Nannar, the son of Mulil, the older Bel. It is Mulil (Bel) who caused the waters of the Flood to fall from heaven on earth, for which Xisuthrus would not allow him to approach his altar. Behind the lunar “worship” was the secret teaching that the first race of men, the images and astral doubles of their Fathers, were the pioneers or the most progressed Entities from a preceding though lower sphere, the shell of which is now our Moon. But even this shell is all-potential, for having generated the earth, it is the phantom of the Moon which, attracted by magnetic affinity, sought to form its first inhabitants, the pre-human monsters. “While the gods were generated in the androgyne bosom of Mother-space, the reflection of Hea’s Wisdom became on earth the woman Omoroka, the Deep or the Sea, which esoterically or even exoterically is the Moon. It was the Moon (Omoroka) who presided over the monstrous (purely physical) creation of nondescript beings which were slain by the Dhyanis.

Traditions about a race of giants in days of old were universal; they exist in oral and written lore. Chaldea had her Idzubar (Nimrod), a hero, shown in all the tablets as a mighty giant who towered in size above all other men as the cedar towers over brushwood — a hunter, according to cuneiform legends, who contended with and destroyed the lion, tiger, wild bull, and buffalo, the most formidable animals. The Babylonian Venus was called Ishtar, “the eldest of heaven and earth” and daughter of Anu, god of heaven. The legend is that Ishtar, the beautiful goddess, descended into Hades after her beloved Tammuz, and found that this dark place of the shades had seven spheres and seven gates, at each of which she had to leave something belonging to her. Any Occultist who reads of her love for Tammuz, his assassination by Idzubar, the despair of the goddess and her descent and final liberation from the dark realm, will recognize the beautiful allegory of the soul in search of the Spirit.

Birs Nimrud is believed by the Orientalists to be the site of the tower of Babel. This great pile of Birs Nimrud is near Babylon. Rawlinson and several Assyriologists examined the excavated ruins and found that the tower consisted of seven stages of brick-work, each stage of a different color, which shows that the temple was devoted to the seven planets. Even with the three higher stages or floors in ruins, it still rises now 154 feet above the level of the plain. The Chaldeans, with the Egyptians, were among the most ancient votaries of Astrology. Egypt claimed the honor of its invention; the Chaldees taught the science to other nations.

The Akkadians and Chaldeans kept a Sabbath day of rest every seven days, they also had thanksgiving days, and days of humiliation and prayer. The number seven was especially sacred. The great temple of Babylon existed long before 2250 B.C. Its Holy of Holies was within the shrine of Nebo, the prophet god of Wisdom (Mercury).

The Chaldeans, whom Cicero counts among the oldest magicians, placed the basis of all magic in the inner powers of man’s soul, and by the discernment of magic properties in plants, minerals, and animals. The magic of the ancient Chaldeans was but a profound knowledge of the powers of simples and minerals. By the aid of these they performed the most wonderful “miracles.” Magic with them was synonymous with religion and science. It was only when the theurgist desired divine help in spiritual and earthly matters that he sought direct communication through religious rites, with pure spiritual beings. With them, even, those spirits who remain invisible and communicate with mortals through their awakened inner senses, as in clairvoyance, clairaudience, and trance, could only be evoked subjectively and as a result of purity of life and prayer. But all physical phenomena were produced simply by applying a knowledge of natural forces, although certainly not by the method of legerdemain, practised in our days of conjurers. There was a vast difference between the true worship taught to those who showed themselves worthy, and the state religions.





Larry Wilson

Updated January, 2000
Edited September 2013


The plans of God for planet Earth did not end with Creation’s week; rather, they merely began. The knowledge of what God planned to do from the beginning continues to unfold to this very day. Review in your mind all that God has done since the Creation of the world and put that within a context of what God planned to do before He even made the world! God did not create this world and abandon it. On the contrary, God put each of us on this orb to make Heaven a little larger. God loves children, that’s why He created Adam and Eve. God wanted Adam and Eve to experience (as He does) the joy of children; that is why He gave them the power to procreate. When sin entered the picture, it corrupted every good thing that God had made. Sin’s legacy has produced a degenerate order in every dimension on Earth, God has not, like a deadbeat parent, abandoned this world or His children.

God is a mystery. His actions at times are baffling. Sometimes, it is hard to trust God, for His ways are not our ways. He does not operate within our boundaries, nor on our scale. To say that God is awesome is a terrible understatement. His knowledge and wisdom knows no boundaries. One feature of God that is impressive, and yet confusing, is His foreknowledge. For example, one popular question goes like this: “If God foreknew that Lucifer would become a devil, why did He create Him? There are several responses to this question and here is one: If God protected Himself and His government from the possibility of rebellion, He would prove that He is an eternal tyrant forever secure in His position as Dictator of the Universe. But, the very presence of the devil proves that God is not an eternal tyrant. On the contrary, the drama of sin has revealed as nothing else could do that God is love. Therefore, a positive benefit which springs from the experience of sin is the knowledge that God alone is worthy to forever hold the position of “Dictator of the Universe.” In other words, God’s reaction to sin has earned Him the right to rule over the universe and His children. His actions will ultimately grant Him the honor, glory and praise He is due.

When God created the world, He foreknew the elements that would be needed to accomplish His objectives. Because He knows the duration of every event, God created the phenomenon we call time so that we could measure every event. What is time? Time is the duration between two events. As we shall see, time on Earth is measured in several ways. God foreknew from the beginning the duration of sin. He has given man seven, perhaps eight great clocks so that we might measure and understand the duration of His plans. In this light, every student of Daniel and Revelation faces the challenge of arranging a number of pre-determined time-periods which God ordained from the beginning. God has given us some prophetic time-periods that endure many centuries and some time-periods that endure for a few days. Why? Because each time-period reveals the timing of His plans that began at Creation. Do we really need to know about the 1,000 years of Revelation 20 before they come to pass? Yes! If they were not important, God would not have revealed them to us. What is so important about knowing the saints will reign with Jesus for a thousand years? If we consider the presence of a millennial week of seven thousand years for the duration of sin, then the 1,000 years of Revelation 20 implies the saints will reign with Jesus during Earth’s sabbatical rest from sin!

A large number of people say, “Prophecy is not a matter that pertains to my salvation, therefore, why worry about it? Whatever will be, will be.” No doubt the antediluvians said similar statements in Noah’s day. Consider the parallel: For 120 years the antediluvians said the prophecies of Noah were not pertinent to salvation, but in one single day everything changed. How can this be? Did God send the antediluvians meaningless prophecies for 120 years and then suddenly send them meaningful prophecies? Of course not. From the beginning, Noah’s message pertained to salvation, but the scoffers drowned in their own unbelief. (Matthew 24:39) Likewise, the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation are pertinent right now, even though we may not fully understand everything about them. However, when the time for soul-saving clarity comes, who will understand the way to life eternal – the scoffers or the students?


The books of Daniel and Revelation contain several time-periods. For example, the book of Daniel mentions:
10 Days, 21 Days, 30 Days,
2300 Days, 1290 Days, 1335 Days
3 Weeks, 70 Weeks
12 Months, 3 Years and 70 Years
“Seven Times”
“A Time, Times and Half a Time”

Likewise, Revelation also mentions several time-periods. These include:
1,000 Years
42 Months
Five Months
1,260 Days, 10 Days, 3.5 Days,
One Day
One Hour, Half an Hour
“A Time, Times and Half a Time”

Revelation also includes one reference of time that pinpoints a specific hour, day, month and year. Given the sheer size and number of time-periods found in Daniel and Revelation, the student is faced with the following questions: How does God reckon these time-periods? What do these time-periods say about His actions? Is there a self-evident rule within the Bible that mandates how time should be reckoned? Where does each time-period belong in prophetic chronology? Why does God use different names for time-periods? When a Bible student undertakes a close investigation of Daniel and Revelation, he must include all of these time-periods in his study. Therefore, some method of interpreting these time-periods becomes essential. One purpose for this writing is to suggest a rule for interpreting these time-periods.


When God created Earth, He devised four great clocks and four seasons to enable man to quantify and measure the passage of “Earth time.” (Genesis 1:14-19) Three of the four clocks and all four seasons were perpetually synchronized with planetary motion. For example, God synchronized the “day clock” with sundown. (Genesis 1:5) The end of one day establishes the beginning of the next because the day clock is perpetually reset at sundown. (Genesis 1:8) God confirmed this point some 2,500 years after Creation. (Leviticus 23:32) Ancient Egyptians may have synchronized their day clock with sunrise and the Romans may have synchronized their day clock with midnight, but the synchrony of God’s “day clock” remains unchanged and it operates from sundown to sundown.

The average length of Earth’s solar day is 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds. The additional 3 minutes and 56 seconds needed to make up a 24 hour day is gained by traveling 1.728 million miles around the Sun. In other words, our orbital travel around the Sun plus the rotation of Earth produces 24 hours between sunsets. The amount of darkness and light per day constantly changes throughout the year because our planet axis is not vertical. Inclement weather also prevents the observation of sundown. Further, the season of the year, latitude and longitude also affect the local time for sundown. Even the horizon of the observer affects the time of sundown. The point here is that even though sundown marks the end and the beginning of a day, the observable moment of sundown is not fixed or precise, yet sundown is perfectly suited to reset the “day clock.”


God also created the “month clock” at Creation. A month is determined by one full cycle of the moon. A lunar month averages 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 3 sec in length. Apparently, God synchronized the commencement of the month with the approximate conjunction of a new moon. This appears to be the case in David’s day because the second day after the new moon is called the second day of the month. (1 Samuel 20:24,27) A new moon conjunction occurs at the moment when the moon passes between Earth and the Sun. This event is rarely observed because the face of a new moon is totally dark. Even though a new moon conjunction is rarely observed, the ancients could calculate the approximate time of conjunction by subtracting the age a full moon from 29.53 days. The result is the approximate time of conjunction. The number, 29.53, is the number of days between full moons. Depending on the orbit of the moon, a new moon waxes into a full moon over a period of approximately 13.91 to 15.54 days. In the following example, the relationship between full moons and new moons can be seen:

(Chart 1)
. . . . . MONTH . . .
. __________________
. | . . . 1 Month . .|
. . . 29.53 Days
NM . . . . . . . . . . . NM
. |________________|
. . . Measured
. . . . . from
. . . New Moon
. . . . . . to
. . . New Moon
Nm – FM | FM – Nm
. 14.53 . .| 15 Days
. . Days . | . Moon
. Waning | Waxing
. . Dark . .| . Full
FM = Full Moon
NM= New Moon

It may seem strange to suggest that God synchronized the beginning of the “month clock” with something that cannot be seen, that is, the approximate time of a new moon. The wisdom for starting the month with a calculated time is that calculation eliminates a host of problems that go with observation including longitude, latitude and inclement weather. God’s synchrony of the “month clock” was designed to serve a world of many time zones. (See Isaiah 66:22,23.) Though calculating the accuracy of a new moon in ancient times was not as precise as it is today, the imprecision was not serious. If an error did occur, synchrony was restored the following month by making a simple adjustment. When God’s method for synchronizing a “monthly clock” for everyone on Earth is considered, a calculated new moon is far superior to the ancient Babylonian practice of sighting the first crescent of a new moon to begin a month. The luminance of a full moon as well as the phases of the moon provide enough time for everyone on Earth to correctly calculate the beginning of the next month without having to actually observe conjunction.


God devised a third clock, the “year clock,” at Creation. A year is determined by one complete orbit of Earth about the Sun. A solar year is about 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds in length. For reasons that are forthcoming, this writer finds that God synchronized the yearly cycle with the commencement of the first new moon on or after the Spring equinox. (See Chart 2 below.)
| March
Sun M Tu W Th Fri Sab
. . . . . . . . …1.. 2. ..3…4
. 5. .6. .7. ..8….9..10.11
12 13 14. 15 16..17 18
19 [20] 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 [29] 30 … …

If Monday, March 20
= Spring Equinox
If Wednesday, March 29
= New Moon
Then, March 29
= 1st day of New Year


From time to time, people suggest that the record of time given in the Bible is not reliable because, they say, “time-periods today are not like time-periods at Creation.” They hypothesize that a day at Creation could have been several years in length. Of course, such a comment presupposes enormous solar changes. For example, if the day at Creation was different than the present, the rotation-period of our planet would have to be different. If the length of a year at Creation was different, then our orbit around the Sun would have to be different. If our orbit around the Sun were different, our distance from the Sun (about 93 million miles) and velocity around the Sun (about 72,000 mph) would be different. This would cause the temperature of Earth and the seasons to be substantially different. For example, if Earth were 141 million miles from the Sun (like Mars) a year would take 687 Earth days and temperature at the equator would be 100 degrees F below zero in the summer. If we were as close as Mercury, a year would be 88 Earth days in length and the temperature would quickly evaporate the oceans. It is doubtful that life could endure on Earth if it were any other distance from the Sun. In short, any change in the measurement of time requires a series of destructive changes in the physics of Earth. God’s definition of time at Creation, the Flood, the Exodus and at Calvary leads this writer to conclude that Earth time remains constant.


God established the synchrony of the day, the month and the year at Creation. These great clocks have a synchrony that cannot be separated from planetary motion. Consequently, our understanding of the prophetic time-periods within Daniel and Revelation must include the original synchrony that God devised for each clock. The significance of this point will be seen later on. We know that God is deliberate and purposeful in everything He does. God designed and established the synchrony of each clock to serve this planet for as long as time lasts. Unfortunately, history reveals that man abandoned God’s excellent methods for measuring time. A number of diverse and asynchronous calendars from ancient and modern history confirm this fact.


Archeology has found that ancient Egyptians used a 365 day solar calendar that had 12 months of 30 days plus a 5 day appendage called “epagomenae.” Consequently, their calendar fell behind the position of the Sun one day every four years. This fact did not seem to concern them because they did not correct their calendar every four years with a leap year. New Year’s day in Egypt may have been aligned with the annual flooding of the Nile. The river was the source of life for arid Egypt and it’s annual innundation in June may have been the basis for their summer-to-summer calendar. Some have proposed the Egyptians started their calendar each summer with the appearance of the star, Sirius, in July. Some scholars say the Egyptians synchronized their day with sunrise and the beginning of a month with the last sighting of the moon’s crescent before it waned from sight.

Ancient Babylonians were excellent astronomers. From earliest times they began a new month with the first sighting of a new moon crescent. This sighting usually occurs within a range of 15.5 to 60 hours after a new moon occurs (conjunction). The Babylonians also observed a Spring-to-Spring calendar established by the first new moon crescent on or after the Spring Equinox. It is also believed they synchronized their day with sunset. About 500 B.C., the Babylonians produced the first reliable solar-lunar calendar. They devised a clever schematic of months that kept months, seasons and years in alignment with the Sun and moon. This calendar consisted of 235 lunar months and it gained a mere 2 hours on the position of the Sun over a period of 19 years (an error of one day in 228 years). Although the Babylonians did not have mechanical clocks as we do today, they were able to compute time down to a resolution of 1080 parts per hour (a halaqim is the equivalent of 3.3 seconds)! By 125 B.C., the precise length of a solar year was calculated by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus to within 6.5 minutes of what we know today.


The fourth clock to come from Creation was the weekly cycle of seven days. The weekly cycle is odd in that it is not based on planetary motion. Therefore, the operation of the weekly cycle cannot be physically observed. Knowledge of the weekly cycle exists only in the mind of man. Nothing in the heavens or on the Earth or within the Earth is synchronous with the weekly cycle except in the rhythmic pattern imprinted into the cells of humankind who do not thrive as well without a 7th day rest per seven day week. Though the Romans unsuccessfully thought to change times into an 8 day week, it did not last for long because people couldn’t function well with that contrivance.

Further, The synchrony of the weekly cycle cannot be determined by solar study or “test-tube” investigation because the weekly cycle was synchronized with a one-time event that no one saw; namely, Creation’s week. (Actually, Adam and Eve did see part of the 6th day which they were created on and then witnessed the rest and hallowing of the seventh day of Creation.) Every seventh day of the week marks an “anniversary” to God’s Creation and the only way one can accurately determine the synchrony of the weekly cycle is to compare Scripture with history and observe man’s actions!

God devised the weekly cycle at Creation and man’s knowledge of it uniquely conveys from:

Eden — to Noah — to the Exodus — to the time of Jesus — to our day.

There has always been some faithful people to God throughout all history, who rested with reverent observance in praise and glory to God, their creator, on this memorial, each week, on the 7th day.

The passage of months, seasons, years, centuries or millenniums does not disrupt the weekly cycle. In God’s order, there are six days for work between seventh day Sabbaths. Man thinks nothing of starting a new month, a new year or even a new century on a Thursday or a Monday. The enduring and global presence of a seven day weekly cycle is one of the wonders of the world. How did ancient man, separated for centuries by oceans, mountains, deserts, religion, language and culture corporately know of a seven day weekly cycle? Even more, history confirms that many ancient nations not only knew of the weekly cycle, they knew of the synchrony that aligned their seventh day of the week with Creation’s seventh day Sabbath. A document titled, A Chart of the Week, entered into the Library of Congress in 1886 by researcher, Dr. William Meade Jones, lists 160 ancient languages that identifies the seventh day of the week with a title that denotes “Sabbath rest.” How did 160 ancient nations know that the seventh day of the week was a day of rest? One powerful defense for Creation (as opposed to the theory of evolution) is the perpetual presence of the weekly cycle among many nations even though the calendars of man have been as diverse and temporary as man himself.


The synchrony of God’s clocks is a topic of profound importance when studying the time-periods within Daniel and Revelation. Each time-period should be measured according to the original synchrony that came from the Creator’s hand. In other words, a month in prophecy begins with a new moon. A year in prophecy begins in the Spring, etc. This is important because God’s synchrony of time directly affects the time-periods He deliberately defined and placed in Daniel and Revelation. Even though the units of days, weeks, months and years are widely used today, their original synchrony is largely ignored.

All four clocks, the day, the week, the month and the year are perpetual, three on the basis of planetary motion and one on the basis of divine decree. These four clocks do not operate at intervals of time that violate their synchrony. In other words, this writer finds that God always reckons these four time-periods according to their creation. Therefore, a day always begins at sundown, not at midnight. (Leviticus 23:32) A month is not just any period of 30 days. As far as God is concerned, a month is a period of time that reaches from one new moon to another. (Numbers 10:10; Isaiah 66:23) Yes, a week may have seven days, but not just any seven days. (Exodus 20:8-11) A week is a time-period that is synchronous with Creation’s week. If a week could be any seven day time-period, then the seventh day would occur randomly, at the whim of man. Even more, if man could redefine the weekly cycle (and short-lived attempts have been made), then man could eliminate the weekly anniversary of Creation and God expressly forbids this in the fourth commandment.

For 40 years God withheld manna on the seventh day of each week because He wanted Israel to understand His regard for the synchrony of the weekly cycle which He crowned with His Sabbath. (Exodus 16:29,35) The Lord’s day of rest is perpetually synchronous with Creation’s seventh day. (Genesis 2:1-3) To preserve this synchrony, God declared the seventh day holy at Creation and God included the observance of the seventh day in the Ten Commandments because the seventh day of the week is synchronous with the seventh day of Creation. (Exodus 20:8-11) Fallen man is naturally inclined to reject, neglect or ignore the works of God, so our Creator began the fourth commandment saying, “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy…” When God sees His children resting on a Sabbath that is synchronous with Creation’s Sabbath, He is pleased. (Exodus 20:8-11; Isaiah 58:13,14; Luke 4:16; Acts 13:44; Hebrews 4:9-11) No other seventh day will satisfy the fourth commandment because no other seventh day is synchronous with Creation’s week. Therefore, no other unit of time should be understood as a week except the time-period of seven days that is synchronous with Creation’s week. It also appears that from God’s perspective, time-periods should not be interpreted as a day, month or year except those which are synchronous with God’s great clocks. This point has serious ramifications for prophetic time-periods.


God’s actions at one time in history are consistent with His actions at another time in history unless there is compelling evidence from Scripture stating otherwise. The consistent ways of God have to be relied upon (by faith sometimes) because the Bible will not satisfactorily answer every question that we may have about a given event. From the very beginning of time, God designed how time should be measured by establishing the synchrony of days, weeks, months and years. Adam and Eve lived in the Garden of Eden for a period of time before sinning. How did they mark the commencement of months and years? Likewise, how did Noah mark the commencement of a new month and a new year? If God’s synchrony of time is consistent throughout the Bible, can we conclude that Adam and the antediluvians used the same synchrony for days, weeks, months and years as did Israel? This point is raised because 2,500 years after Creation God confirmed the existing synchrony of the day, week, month and year to Moses whom he told to write down and place in with the Ark of the Covenant so there could be no doubt about the original order of time that began at Creation. (Exodus 12:1,2; 20:8-11; Numbers 10:10; Leviticus 23:5,32)

If the reader agrees with:

(a) the concept of perpetual synchrony of God’s clocks,

(b) and that God reaffirmed this synchrony at the time of the Exodus,

(-) then a number of interesting questions can be resolved to some level of satisfaction.

For example, if Noah entered into the ark during the second month of the year (Genesis 7:11), he must have entered the ark during April or May because Israel’s second month occurred during April or May. Noah’s year may have started in the Spring (March or April) because Israel’s new year began during those months. Of course, we cannot prove these conclusions. We can, however, consider the impact that perpetual synchrony offers when studying the phenomenon of time.


God imposed the observance of Passover upon Israel at the time of the Exodus. (Exodus 12:6) Passover was to be celebrated on the 15th day of the first month each year. God’s synchrony for counting time in days, months and years began fifteen days before the actual death-angel pass-over took place in the Spring of the year. (Exodus 12:1,2) There is no record that God gave Israel a formal calendar for measuring months with a set number of days. Rather, the evidence indicates He wanted Israel to observe the phases of the moon and celebrate feasts according to the arrival of new moons (Numbers 10:10; 28:14; Colossians 2:16). The Isrealites and Jews were excellent time-keepers. (Exodus 12:41) They knew that a lunar month was about 29.53 days in length by measuring the days between full moons. They also knew that a solar year consisted of approximately 365.25 days by counting days between Spring Equinoxes. But, their ceremonial obligations required a more comprehensive calendar than either a solar calendar or a lunar calendar could provide. Therefore, the Isrealites and Jews had to use a solar-lunar calendar.

Remember that God confirmed the original synchrony of the weekly cycle shortly after the Exodus by withholding manna on the Sabbath day. (Exodus 16) God required the observance of the seventh day Sabbath, new moon celebrations, six annual feasts, sabbatical years and years of Jubilee for several reasons. Here are two that concern the recording process of the passage of time: First, the time-keeping process necessary to meet the obligations imposed upon Israel preserved the record of time and a knowledge of God’s synchrony. Second, because God has foreknowledge, He foreknew the last generation on Earth would need to know the time is emminant in order to be prepared and to provide timely encouragement during the Great Tribulation. Therefore, He included a number of time-periods in prophecy that specifically benefit those who will live during the Great Tribulation. The records of time and synchrony as recorded in the Books of the Old Testament Scriptures are essential to understanding the correct position of each apocalyptic time-period.

We know that at the Reformation the true followers of Messiah were still keeping the entire sacred calendar intact, as it was in the Temple period.
During the Millennium, the Sabbaths and New Moons will be kept. Isaiah tells us the entire world will be honoring the New Moons and the Sabbaths as they worship Yahweh in the coming Kingdom. “From new moon to new moon, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, says Yahweh”. (Isaiah 66:23 RSV) – see Zech. 14:16-19

Also, in Ezekiel 45:17 – the aspect of temple service for the new moons in the millennium 46: 1,3 – enforcement of the New Moon as a sabbath (Holiday) and for worship.


Astronomers tell us, depending on the orbit of the moon in a given season and year, that full moons can occur as early as 13.91 days or as late as 15.54 days into a month. We also know that Passover and the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles took place on the 15th day of their respective months. Therefore, a full moon sometimes occurred on these feast dates. The Bible confirms this synchrony saying, “Sound the ram’s horn at the New Moon, and when the moon is full, on the day of our Feast.” (Psalm 81:3) This issue is raised because most of the time, a full moon occurred on the day before these two feasts. History reveals that after their Babylonian captivity when the Jews abandoned God’s synchrony for new moon feasts, they created a calendar that regularly placed Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles on the day after a full moon. This deviation is well documented in history and it will be covered in more detail shortly.


Apparently, God reckons the beginning of a new year with the commencement of the first month on or after the Spring Equinox. This conclusion is not confirmed with a single “proof text.” However, Scriptural and historical evidence show that God reckons a year from Spring-to-Spring. Some scholars have produced historical evidence showing that ancient Israel started their new year with the commencement of the first month on or after the Spring Equinox. This is reasonable because the Spring Equinox is not difficult to observe. At the Spring Equinox, the Sun crosses the Earth’s celestial equator. In other words, the Sun comes up due East and sets due West. Also, the alignment of certain stars is “reset” at the Spring Equinox. Twice a year, with a high degree of regularity, an equinox occurs, once in the Spring (around March 21 ) and once in the Fall (around September 22). Other scholars conclude the Jews determined a new year with the commencement of the month closest to the Spring Equinox, while others say the Jews reckoned the commencement of a new year by watching the winter barley crop. According to this last group, a maturing barley crop allowed the Jews to always present a sheaf of barley at Passover. (Leviticus 23:10-14) However, if a new year begins with the first new moon on or after Spring begins, this would place Passover, at the earliest, about April 5 and this time-frame allows enough growing time for a barley harvest.

Genesis 1:14 says, “And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years.”

Of course, this verse says nothing about determining a new year by the condition of a barley field. It does speak of using the sun, moon and stars to mark the seasons and the segments of time called days and years were used at Creation. Since seasons and years were measured in Eden before sin occurred, and since the synchrony of the day, week, month and new year remains perpetual from Eden, and since the measurement of years took place some 2,500 years before the Isrealites left Egypt, and since the Isrealutes were in the wilderness for 40 years before they owned a barley field, there has to be a better answer for starting a new year than it being based on the condition of a barley crop.


The Sun defines the arrival of four seasons. Spring begins at the Vernal Equinox. Summer begins at the Summer Solstice (the day having the longest period of daylight). Fall begins at the Fall Equinox and Winter begins at the winter solstice (the day having the shortest period of daylight). Because God imposed the observance of feasts based on new years and new moons and because He imposed the observance of Sabbatical years every seventh year and every fiftieth year, the Isrealites had to maintain a Solar-lunar calendar which followed the astronomical position of the Sun as well as the moon.


A few centuries before the Exodus, the descendants of Abraham measured time in days, months, years and weekly cycles. (Genesis 29:14,20,27,28) At the time of the Exodus, God not only reaffirmed the existing synchrony of His four great clocks, He also devised three more great clocks, bringing the total number to seven. These new clocks were built upon the synchrony of His existing clocks.

God gave the Isrealites:
“A Week of Seven Months”
“A Week of Seven Years”
“Seven Weeks of Seven Years”

God aligned the additional clocks with the existing four clocks that started with Creation’s week so that all seven clocks operate harmoniously together. (Exodus 12:1,2; 16:1-36, Leviticus 25:2-55). This feature will be examined as this study progresses.


From the very beginning, God planned to use the weekly cycle of seven days as a template for creating other clocks. A “week of seven months” is an obvious parallel of the weekly cycle. Of course, a week of seven months translates a day of the week as a month. Therefore, this clock measured a time-span of seven months. This clock was synchronized with the year of the Exodus as well as with New Year’s day. Remember, New Year’s day occurred at the first new moon on or after the Spring Equinox. The first seven months of Israel’s solar year have been called the religious year or “the ceremonial year.” Do not confuse the end of the ceremonial year with the end of a solar year. (Exodus 23:16, 34:22) The ceremonial year operated for seven months much like a school year operates for nine or ten months today. Passover, the first compulsory feast of the ceremonial year, occurred on the 15th day of the first month (in Spring). The last compulsory feast was called the Feast of Ingathering or Feast of Tabernacles and it began on the 15th day of the seventh month and lasted for seven days. (Exodus 23:14; Leviticus 23:34) Ceremonies during the seventh month also included two other feasts of enormous significance. The Feast of Trumpets (1st day) and the Day of Atonement (10th day) were observed during the seventh month. When considering the theological and prophetic significance of all three events during the seventh month, it would be fair to say that the last month of the ceremonial year was a preeminent month.

For centuries, the Isrealites did not use names for the days of the week, (except to call the seventh day the “Sabbath”). Likewise, the Jews often referred to their months with numbers, although they did have names for them. (Deuteronomy 16:1, 1 Kings 6:1) After the Babylonian exile (605 B.C. – 536 B.C.), the Jews named all twelve or thirteen months with names derived from the Babylonians. For example, the Jewish name for the first month of the year became Nisan, taken from the Babylonian month of Nisanu. (See Nehemiah 2:1.) The seventh month or last month of the ceremonial year was called Tishri coming from the Babylonian Tashritu. The ninth month of the calendar year was called Kislev (Zechariah 7:1) and the twelfth month of the year was called Adar. (Ezra 6:15) If a calendar year had 13 moons in it, the Jews called it Ve-adar whereas the Babylonians called it Adar II.

(Chart 3)
. . . . . . . . .THE
. . . . . . . . . by
. . . . Jewish Names
Sun. – Nisan – 1 – 2
Mon – Iyyar
Tues – Sivan – 3
Wed – Tammuz
Thur – Ab
Fri. . – Elul
Sab. – Tishri – 4 – 5 – 6
1 – Passover
2 – Feast of Unleavened
. . . . . . . . Bread (7 days)
3 – Feast of Weeks
. . . . . . (Pentecost)
4 – Feast of Trumpets
5 – Day of Atonement
6 – Feast of Ingathering or
. . . . . Tabernacles (7 days)


• The “week of seven years” clock was also created from the weekly cycle template.

• The difference between


is synchrony and scale.

• Whereas the Weekly Cycle of

synchronizes with
The “WEEK of SEVEN MONTHS” Clock and
The “WEEK of SEVEN YEARS” Clock were synchronized with
The YEAR of the EXODUS

• SEVEN Great Clocks were aligned
15 days before the EXODUS.
• (1/1/1 = NISAN 1, YEAR 1).
Notice the alignment:

A new DAY began (SUNDAY),
A new Week began (WEEK 1),
The First MONTH of
the YEAR began (MONTH 1),
A NEW YEAR began (YEAR 1),
The First MONTH
of the SEVEN MONTH Clock began
The First Year of the
The First YEAR of a
also began at 1/1/1.
• Keep in mind, this 1/1/1 occurred
in the SPRING of the YEAR.

The “WEEK of SEVEN YEARS” Clock was notable for three reasons:

(a) Slaves were to be set free every SEVENTH YEAR;

(b) The land was to lie fallow during the SABBATICAL YEAR;

(c) And, God used this Clock to translate A DAY for A YEAR on several occasions.

Notice how all three clocks align in the following diagrams:

(Chart 4)
The “WEEK of 7 YEARS” Clock

Sun—1437 – EXODUS
Mon – 1436 – 2
Tue. – 1435 – 3
Wed – 1434 – 4
Thur – 1433 – 5
Fri… – 1432 – 6
Sab. – 1431= SABBATICAL
. . . . . . . . . . . YEAR
_____WEEK 1______

Sun – 1430 – 1
Mon – 1429 – 2
Tue – 1428 – 3
Wed – 1427 – 4
Thu – 1426 – 5
Fri. – 1425 – 6
Sab – 1424 = SABBATICAL
. . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR
_____WEEK 2_______

Sun. – 1402 – 1
Mon – 1401 – 2
Tue. – 1400 – 3
Wed – 1399 – 4
Thu. – 1398 – 5
Fri. . – 1397 – 6
Sab. – 1396 = SABBATICAL
. . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR
_____WEEK 6_______

Note: The Exodus date of 1437 B.C. is a Sunday year and it will be discussed later. Notice how the count of years is associated with each day of the week. Each year began in the Spring. In this illustration, the first sabbatical year is 1431 B.C. and the first sabbatical year observed in Canaan was 1396 B.C.

(Chart 5)
|. . . . . . . . . . The. . . . . . . . . . ..|
|. . . . . . CLOCK 1437 B.C. . . . |
| Sun. – Nisan
| Mon – Iyyar
| Tue – Sivan
| Wed – Tammuz
| Thur. – Ab
| Fri… – Elul
| Sab. – Tishri = 7th = Last Month
|______________of the______________
|. . . . . . CEREMONIAL YEAR . . . . . |

Note: This clock shows the first seven months of 1437 B.C., the year of the Exodus. The death-angel pass-over occurred in the Spring, on the 15th day of Nisan, during the first month of the year. The ceremonial year ends with Tishri 30.

(Chart 6)
. . CLOCK for 1437 B.C.
Su M T W Th F Sab
. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 2 ___________________

* Exodus 15th day
( 1* ) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 6
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 7
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 = Week 8

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 (7**) = Week 9
** On 49th day in
Wilderness God gave
Ten Commandments

Note: Israel’s week was synchronized with Creation’s week and the new moon at the time of the Exodus. (Exodus 12:1,2; Exodus 16) The Exodus occurred in the Spring, on Sunday, the 15th day of the first month, year one (1/15/1). God visited with Israel seven weeks later, on Sabbath – the 49th day of the Exodus, and declared the Ten Commandments from Mt. Sinai. (Exodus 19 and 20)


God required Israel to free all slaves every sabbatical year. “If a fellow Hebrew, a man or a woman, sells himself to you and serves you six years, in the seventh year you must let him go free.” (Deuteronomy 15:12) Notice these verses: “If one of your countrymen becomes poor among you and sells himself to you, do not make him work as a slave. He is to be treated as a hired worker or a temporary resident among you; he is to work for you until the Year of Jubilee. Then he and his children are to be released, and he will go back to his own clan and to the property of his forefathers. Because the Israelites are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt, they must not be sold as slaves. Do not rule over them ruthlessly, but fear your God. Your male and female slaves are to come from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves. You may also buy some of the temporary residents living among you and members of their clans born in your country, and they will become your property. You can will them to your children as inherited property and can make them slaves for life, but you must not rule over your fellow Israelites ruthlessly.” (Leviticus 25-39-46)

Two interesting points need to be made here.

First, all slaves were to be set free at the beginning of each sabbatical year. God not only insisted that the land rest during the seventh year, He also insisted that all slaves go free. The emancipation of slaves was very important to God because the freeing of slaves at the beginning of the sabbatical year was a pattern of things to come. (The faithful children of God will be set free from the curse of sin at the beginning of the seventh millennium! More about this later.)

Second, it was possible if both parties were willing, for a fellow Hebrew to sell his land and his services to another Hebrew. However, God wanted everyone to understand that employer/employee contracts could not endure beyond the next year of Jubilee, for at that time the land must be freely returned to the original family and the employee must be free to return to his own land.

Again, this was a pattern of things to come. (God’s children are not God’s slaves. Rather, we are heirs who will receive our inheritance when the Earth is made new and divided among His children!)

With God as the Master Builder, templates are most important because He often reveals His ways and plans through patterns or templates. For example, when Moses was about to build the sanctuary in the wilderness, God said,

“Make this tabernacle and all its furnishings exactly like the pattern I will show you.” (Exodus 25:9, Hebrews 8:5)

Likewise, God said told Moses, “If a man guilty of a capital offense is put to death and his body is hung on a tree, you must not leave his body on the tree overnight. Be sure to bury him that same day, because anyone who is hung on a tree is under God’s curse. You must not desecrate the land the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance.” (Deuteronomy 21:22,23) The basis for this last example is the crucifixion and death of Jesus. God does not allow the worst criminal to hang on a tree overnight because Jesus would have to do so.

So, we find the weekly cycle to be a template that goes beyond the duration of seven days. We find the sabbatical year emancipation of slaves and the sabbatical rest for the land to be templates of things to come. If we look at the actions of God in terms of templates, many mysteries will vanish into the appearance of wonderful insights.


Review Chart 1 and consider that God required the “promised land” to rest every seventh year, as “a Sabbath to the Lord.” (Exodus 23:10,11; Leviticus 25:4) The sabbatical rest for the land was as holy to God as was His Sabbath day for man. The mandated sabbatical for the land was not based on agricultural concerns, nor was this merely the mandate of civil government. On the contrary, God set the seventh year apart from the preceding six years and a curse was promised upon Israel if they failed to keep His sabbatical year. (Leviticus 26:32-38) Some argue that God mandated the sabbatical year for the benefit of improving agricultural yield. This claim makes no sense when one considers how the soil produced more during the sixth year than at any other time. (Leviticus 25:21) Just as the weekly cycle ends with its Sabbath rest for man, so the week of years terminated with a sabbatical year of rest for the land. Just as the interval between seventh day Sabbaths is six days, so the interval between sabbatical years was six years. Just as man is called away from his servile duties to reflect back on God’s creative actions every seventh day, so Israel was called away from its agricultural endeavors every seventh year to reflect back on God’s generous abundance and His mighty deliverance out of Egypt.

The sabbatical year served God’s purpose for testing the corporate faith of the nation of Israel. Faith in God is the basis of a relationship with God. Therefore, God tested Israel’s faith through their agricultural needs every seventh year, much like He tested their faith with their daily food every seventh day in the wilderness. (Exodus 16:4) Unfortunately, Israel failed the faithful faith test. (Isaiah 24:5)


The week of seven years clock translates a day of the week into one year. (See previous chart 1.) Because God’s year is not fixed in length, a year was called “a time.” Our calendar today fixes the length of a solar year at 365.256 days, but God’s year can vary between 354 to 384 days (12 or 13 moons) depending on when the first new moon in the year occurs. Therefore, the phrase, “a time” is an expression for one year that is synchronous with God’s great clocks; in other words, seven times represents a week of years. However, seven years are not necessarily seven times! It all depends on synchrony. A seven year period can be any seven years, but a week of years or seven times must be seven years that begin with a Sunday year and end with a Sabbath year. (Compare Ezekiel 39:9, Daniel 4:16.)

Figure 1

(Figure 1-Charts 7 and 8)

Seven Asynchronous Years
Sun| M | Tu| W |Th| F |Sab
. . . | . . .|. . .| 4. | 5. | 6 | 7
. 8. | 9. | 10 |. . .| . . |. . |

(Chart 8)
Seven Synchronous Years
A Week of Years
or “7 Times”
Sun| M | T |W |Th | F |Sab
15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20| 21

Figure 2
A SOLAR YEAR is about
365.256 Days in length
12 NEW MOONS x 29.53 Days/
LUNAR MONTHS = 354.48 Days
= “A TIME”
13 NEW MOONS x 29.53 Days/
LUNAR MONTH = 383.89 Days
= “A TIME”

. . . . . . . Example of a
. . . . . JEWISH YEAR with
12 LUNAR MONTHS (354 days)

(Figure 2 – Chart 9)
..NM 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM2
. . .|——–One Year————–|
. . .|——–354 Days————–|
. |———–365.256 —————-|
E1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E2

In this example, E1 and E2 represent the time between two Spring Equinoxes. E1 = March 20 and E2 = March 20 a year later. The first new moon (NM1) occurs 11 days after E1 on March 31. Therefore, the first new moon for the following year will occur on March 20. Consequently, the year that passed contained 12 moons or 354 days. (Incidentally, this example is identical with A.D. 29.

Figure 3

(Figure 3 – Chart 10)
. . Example of a YEAR with
13 LUNAR MONTH (384 days)

NM 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NM2
. .|———–One Year———–|
. .|———–384 Days———–|
. .|———-365.256 Days——|
.E1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E2

Again, E1 and E2 represent the time between two Spring Equinoxes. E1 = March 20 and E2 = March 20 a year later. A new moon, (NM1) occurs on the Spring Equinox, March 20. Therefore, the first new moon after the following Spring Equinox will occur at (NM2) April 8. Consequently, this lunar year has 13 moons or 384 days. (This example is identical with A.D. 30.)


“A time” is an expression for a year, not a set number of days. Also, the reader should notice that Figure 2 and Figure 3 are actually two consecutive years. The first year has 354 days, the second has 384 days.


The Julian/Gregorian calendar we follow today is strictly a solar calendar. We observe a year that is 365.256 days in length without regard to the phases of the moon and we use leap years to correct our position with respect to the Sun and its seasons. Because God’s calendar produces a variable length year, the ancients regarded a year as one circle or “one time” of the sun in its travel around Earth. We must remember that it was believed the Earth stood still and the Sun traveled around Earth until the 16th century. Likewise, native Americans described a month as “one moon” and a year as “one time” or “one sun” even as late as the 19th century.

When seven times were sentenced upon King Nebuchadnezzar because of arrogance, God described the term of punishment as “seven times” because “a time” is synchronous with God’s seven year clock. God could have said “seven years,” as he did with Daniel’s contemporary, Ezekiel. Instead, God said “seven times” because of the synchrony that “seven times” require. (See Ezekiel 39:9)

For purposes of computing time, ancient peoples reckoned 360 degrees of arc as a complete circle or cycle of the Sun. Obviously, they could not use the actual number of days in a particular year for computation’s sake because the number of days varied. Since the Sun moves almost 1 degree of arc per day in a year, the use of 360 degrees of arc to represent a year is reasonable. The Aramaic word ‘hiddan translated “a time” in Daniel 4, 7 and 12 refers to “a set time,” as in a year that begins at an appointed time. Daniel and Revelation both speak of a time-period called “a time, times and a half a time.” Revelation 12 indicates that this time-period is 1,260 days in length. This number of days is found by the following formula:

One time of the Sun equals one circle of 360 degrees of arc
Two times of the Sun equals two circle of 360 degrees of arc or 720 degrees
Half a time equals half a circle or 180 degrees of arc
When added together, the total is 1,260 degrees of arc. For purposes of counting days, 1260 days, ror for the purpose of counting years, 1,260 years.

No one has produced evidence of an ancient calendar based on a 360 day year. Even the ancients knew that such a calendar would be 31.5 days out of sync with the arrival of Spring in just 6 years. Therefore, we are left with a bit of mystery. Some Bible students have concluded that “a time, times and half a time” is 3.5 years because Revelation 12 appears to translate the time-period “a time, times and half a time” into 1,260 days. But, 3.5 years is 1,278 days, not 1,260 days. Given this discrepancy, others have wondered if perhaps there was a financial year or some type of civil calendar based on 360 days, but no evidence has been found to support this supposition. Could it be that God chose the language and defined the time-periods in Daniel 7:25 and Revelation 12:14 because they uniquely conform to the great clocks He created?


During the operation of the “week of seven years” clock we know that a day of the week represents a year. Therefore, the seven times pronounced on King Nebuchadnezzar could be (a) seven years, or (b) a week of seven years that is synchronous with a “week of seven years” clock. The difference, of course, would be synchrony. If the seven times are synchronous with the “week of seven years” clock, they are synchronous then with the year of the Exodus as well as the 70 weeks of Daniel 9. We know from Scripture that when the time came to implement Nebuchadnezzar’s sentence it began immediately — at the end of a 12 month period of probation. Notice: “Twelve months later, as the king was walking on the roof of the royal palace of Babylon, he said, “Is not this the great Babylon I have built as the royal residence, by my mighty power and for the glory of my majesty?” The words were still on his lips when a voice came from heaven, “This is what is decreed for you, King Nebuchadnezzar: Your royal authority has been taken from you. . . . Immediately what had been said about Nebuchadnezzar was fulfilled.” (Daniel 4:29-33) Granted, the words “12 months later” do not prove synchrony with the 70 weeks of Daniel 9, but they do suggest “at year’s end.” Further, the immediacy of execution suggests alignment with the beginning of a new month. If the execution of “seven times” occurred during 569-563 B.C., they would have been near the end of the king’s reign which occurred in 562 or 561 B.C. Further, some historians place the end of Nebuchadnezzar’s lengthy conquest of Tyre and Egypt around 570 B.C. (Ezekiel 29:18,19) Maybe the king was so pleased with his successful conquests that he began to think of himself as invincible and the words recorded in Daniel 4:30 reflect the ultimate deception of pride. King Nebuchadnezzar came to believe that he had established the mighty empire of Babylon on the basis of his prowess. The point is that 569-563 B.C. is a very good place to insert a week of seven times upon Nebuchadnezzar and history does not seem to frustrate this placement.

(Chart 11)
. . . . . . . . . . of
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sab
1437|1436|1435| … |1431|
_____________________ = Week 1
… B.C. … … …
576| 575|574| … |571|570|
______________________= Week 124

567| 568 |567| … |564|563

__________________ = Seven “Times
______________________ = Week 125

562|561 = End of the Reign of
. . . . . . . . . . . Nebuchadnezzar
______________________ = Week 126


The third clock initiated just before the Exodus was a 49 year clock called a Jubilee cycle. This clock was based on seven weeks of seven years (a total of 49 years). (Leviticus 25:8-55) The year of Jubilee, or the 50th year celebration, was a very special sabbatical year. Not only was the 50th year a sabbatical rest for the land, the land was also restored to its original owners in that year. God wanted each generation in Israel to grasp the salient point that He gave the land to His people without merit and it was theirs as long as they kept His covenant. (Leviticus 25:23-55) Recall that when Israel entered the Promised Land, the land was divided according to the size of the tribes. (Joshua 14:5) During the 49 years, the owners could “sell” or lease the land to their kinsmen, but it was God’s intention that each parcel of land forever belong to the family that originally “inherited” the land. This is one reason why He required them to set every 50th year apart from all other years. During the first six months of the 50th year, God mandated the return of the land to its original family. At the end of the ceremonial year when harvests were completed, the year of Jubilee was consecrated (set apart from the previous 49 years) on the Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 25:9,10) Consecration means “to set apart” from the common. For example, after God finished His work on six days, He consecrated the seventh day by setting it apart from the other days of the week. Similarly, Israel was required to consecrate the year of Jubilee after they had met the restoration requirements of God.

49 OR 50 YEARS?

There has been needless debate on whether the Jubilee calendar followed 49 or 50 year cycles. Since there is never more than six years between two seventh-year sabbatical years, Jubilee cycles have to be 49 years in length. The synchronism of uninterrupted weeks (and the years of Jubilee) is confirmed in the fulfillment of the 70 weeks (490 years) of Daniel 9. The perpetual round of the weekly cycle eliminates the argument. The year of Jubilee (the 50th year) occurred concurrently with the first year (the Sunday year) of the next Jubilee cycle. In other words, both years began at the same time. It may sound strange at first that Israel would count two years simultaneously. But, consider the fact that the Feast of Weeks (also known as the Feast of Pentecost — the 50th day) always fell on a Sunday, the first day of the week after seven weeks had passed. Remember, a week is a time-period that is always synchronous with Creation’s week. In this light, it should not be hard to grasp how the 50th day Feast of Weeks and the first day of the week, Sunday, concurrently align. (See the following chart.) The year of Jubilee and the Sunday year of the next Jubilee cycle aligned similarly.

(Chart 12)
. . . . . . . . . . The
. . . . . FEAST of WEEKS,
A Miniature JUBILEE Calendar

__ APRIL _____________________
__The Week of PASSOVER _____

Su M T W T F Sab
.2. 3. 4. 5 (6) = ( PASSOVER )
. . . . . . . . . . .7
. . . . . . . . . . . . 8 =7th Day Sabbath
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .of Passover Week

__Seven Weeks Contain 49 Days__

(1) = (Wave Sheaf Offerings)
. . .2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = =1st Sabbath
_____________Week 1 _________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7__Week 2 _________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7__Week 3 _________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7__Week 4__________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7__Week 5__________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7__Week 6__________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = 7th Sabbath
_____________Week 7__________

Sun M T W – Th F Sab
(28) = (Pentecost)
. . . 29 30 31- 1. 2. 3

Note: In this example of A.D. 30, Passover occurred on Thursday, April 6. The Wave Sheaf Offering occurred on Sunday, April 9, which is the first day for the count of seven full weeks. The Feast of Weeks (so called because the time of the feast is determined by whole weeks) occurs after seven weeks have passed, on Sunday, May 28. The 50th day feast of Pentecost always occurred on the 1st day of the week. (Leviticus 23:16) The 50th day and the 1st day of the week are the same day.


During a Jubilee cycle of seven weeks of 49 years, there are 8 sabbatical years. There are seven “Sabbath years” plus the year of Jubilee (also a sabbatical year) making a total of eight. (See the following chart.) During the Babylonian captivity, God used the “week of seven years” clock to make an important point. He required Ezekiel to lay on his left side for 390 days and on his right side for 40 days as a sign to indicate the apostasy of His people. The total number of days that Ezekiel “rested” was 430 days. These 430 days represent 430 years of apostasy, because “days” within the Jubilee calendar represent “years.” (Ezekiel 4:5,6) Since the Jubilee calendar was operating during Ezekiel’s life, God’s use of a day for a year is not arbitrary nor surprising. In fact, the reader may be surprised to learn that the Babylonian captivity is exactly 70 years in length because Israel and Judah had violated 70 Sabbath years. In 430 years of apostasy, there are exactly 70 Sabbatical years.

(Chart 13)
. . . . . . . . . . . . Per
. . . . . . JUBILEE CYCLE
Year of. .Sun|M|T|W|T|F|Sab
Jubilee=50/1| 2|3| 4| 5|6| 7=Wk 1
__________________ of | 7 Years
| 1 | 2 |3| 4| 5 |6| 7 = Week 2
____________of | 7 Years
| 1 | 2 |3| 4| 5 |6| 7 = Week 3
____________of | 7 Years
| 1 | 2 | 3|4| 5 |6| 7 = Week 4
____________of | 7 Years
Sun|M|T|W|Th|F |Sab
| 1 | 2 3| 4| 5 | 6| 7 = Week 5
_____________of | 7 Years
Sun|M|T|W|Th|F |Sab
| 1 | 2 |3| 4| 5 | 6| 7 = Week 6
_____________of | 7 Years
Sun|M|T|W|Th|F |Sab
|1 | 2 | 3| 4| 5 | 6| 7 = Week 7
___________________ =49 Years

Note: Seven Sabbath years + 1 year of Jubilee = 8 sabbatical years per Jubilee cycle of 49 years.

1- 2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 = JUBILEE
___________________ Cycles _
___________________________ 49+49+49+49+49+49+49+49
+38 ___________ = 430 Years
8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8 + 6 = 70
______= 70 Sabbatical Years


Consider the warning that God originally gave Israel in the wilderness: “If in spite of this you still do not listen to me but continue to be hostile toward me, then in my anger I will be hostile toward you, and I myself will punish you for your sins seven times over. . . . [I will drive you out of the land] Then the land will enjoy its sabbath years all the time that it lies desolate and you are in the country of your enemies; then the land will rest and enjoy its sabbaths. All the time that it lies desolate, the land will have the rest it did not have during the sabbaths you lived in it.” (Leviticus 26:27,28,34,35, insertion mine) Now that the threat is understood, notice what is said at the end of the 70 years of Babylonian captivity, “The land enjoyed its sabbath rests; all the time of its desolation it rested, until the seventy years were completed in fulfillment of the word of the Lord spoken by Jeremiah.” (2 Chronicles 36:21) There is a compelling mathematical point associated with the numbers given to Ezekiel. They prove beyond any doubt that God defines a Jubilee cycle to be 49 years in length. A 50 year cycle is out of the question since there are not 70 sabbatical years within 430 years.

For a color view of the “Jubilee Calendar,” see:




Some scholars insist the “week of seven years” clock and the Jubilee cycle used a Fall to Fall civil calendar. Much evidence in the Bible is contrary to this claim. Scripture confirms that God always reckons a year with a Spring to Spring synchrony. This synchrony was imposed upon “the week of seven months” clock (the ceremonial year); the “week of seven years” clock and the “seven weeks of seven years” clock (the 49 year Jubilee cycle). This writer finds the following six points to be true. Each point will be discussed on the pages that follow:

1. When it was put into operation, the “week of seven years clock” was synchronized with Spring and with the year of the Exodus. God used this clock to sentence Israel to 40 years in the wilderness at Kadesh Barnea. For Israel’s apostasy, God sentenced them “40 years for 40 days,” a day for a year. This “death sentence” was imposed two years after this clock began to operate.

2. According to the “week of seven months clock,” the end of the ceremonial year occurred on Tishri 30, at the end of the seventh month. In an effort to support the presence of a civil calendar prior to the Babylonian captivity, certain Scripture is maligned by advocates of a Fall-to-Fall calendar. It is true that Jews observed a Fall-to-Fall civil calendar after their Babylonian captivity, but there is no evidence in Scripture that God initiated a Fall-to-Fall civil calendar when He established the “week of seven years” clock or the “seven weeks of seven years” clock.

3. Nehemiah and other prophets confirm the continued presence and operation of God’s “week of seven months” clock when double-dating events. It was not unusual in ancient times to date events with the calendar of the empire as well as the calendar of the tribal nation, but the writers of the Bible never merged calendars. God’s months are never assigned a calendar position that violates their Spring-to-Spring synchrony. For example, Nisan (the first month of God’s calendar) is never identified as the sixth month of a Fall-to-Fall calendar and Tishri (the seventh month) is never identified as the first month of a Fall-to-Fall calendar.

4. The decree of Artaxerxes (Ezra 7,8) that fulfills the prophecy of Daniel 9 was issued in the Spring of 457 B.C. Therefore, the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 commence in the Spring.

5. Using Spring-to-Spring reckoning for the 70 weeks of Daniel 9, the death of Jesus occurred in A.D. 30. The actions of Jesus, as well as astronomical data for that year, confirm A.D. 30 is the only year during which all of the events surrounding His death could occur.

6. If God did initiate a Fall-to-Fall civil calendar for the Jews, where is a record of events that use months and years according to this Fall-to-Fall synchrony prior to the Babylonian captivity?


The Bible indicates that after two years of wandering in the wilderness, Israel arrived at Kadesh Barnea. There, God told Moses to send 12 spies into Canaan. (Numbers 13:1-3) Upon their return, ten of the 12 spies and all of Israel murmured against God. Consequently, He sent them back into the wilderness for 38 more years. “Thirty-eight years passed from the time we left Kadesh Barnea until we crossed the Zered Valley. By then, that entire generation of fighting men had perished from the camp, as the Lord had sworn to them. The Lord’s hand was against them until he had completely eliminated them from the camp.” (Deuteronomy 2:14,15) When God sentenced that generation to die in the wilderness, He assigned a 40-year penalty that dates back to the day of the Exodus and not from their insurrection at Kadesh Barnea! “For forty years — one year for each of the forty days you explored the land — you will suffer for your sins and know what it is like to have me against you.’ I, the Lord, have spoken, and I will surely do these things to this whole wicked community, which has banded together against me. They will meet their end in this desert; here they will die.” (Numbers 14:34,35) We know from Joshua 5:11 that the 40 years were measured from the day of the Exodus. (1/15/1 to 1/16/41)

(Chart 14)
. . . . . . THE 40 YEARS

Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spring
. . |——– 40 Years ——–|
. . |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
. . |. . . . |—– 38 Years —–|
. . |. . . . |. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .|
Exodus |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
1/15/1 . | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
. . . . . . .|. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
. .Kadesh Barnea . . . . . Canaan
. . . . . 1/16/3* . . . . . . . . 1/1641

. . . . .Legend: MM/DD/YY

*The actual date for the rebellion at Kadesh Barnea is unknown except it occurs two years after the Exodus. (Deuteronomy 2:14)

Why did God begin counting 40 years of punishment from the month and day of the Exodus and not from the time of Israel’s failure at Kadesh Barnea? Why did God reckon the years of punishment on a scale where a day of the week represents a year while Israel was in the wilderness? Because the “week of seven years” clock began operating at the time of the Exodus, in the Spring of the year. Even though this clock was operating while Israel was in the wilderness, they were not required to observe sabbatical year rests until they entered the land of Canaan. (Leviticus 25:2) Therefore, when God sentenced Israel for 40 years, He affirmed the operation of the weekly cycle of seven years by sentencing Israel a day for a year. God started the count of 40 years from the day of the Exodus because the generation that came out of Egypt rebelled from the beginning. Forty years later, to the very day, in the Spring of year 41, a new generation of Hebrews entered Canaan. (Joshua 5:11)


We know that God imposed a Spring-to-Spring calendar upon the Isrealites at the time of the Exodus. (Exodus 12:1,2) We have examined God’s sentence of 40 years in the wilderness and His use of “the week of seven years” clock when a day represents a year. We also know that the length of punishment was dated from the very day of the Exodus which occurred in the Spring. This suggests a Spring-to-Spring operation for the week of seven years clock as well as the year of Jubilee.

It is also known that the Jews adopted a Fall-to-Fall calendar for civil purposes after their Babylonian captivity. Even though the Babylonians used a Spring-to-Spring calendar, their successors, the Medes and Persians, used a Fall-to-Fall calendar. It was customary in ancient times for tribal nations to use two calendars. One calendar was based on the year of the ruling monarch or king, which was used through out the empire for dating purposes. (See Nehemiah 2:1.) It was also customary for emperors to allow vassal nations to continue with their own calendars as long as they conducted federal business according with the calendar of the empire. In Judea and Israel’s case, they used the Persian calendar as well as God’s Spring-to-Spring calendar. (Nehemiah 1:1, 2:1) Archeologists have discovered a number of documents showing dates with two calendars inscribed on them. This has been helpful because it allows researchers to align various calendars for dating purposes.

Some scholars claim the Isrealites and Jews used a Fall-to-Fall calendar prior to their Babylonian captivity to determine Jubilee years and civil matters,but no archeological evidence has verified this claim. A Fall-to-Fall versus a Spring-to-Spring calendar is an important issue in this discussion for two reasons. First, as mentioned earlier, some scholars say that the Jews synchronized the Jubilee calendar and consequently, the “week of seven years” clock with a Fall-to-Fall calendar. If this argument is true, the dating and synchrony of several events in Scripture, including Christ’s death during the 70th week, is dramatically affected. Second, the interpretation and chronological placement of several prophetic time-periods in Daniel and Revelation are also affected. Therefore, a correct understanding of God’s synchrony and His calendar is imperative.


Did God initiate a civil Fall-to-Fall calendar? Those who say “yes” mark the beginning of the civil year, the week of seven years and Jubilee cycles with Tishri 1, the seventh month of God’s Spring-to-Spring calendar. They support this action with textual references that appear to support a Fall-to-Fall calendar. (See Exodus 23:16, 34:22; Leviticus 25:9,10.) However, when the references in question are aligned with the weight of evidence, the Fall-to-Fall claim is not reasonable.

NOTICE these two Translations of EXODUS 34:22. GOD said:

1. “And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year’s end.” (KJV)

2. “Celebrate the Feast of Weeks with the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.” (NIV)

The Hebrew word, tequwphah (Strong’s H:8622) is translated “at the year’s end” in the KJV and is translated literally “at the turn of the year” in the NIV. The word tequwphah is derived from the verb naqaph (Strong’s H:5362) which can mean “to go around” or “to make a turning point.” From Leviticus 23:34 we know that the Feast of Ingathering (or Tabernacles) was celebrated on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, that is, in the Fall of the year. Therefore, Fall-to-Fall advocates say that tequwphah in Exodus 34:22 suggests the operation of a Fall-to-Fall calendar because when one year ends, another year logically begins. However, if God is speaking about the end of the ceremonial year, another year does not necessarily begin. If a school year ends in May, for instsnce, this doesn’t mean that the next school year begins in June. The ceremonial year was seven months in length and the seventh month ended on Tishri 30, a few days after the Feast of Ingathering had been celebrated.

We know that the Feast of Ingathering is near the half-way point or the turning point of the year which occurs at the Fall Equinox (around September 22). Depending on the alignment of the Sun and moon, the seventh month can start as early as September 14 or as late as October 13. This would put the Feast of Ingathering as early as September 29 or as late as October 28. The Hebrew language should be understood from the perspective of those who lived during Old Testament times. The verb naqaph means “to make a turning point” as in “the return” of a year. In this light, consider how tequwphah and its root verb naqaph apply if the year starts in the Spring and we observe the path of the Sun.

At the Spring Equinox, the path of the Sun begins moving north of due East a little each day. When it reaches its northmost position, the Summer Solstice occurs (about June 21). Then, the Sun begins to return to Earth’s celestial equator and by September 22, at the Fall Equinox, the Sun rises due East and sets due West. At this point, the Sun is halfway through its yearly cycle, So, the Autumnal Equinox was known as “the turning point” of the year. After the Fall Equinox occurs, the observed path of the Sun begins moving South until the Winter Solstice occurs (about December 21). Then, the Sun begins moving northward until it reaches the celestial equator; about March 21 when it aligns with due East and due West. Thus, the midway point of the year (at the Fall Equinox) is marked by the Sun’s crossing of the celestial equator and tequwphah and its root verb naqaph reflect the “return” or “a turning point” of the Sun’s path. The KJV translators translated tequwphah in Exodus 34:22 to mean “at the end of the year” in a Fall context, but they also translate the same word to mean “at the end of the year” in a Spring context! (2 Chronicles 24:23) Does the KJV translation of tequwphah prove there are two different calendars in operation or does the word mean there are two turning points in a year? Of course, there are two turning points involving the Sun each year and translators do their best to identify which is which.


The perspective of ancient people must be considered if we are to understand their use of words. They observed the Sun crossing Earth’s celestial equator twice a year, once at the Spring Equinox and once at the Fall Equinox. Notice how tequwphah is used in four translations of 2 Chronicles 24:23. Keep in mind, the event described in this verse is known to be in the Spring:

1. “At the turn of the year, the army of Aram marched against Joash. . . ” (NIV)

2. “And it came to pass at the end of the year, that the host of Syria came up against him . . .” (KJV)

3. “So it happened in the spring of the year that the army of Syria came up against him. . .” (NKJV)

4. “Now it came about at the turn of the year that the army of the Arameans came up against him. . . .” (NASB)

Notice an interesting development. The NIV and NASB translate tequwphah literally by saying, “at the turn of the year” leaving the reader to figure out which turn of the year the verse is talking about. However, the KJV for 2 Chronicles 24:23 says, “at the end of the year” which is interesting since this verse clearly reflects a Springtime event. Translators of the NKJV agree this verse describes a Springtime event (see above). So, why does the KJV use the word tequwphah in Exodus 34:22 (see previous comments) to indicate the end of a year in the Fall, but use the same word to describe the end of the year in the Spring? Perhaps the KJV translators based their translation of the earlier text (Exodus 34:22) on their understanding of Exodus 23:16 which we will examine in a moment. For now, we know the word tequwphah means a turning of the year, but there are two instances in a year where the Sun crosses the celestial equator. Which event marks the end of the year — the one in the Spring or the one in the Fall?


Translators today know from numerous historical sources that ancient kings went to war in the Spring of the year to take advantage of favorable weather through Summer and Fall. The importance of favorable weather cannot be underestimated in ancient warfare. Notice these translations of 2 Samuel 11:1:

1. “In the spring, at the time when kings go off to war, David sent Joab out with the king’s men and the whole Israelite army. . .” (NIV)

2. “It happened in the spring of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel. . .” (NKJV)

3. “Then it happened in the spring, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Joab and his servants with him and all Israel. . . ” (NASB)

4. And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel. . .” (KJV)

Three of these translations indicate a Spring time event and the KJV could indicate a Springtime even saying, “after the year is expired” if the student makes provision for a Spring to Spring year. The Hebrew word in these four verses, teshuwbah (Strong’s:H8666) literally means “at the return” or “at a recurrence of time.” Since it is well known that kings went to war in the Spring, and because teshuwbah means “at the return” as in the Sun’s position at the Spring Equinox, it is translated “in the Spring of the year.” One more look at teshuwbah should resolve this matter. Notice how teshuwbah is used in three translations of 1 Kings 20:22:

1. “And the prophet came to the king of Israel and said to him, “Go, strengthen yourself; take note, and see what you should do, for in the spring of the year the king of Syria will come up against you.” (NKJV)

2. “Afterward, the prophet came to the king of Israel and said, “Strengthen your position and see what must be done, because next spring the king of Aram will attack you again.” (NIV)

3. “And the prophet came to the king of Israel, and said unto him, Go, strengthen thyself, and mark, and see what thou doest: for at the return of the year the king of Syria will come up against thee.” (KJV)

Notice when the predicted event was fulfilled (2 Chronicles 36:10):

1. “In the spring, King Nebuchadnezzar sent for him and brought him to Babylon, together with articles of value from the temple of the LORD, and he made Jehoiachin’s uncle, Zedekiah, king over Judah and Jerusalem.” (NIV)

2. “And when the year was expired, king Nebuchadnezzar sent, and brought him to Babylon, with the goodly vessels of the house of the LORD, and made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem.” (KJV)

3. “At the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar summoned him and took him to Babylon, with the costly articles from the house of the LORD, and made Zedekiah, Jehoiakim’s brother, king over Judah and Jerusalem.” (NKJV)

NIV translators and most commentaries on Old Testament history place the event recorded in 2 Chronicles 36:10 in the Spring of the year. Yes, the Hebrew language leaves some uncertainty because there are two “turnings in a year.” However, the uncertainty can be resolved by looking at the weight of evidence. In summary, the choice of words used by the KJV translators in Exodus 34:22 could have been better. The weight of evidence indicates the Hebrew word tequwphah in Exodus 34:22 should be understood to mean “at the turn of the year” or “mid-year.”

The last text we will examine that indicates an end of the year in the Fall is found in Exodus 23:16. Please notice “the end of the year” phrase in these four translations:

1. “And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.” (KJV)

2. “Celebrate the Feast of Harvest with the firstfruits of the crops you sow in your field. “Celebrate the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in your crops from the field.” (NIV)

3. “Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors from the field.” (NASB)

4. “And the Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of your labors which you have sown in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you have gathered in the fruit of your labors from the field.” (NKJV)

The Hebrew word used in this verse for year is shaneh (Strongs H:8141). Shaneh means a year, “as in the revolution of time.” The root word yatsa’ (Strongs H:3318) is translated a variety of ways in the Old Testament. It is used in these verses to mean “at the end of” and it can mean “going out of.” One Interlinear of the Hebrew Old Testament (The Interlinear Hebrew-Greek-English Bible, Volume I, Jay P. Green, Sr.) transliterates this verse saying, “when out goes the year.” Does Exodus 23:16 prove the operation of a Fall-to-Fall calendar? Not when the weight of evidence is aligned. The Feast of Harvest (Pentecost) and the Feast of Ingathering are associated in this text because they identify two harvests. One occurred in the Spring and the other occurred in the Fall. These two feasts were directly connected with these principal harvests during the ceremonial year. Therefore, when the harvests are gathered and the feasts are finished, the ceremonial year ends.


Fall-to-Fall advocates claim the year of Jubilee is part of the civil year which starts with the seventh month, Tishri 1. So how can the year of Jubilee commence on Tishri 1 when the feast that marks the end of the year lasts until Tishri 21? In other words, Exodus 23:16 places the Feast of Ingathering “at the end of the year,” so how can the Feast of Ingathering be considered to be at the end of a year and yet be 21 days into a new year! This contradiction brings the Fall-to-Fall argument to an end.


For reasons stated above, God did not mandate a Fall-to-Fall civil year. God’s synchrony for the “year clock,” the “week of seven months” clock and the “week of seven years” clock is always Spring-to-Spring. Remember that documents in ancient times often contained two calendar dates. Likewise, Bible writers sometimes reference two calendars in the same verse, but they remain distinct – one, the calendar of God; the other, the calendar of men. For example, notice how the Fall-to-Fall calendar of the Persians and the Spring-to-Spring calendar of God align in these two verses:

“The words of Nehemiah son of Hacaliah: In the month of Kislev [the ninth month of God’s Spring-to-Spring calendar] in the twentieth year [using King Artaxerxes’ Fall-to-Fall calendar], while I was in the citadel of Susa…..” (Nehemiah 1:1, insertions mine)

[Months later…] “In the month of Nisan [in the Spring, the first month of God’s calendar] in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes, when wine was brought for him, I took the wine and gave it to the king. I had not been sad in his presence before…” (Nehemiah 2:1, insertions mine)

Here is the problem: In the first verse, Nehemiah associates the month of Kislev (the ninth month of God’s Spring-to-Spring clock) with the twentieth year of Artaxerxes which is based on a Fall-to-Fall calendar. Months later, after New Year’s day, Nehemiah describes another event that also occurs during the twentieth year of Artaxerxes. Scholars have used these two verses to support the view that the Jews used a Fall-to-Fall civil calendar because Nehemiah placed the ninth month of Kislev and the first month of a new year (Nisan) within the twentieth year of Artaxerxes. They say that if Nehemiah was using a Spring-to-Spring calendar, he would have indicated the twenty-first year of Artaxerxes since Nisan is the first month of a new year. While this logic appears valid on the surface, it is not valid. Whenever Nehemiah and his contemporary, Ezra, date an event with Jewish months, they consistently speak in terms of a Spring-to-Spring calendar, not a Fall-to-Fall calendar. (See Nehemiah 8:14.) Conversely, when they date an event with Persian years, they consistently speak in terms of a Fall-to-Fall calendar. (Nehemiah 5:14) Here’s a pictorial harmony showing how Nehemiah reconciled God’s Spring calendar with the Persian Fall calendar:

(Chart 15)
. . . . . . . . . .CALENDAR

. . . . . . . . . .Fall . Fall . Fall
Year: .. . . .18 |. 19 |. 20 | 21
. . . . . . .. . .___|____|____|___
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .=|=|==
. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|. |
. . .Spring Spring Spri | Spring
. . . . . . . .|. . . .|. . . .| . | .|…
Year: BC| 446| 445| 44|4|
. . . . . __|____|____|____|__
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|. |
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|.Nisan
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kislev . .1st
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9th

Notice that Kislev is the ninth month and Nisan is the first month of God’s Spring calendar and they fit comfortably within the twentieth year of Artaxerxes since the king’s twentieth year is determined by the Persian Fall-to-Fall calendar. The reader can see from the diagram that Nehemiah places the month of Nisan in its rightful place, in the Spring of the first month of God’s year. Incidently, we sometimes date events just as Nehemiah did. For example, suppose Bobby’s tenth birthday is in September. In the United States, we would date Christmas 1999 and Easter 2000 during Bobby’s tenth year of life even though January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of a new year.


While in Babylonian captivity, God predetermined a probationary time-period for His people using the “week of seven years” clock, namely seventy weeks. We know from Creation’s week that the weekly clock of seven days is not a “stand alone” unit of time. We also know from the Exodus that a “week of seven years” clock is not a stand alone unit of time. Both clocks have synchrony, that is, they are aligned with other events.

In Daniel 9, God defined Israel’s 490 years of probationary time in units of “70 weeks” because they perfectly synchronize with the calendar He initiated at the time of the Exodus. In other words, the “week of seven years” clock did not suddenly begin operating at the time of the decree of Artaxerxes. God chose to represent Israel’s probationary time of 490 years in units of Jubilee weeks instead of actual years to affirm the synchronism of His calendar. He could have identified the time-span as 490 days (as He did with the 2,300 days in Daniel 8:14), or He could have identified the time-span as 490 years (as He does with the 1,000 years in Revelation 20:2). Instead, He chose a unit of time that aligns with the year of the Exodus.

God is so marvelous! He foreknew there would be several decrees to restore and rebuild Jerusalem. These occurred in 536, 519, 457 and 444 B.C. A number of weak and deficient arguments have been offered in support of 444 B.C., however 457 B.C. terminates the argument because it is the only date that historically aligns with the specifications of the prophecy. The 70 week prophecy was given for the primary benefit of those who should live prior to the appearing of Messiah. Knowing in advance that four decrees would be issued, God placed specifications within the prophecy so that only one decree could meet its fulfillment. The appropriate decree is the one that is synchronous with the beginning of a Jubilee cycle.

King Artaxerxes, in the Spring of 457 B.C. (Ezra 7 & 8), issued the decree. This is a profoundly important point. Notice that God divided the 69 weeks (until the appearing of Messiah) as 7 weeks + 62 weeks in Daniel 9:25. Seven weeks of seven years (49 years) is one Jubilee cycle. In other words, it was God’s intention that His people watch for the decree that would be issued in the Spring at the beginning of a Jubilee cycle. If they started counting Jubilee weeks from that decree, they could know the year that Messiah would appear. (This may have been the means by which the wise men calculated the time of Messiah’s birth.) Indeed, history confirms the synchronism of God’s calendar! King Artaxerxes issued the decree on or about the first day of the first month of a Jubilee year. (Ezra 7:9) Interestingly, the decree was issued on the first days of the twentieth Jubilee cycle since the Exodus. Ezra departed from the Ahava canal on Nisan 12 day with decree in hand. (Ezra 8:31) Four hundred eighty three years later, Jesus affirmed the synchronism of the Jubilee calendar again. He appeared on the banks of the Jordan to be baptized by John at the beginning of the 70th week, in A.D. 27 which is a Sunday year. (Luke 3) Jesus died on the cross, “causing sacrifices and oblations to cease” in the middle of the 70th week, A.D. 30. Notice how the following chart places A.D. 30 is the middle of the 70th week of years.

(Chart 16)

Counting from 457 B.C.
. . . . . . . . . . . WEEKS of YEARS
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .Since _____________| Decree | Exodus

S M T(Wed)Th F Sab
BC-_____________|Week Week
(1437)…1434..431| —- | 1
BC . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-________________|Week Week
(457) … .454 …451| 1st .| 141
450 449 448 447…| 2nd | 125
Su M T W.Th F Sab __________
27 28 29(30)3132 33| 70th|210
34 35 36 3738 39 40| 71st |211
A.D. . . . . . … . . . _____________
___________________|Week Week
538 539 540 …544| 143rd |283

1437 B.C. is the year of the Exodus.
457 B.C. is the year of the decree that starts the 70 weeks. (Ezra 7) A.D. 538 will be discussed shortly, for now, notice that it is a Sunday year. Also notice that 457 B.C. is a Sunday year that marks the beginning of the 141st sabbatical week since the Exodus, as well as the first week of the 70 weeks. According to the specifications of the 70th week given in Daniel 9, Jesus began His ministry in A.D. 27 and He was crucified in A.D. 30., the middle of the 70th week.


There is sufficient astronomical and Scriptural evidence to conclude that Jesus died on Friday, April 7, A.D. 30. If we allow God’s synchrony to place His death at that time, all of the pieces will comfortably fit together. In fact, A.D. 30 exclusively satisfies the synchrony required by all seven clocks which the Creator devised! Furthermore, A.D. 30 is the only year during which the events described in Scripture can occur.

It is well known that post-exilic Jews abandoned God’s method for reckoning months and adopted the Babylonian practice of starting a new month with the sighting of a new moon crescent. The onset of a month using the Babylonian method is usually one or two days later than God’s method. This difference is the basis for much confusion in Scripture about the time of Christ’s death: Jesus and His disciples observed Passover according to God’s synchrony for the month, while the nation of Israel observed Passover according to Babylon’s synchrony. Herein lies the confusion. The gospel writers do not address the presence of two methods for determining a new month as they describe various events that lead up to Christ’s death.

According to solar and lunar tables posted at this U.S. Naval Observatory web sites,
the following chart shows the position of the Sun and moon during A.D. 30 as well as the course of events for Passover in April, A.D. 30. When examining the data at the web-site, be careful to observe the differences between Julian and Jewish reckoning:

(Chart 17)
. . .A.D. 30 PASSOVER

JULIAN (Midnight to Midnight)

MARCH. . . . . . . .APRIL
W Th Fri Sab…Th F Sab.Sun
22 23 24 25 …. ….6.. 7.. 8 . 9
. .|. . . ..|. . . . . . . . .|. . . |
..|. . . ..|. . . . . . . . |. . . |
JEWISH (Sunset to|Sunset)
..|. . . . |. . . . . . . . .|. . .|
. |. . . . |NISAN . . .|. . .|
W|Th F |Sab… ..Th| F |Sab Su
. |. . . ..| 1… .. …13|14|15 16
. .|. . . . |. . . . . . . . . |. . |Pass|
. .|. . . .Cr . . . . . . . . | . .|. . . ..|
. Eq. . . . . . . . . . . .Fm . .|. . . .Re
. Nm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cx

Eq = Spring Equinox, Thursday night at 12 am local time

Nm = New Moon, Thursday night at Julian 8 pm local time

Cr = New Moon Crescent seen on Sabbath night, Nisan 1

Fm= Full Moon at Julian 10 pm = Jewish Friday and Julian Thursday

Cx = Friday afternoon crucifixion about 3 pm

Pass = Passover meal around midnight

Re = Resurrection just before sunrise


The gospel writers also indicate that Jesus ate the Passover on Thursday night with His disciples before going to His death on Friday afternoon. The records of the disciples do not indicate anything unusual about eating Passover or beginning the Feast of Unleavened Bread at a time that was not in harmony with the national Passover. (Matthew 26: 17; Mark 14:12) Nor do they offer any explanation for killing the Passover lamb on Wednesday afternoon and eating the Passover on Thursday night, even though the national Passover lamb was slain on Friday. Perhaps the reason for this divergent course of events stems from a difference in marking the beginning of the month. It would be inappropriate to assert that the Creator did not know the true time for Passover. Actually, the actions of Jesus affirm what is Truth, for He is the Truth. (John 14:6) Jesus correctly observed Passover and the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread with His disciples on Thursday, the 15th day of the month – using God’s method for reckoning monthly cycles. Because a new moon occurred on Thursday, the same night as the Spring Equinox in A.D. 30, the 15th of Nisan is Thursday. The Creator’s actions are naturally synchronous with the instructions that He gave to Moses in Exodus 12! Notice the timing of events if one follows God synchrony for starting the month:

(Chart 18)
. . . . A.D. 30 According To
. . . . . . The Actions of
. . . . . . . . . . JESUS

. JULIAN (Midnight to Midnight)

MARCH. . . . . . .APRIL
Wed Th F Sab ….W Th F Sab Sun
. 22 23 24 25 … ..5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9
. __|__|__|__|_—__|__|__|__|___
. . . .|. . . . . . . . . . . . . |. |
. . . .|. . . . . . . . . . . . . |. |
. . . JEWISH (Sunset to| Sunset)
. . . .|. . . . . . . . . . . . . |. |
. . NISAN . . . . . . . . . .|. |
.W |Th F Sab…W Th |F|Sab Su
. . . |1 . 2. 1 . . .14 15 16
. . . |. . . . . . . . . .|Pas|. | . .
. . . |. . . . . . . . . Cx. . .| .| . .
. . Eq. . . . . . . . . . . . Fm. | . .
. . Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ac

Eq = Spring Equinox, Thursday, 12 am local time

Nm = New moon Thursday, 8 pm local time

Cx = Slaying of Passover lamb at Wednesday twilight using Creator’s reckoning

Pass = Passover supper around Thursday midnight

Fm = Full moon Friday night at 10 pm local time

Ac = Actual crucifixion of Jesus using Babylonian reckoning

The mystery is solved. Jesus celebrated Israel’s final Passover on Thursday night, at exactly the right time with His disciples, on the 15th day of the first month. The alignment of the Jubilee calendar, the 70th week, the position of the Sun and moon along with the actions of Jesus pinpoint the time of Passover in A.D. 30 as Thursday night. The actions of Jesus and the astronomical position of the Sun and moon are two witnesses that confirm the truth. No wiggle room is left. A.D. 30 is the only year during the 70th week that can satisfy all the necessary specifications.

I find three interesting points surrounding the Thursday evening Passover. First, Jesus’ actions must be viewed as a confirmation of the synchrony of time according to the calendar that He established at the Exodus. Second, Jesus ended the paschal sacrifice that Thursday night. “While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.” Then he took the cup, gave thanks ad offered it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.” (Matthew 26:26-28) With these words, He pronounced the end of 1,467 years of paschal lamb sacrifices and He initiated the Lord’s supper. (John 13, 1 Cor 11) The following day, He terminated the observance of Passover. (Col 2:14-16, Heb 7:12) Last, Scripture indicates that the nation of Israel was not observing Passover on a day synchronous with God’s will at the first Advent. It is ironic that now, just before the second Advent, most of the world worships on days that are not synchronous with God’s will either.

It is astronomically true and historically plausible for Passover to have occurred on Sabbath, April 8, A.D. 30 if one dates the beginning of Nisan with the new moon crescent. It is astronomically true and historically plausible for the true Passover to have occurred on Thursday night, April 6, A.D. 30 if we interpret the actions of Jesus as affirming the proper synchrony for Nisan 15 with a new moon. The 70th week demands the death of Messiah in a Wednesday year and A.D. 30 uniquely meets this specification. When these issues are aligned with the actions of Jesus, no other year, month or day is possible. In fact, the two Passovers mentioned in the gospels confirm the year A.D. 30 because no other year can satisfy this astronomical setting within the range allowed by Daniel 9.


Some scholars defend A.D. 31 as the year of Christ’s death because they insist on using a Fall-to-Fall calendar for the synchronism of the 70 weeks, and the use of the Babylonian first crescent method to begin the month. The Bible and astronomy refute both arguments. If a person assumes A.D. 31 is the year of Christ’s death, the following chart describes the course of events necessary for a Friday crucifixion:

(Chart 19)
. . . . . . . . . . . By
. . . . . BABYLONIAN Method

ULIAN (Midnight to Midnight)

. .Fri … …Tue… …Sab…Fri Sab Su
. .23 . . . . 10 . . . . 14. . . .27 28 29
-|__| — |__| — |__|—|__|__|__
. . |. . . . . . |. . . . . |. . |. . |. . . . |
. . |. . . . . . |. . . . . |. . |. . |. . . . |
. JEWISH (Sunset |to |Sunset) |
. . |. . . . . |. . . . . |. . |. . |. . . . |
. . |. . . . . . | . . NISAN| . .|. . . . |
. . |. . . . Tue . . .Sab . | Fr|Sab Su
. . |. . . . . . |. . . . . |1. |14| 15 16
. . |——-|__|—-|__|—|__|__|__
. . |. . . . .Problem|. . |. . |Pass|
. . |. . . . . . |. .#1. .|. . |. .Cx . . .|
. . |. . . . . . |80Hrs|. Fm. . . . . Re
. Eq . . . . ..|. . . . . .|. .
. . . . . . . .NM. . . . Cr

Eq = Spring Equinox occurs on Friday,
. . . . March 23, 5 a.m. local time
NM = New Moon after Equinox occurs
. . . . on Tuesday, April 10, at 10 a.m.
. . . . . local time
Cr = New Moon Crescent seen on night
. . . of Sabbath, April 14 = Nisan 1
Fm = Full Moon on Thursday, March 26
. . . . at 9:30 p.m. local time
Cx = Crucifixion about 3 pm on Friday
. . . . afternoon
Pass = Passover meal around midnight
. . . . . Sabbath night
Re = Resurrection just before sunrise
. . . . on Sunday

The first problem with this scenario is the number of hours between new moon conjunction (Tuesday, April 10 at 10 a.m.) and the sighting of a new crescent (Sabbath evening at sundown, April 14). This requires a time-period of 80 hours at a minimum. Some have eliminated A.D. 31 as a possibility on this irregularity alone. But, the greater problem is that Jesus would have begun Nisan 1 with the New Moon on Tuesday April 10 and He would have observed Passover with His disciples on Tuesday night, April 24 (Nisan 15). This produces a span of 60+ hours between Passover with His disciples and His arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane on Friday night. This length of time does not align with the account given in the gospels. See Chart 20 below:

(Chart 20)
. . . A.D. 31 PASSOVER Using
. . . . The Actions of JESUS

. . . JULIAN Midnight – Midnight

. . .Fri … ..Tue .. Mon T W Th Fri
. . 23 … …10 …..
–_|__|_—_|__| … |__|__|__|__|__
. . . | . . . . . .|
. . JEWISH | Sunset – Sunset
. .. .|. . . . . . |
. . ..|. . . . .NISAN
. . ..|. . . Tue| …Mon T W Th Fri
. . ..|Nisan 1| …. 14 15 16 17 18
. . .Eq—–|__|_–___|__|__|__|__
. . . . . . . . . .|. . . . . | Pass . . . .|
. . . . . . . . NM. . . . |. . . . . . . . .|
. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . Problem#2|
. . . . . . . . . , . , . . . .|too much |
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|— time —|
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CX

It has been demonstrated that God’s calendar operates from Spring to Spring. The month of Nisan, the first month of the ceremonial year and the solar year always occurs in Spring. We also know the week of years and the year of Jubilee were synchronized with the year of the Exodus which occurred in the Spring. The 70 weeks of Daniel 9 also began in the Spring. King Artaxerxes issued the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem during the first days of Spring, 457 B.C., and Ezra left Babylon on the twelth day of Nisan to journey to Jerusalem with decree in hand. (Ezra 8:31) Therefore, A.D. 27, the first year of the 70th week must also begin in the Spring. This forces Passover in A.D. 31 to be a Thursday year and since Thursday is not the “middle of the week,” A.D. 31 is eliminated from any further consideration. See below:

(Chart 21)
. . . . . . The Week of Years
. . . . .Counting from 457 B.C.
Sun Mon Tue Wed Th Fri Sab
BC __________________________
457 456 455 454 453 452 451
. . . . . . . . .= Week of Years # 1
450 449 448 447 446 . . . .|
. . . . . . . . . = Week of Years # 2
… . . . . . . 23 . 24 . 25 . 26 |
. . . . . . . . = Week of Years #69
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 |
. . . . . = Week of Years #70
34 35 36 37 38 39 40|
. . . . . = Week of Years #71

Again, synchrony is the compelling reason to select A.D. 30 above all other possible dates. A.D. 30 is the Wednesday year, which is also the middle year of the 70th week. Jesus confirms the true timing of the Passover by His actions in A.D. 30., the positions of the Sun and moon confirm that no other year will meet these specifications except A.D. 30. All seven clocks that Jesus created align in such a way as to eliminate all other possible dates for His death. The gospels eliminate any other possibility due to time constraints.


Different methods of measuring time have been mentioned because Jewish practices were influenced at various times by the Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians and Canaanites. The Jews lived in Egypt for 430 years, in Canaan for more than 1,400 years, in Babylon for 70 years and they lived under Persian dominion for 200 years. Therefore, we should not be surprised to find some adaptations in Jewish methods for reckoning time over the course of Old Testament history. We can see from the dating of annual feasts, sabbatical years and the year of Jubilee that the Jews could not totally adopt the calendar of another nation. All other calendars were simply inadequate for Jewish needs. However, post-exilic Jews did adopt the practice of the Babylonians who marked the beginning of a month by observing the “new moon crescent.” (Incidently, Moslems continue to use the “new moon crescent” method today.) New moon crescent sightings at the time of Jesus were made in the vicinity of Jerusalem where priests announced the commencement of a new month. It is believed this tradition continued until the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.


If the possibility of perpetual synchrony in God’s units of time is accepted, then the commencement of any time-period in prophecy is influenced by its synchrony. For example, God could have said 1,260 days in Daniel 7:25, just as He said 2,300 days in Daniel 8:14. However, there is a difference in synchrony between units of days and units expressed in “times.” “A time” begins in the Spring, a day begins at sundown, a week begins with Sunday. If perpetual synchrony is a valid concept, then an interesting synchrony exists between “the time, times and half a time” in Daniel 7:25 and the 70 weeks of Daniel 9.

For reasons beyond the scope of this study, the span of time called a “time, times, and half a time” in Daniel 7:25 and Revelation 12:14 was fulfilled during A.D. 538 to 1798. Mathematically, we find that 1,260 years are 180 Jubilee weeks. (7 days x 180 weeks = 1,260 days) Dating from the Sunday year of the Exodus, and in synchrony with the beginning of the 70 weeks in 457 B.C. (a Sunday year), A.D. 538 is a Sunday year and February 1798 (the month of the pope’s capture) is the last month of a sabbatical year! (Remember, Julian February 1798 is Jubilee February 1797 because the Jubilee calendar is a Spring-to-Spring Calendar.) In other words, the “time, times and half a time” time-period starts and stops exactly where it should according to synchrony. There is perfect alignment within the Jubilee calendar for this period of 180 weeks and the synchronism implied by the Aramaic word ‘hiddan (a set time) is marvelously confirmed. The impeccable synchrony of this time-period assures this writer that the “seven times” assigned to Nebuchadnezzar also constituted a synchronous week of seven years.

(Chart 22)

Sun M T W Th F Sab
538 539 540… …544 = Week 1
545 546 … … … … …
… … … …..1789 1790 |
1791… …1796 (1797) = Week 180


If we ignore or reject the synchrony that God’s seven clocks impose on Biblical events as well as future prophetic events, then we are left without a means (as in a rule) to manage the interpretation of time or time-periods in Daniel and Revelation. Every interpreter is therefore free to interpret and thus place time-periods according to his own private schematic.


When dealing with time or time-periods in the Bible, understanding the synchronism of time is job one. We have spent a great deal of time examining the importance of synchronism. We have seen that throughout the Bible, God reckons "a week" to be a period of time that is synchronous with Creation’s week! In fact, there are places where God distinguishes between a period of seven days and a week within the same conversation. (Leviticus 23:6,15) Yes, man may call a seven day period such as Thursday through Wednesday a week, but this does not make it a week. Yes, man may call April 15 through May 14 a month, but this does not make it a month. And yes, man may define a year as any number of days, but man’s reckoning of time is not necessarily God’s reckoning of time. This is a key point in studying prophetic time-periods. God gave different names to the time-periods to help us properly place them according to their synchrony. Every time-period is literal because each has its own synchrony and duration. There is no such thing as symbolic time. Yes, time may be expressed as a figure of speech, but God does not represent a time-period with a symbolic expression in Scripture. Every time-period has its own duration and synchrony. Every time-period has its beginning and ending point in time. Every clock has its own unique unit of time. For example, a prophetic time-period of 42 literal months would start with a new moon because God’s months begin with a new moon! The prophetic time-period of 70 Jubilee weeks has to begin with a Sunday year because the first year in the "week of seven years" clock is a Sunday year. A prophetic time-period involving years has to begin in the Spring because God’s "year clock" always begins in the Spring. The key to interpreting the time-periods in Daniel and Revelation is understanding which clock God is using.


Each time-period in Daniel and Revelation has to be understood within the context of its intended clock. For example, Daniel says, "In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia, a revelation was given to Daniel (who was called Belteshazzar). Its message was true and it concerned a great war. The understanding of the message came to him in a vision. At that time I, Daniel, mourned for three weeks. (Daniel 10:1,2) We have to interpret "the third year" and the three weeks that occur within that year according to the "year clock" of the Persians Likewise, the seven times decreed upon King Nebuchadnezzar have to be seven years because "a time" was one cycle of the Sun. Some, like the Jehovah’s Witnesses, have argued that if "a time, times and half a time" equals 1,260 years, then seven times equals 2,520 years (7 x 360). The problem with this argument, of course, is the use of the wrong clock. Nebuchadnezzar did not live like a beast for 2,520 years. Another interesting point is this: The Aramaic word for "weeks" in Daniel 9:24 is identical with the word "weeks" in Daniel 10:2. How is it that a week is seven literal days in one verse and in another, a week is seven literal years? The answer appears to be consistent with this rule: Time-periods must be interpreted according to the clock and synchrony that God is using.


How should we interpret the 1,000 years of Revelation 20? Does God mean 1,000 solar years according to His "year clock" that dates from Creation or does God mean 360,000 years using the day/year clock that dates from the Exodus (1,000 x 360)? This is a fair question. Even though the context of Revelation 20 is highly symbolic, the time-period is literal because time is always literal. Furthermore, if the three Jubilee clocks: "the week of seven months," "the week of seven years," and "the seven weeks of seven years" stop operating before the Second Coming, the "year clock" is all that remains. (The termination of the three Jubilee clocks will be presented shortly.)

Why is the devil "tied down" for 1,000 years? Could it be that he is forced to "rest" from his evil work for a sabbatical millennium so that Earth might rest? There appears to be an eighth clock, although the Scripture does not directly say there is an eighth clock. There is a strong possibility for the presence of "a week of seven millenniums" clock. In short, it appears that Creation’s week was a marvelous template – revealing God’s foreknowledge to rescue man from sin and restore him to Eden – even before man sinned! God created "a week of seven days" clock to reveal the beauty of resting from our cares and in His care on His Sabbath. He then created "a weekly clock of seven months" which contains six feasts that foreshadows the essential events of the Plan of Salvation. He also created "a weekly clock of seven years" to foreshadow Earth’s sabbatical millennium from the works of sin and the emancipation of His faithful ones from the curse of sin at the beginning of the sabbatical millennium! God also created "a clock of seven weeks of seven years" to foreshadow the-one-time Jubilee, the restoration of the land to the heirs of Abraham. In light of these parallels, there is a likelihood to say that an eighth clock, a week of seven millenniums, may exist.

When the genealogical data in the Bible dating from Adam to the Exodus is added to the Jubilee calendar and those time-periods yet to be fulfilled during the Great Tribulation, plus the 1,000 years of Revelation 20, the total number of years reach surprisingly close to 7,000 years:


(Chart 23)
Event. . . . . . . . . . . . Years
Adam to the Flood = 1656
Margin for Error. . .= . . 10
Flood to Exodus . . = . 989
Margin for Error . . = . . 10
Exodus to 1994 . . .= 3430
1994 to year 2000. = . . . 6
Total Years
Creation = 6,081 to 6,101

Assuming Adam and Eve were in the garden about 100 years before sinning (When Seth was born, Adam and Eve were 130 years of age.) Totals 5981 to 6001 years since sin began
If the margin for error is averaged to 10 years, this current year appears to be about 5,991 years since sin began. Keeping in mind, this is only an estimate.


God appears to terminate these three clocks implemented at the Exodus (not at creation) just a few years before the Second Coming:


(2) The WEEK of SEVEN YEARS, and

(3) The SEVEN WEEKS of SEVEN YEARS (49-Year JUBILEE Cycles).

For several prophetic reasons beyond the scope of this study, this writer concludes that the operation of these three clocks ended in 1994 with the completion of 70 Jubilee cycles. (March 1437 B.C. – March 1994 = 70 Jubilee cycles or 3,430 years) Why terminate these three clocks in 1994? Because the following appears to be true:

We know "the week of seven years" clock did not end at the Cross. Jesus died in the middle of the 70th week. This means "the week of seven years" clock must continue to operate beyond the death of Jesus in A.D. 30 or the prophecy in Daniel 9 would have to terminate at 69.5 weeks.
The "week of seven years" clock did not stop at the Cross because the "time, times and half a time" of Daniel 7:25 and Revelation 12:6,14 took place long after the cross (A.D. 538 to 1798). This time-period of 1,260 years does not span across the B.C. to A.D. line of demarcation, yet these prophecies depend upon the day/year translation offered by the "week of seven years" clock. History proves the 1,260 years to be synchronous with the "week of seven years" clock.
The 70 weeks (490 years) of Daniel 9 and the 2,300 days of Daniel 8:14 operated concurrently until the 70 weeks expired with A.D. 33. Afterwards, the count of the 2,300 day/years continued onward until 1844. In this case, the "week of seven years" clock must operate until 1844 at a minimum.
Even though the obligation of observing feasts was terminated at the cross, this writer concludes these three clocks continued to operate until 70 Jubilee cycles were completed in 1994. This may sound strange to the reader at first, but consider the fact that even though ancient Israel did not observe the sabbatical years required by God for 430 years prior to the Babylonian captivity, God counted the sabbatical years. The 70 years in Babylonian captivity proves that God’s clocks operate whether man regards their presence or not.
Why terminate the clocks in 1994? Here are three reasons:

a. Every time man fails, GOD increases the next probationary period of TIME:

• GOD tested Israel on the observance of the SABBATH DAY. (Exodus 16:4)

• GOD tested Israel for 40 DAYS resulting in 40 YEARS of captivity in the wilderness.

• GOD tested Judea for 70 SABBATICAL YEARS resulting in 70 YEARS captivity in Babylon.

• GOD tested Israel for 70 WEEKS resulting in His final rejection of Israel.

• YEARS granted to the Jews:
30 complete JUBILEE Cycles
(1437 B.C. – A.D. 33 = 1,470 YEARS).

• YEARS granted to the Gentiles:
40 complete JUBILEE Cycles
(A.D. 34 – 1994 = 1,960 years).

• Total YEARS granted to Jews and Gentiles:
70 complete JUBILEE Cycles
(ending in 1994).

• YEARS allotted for the duration of sin appears to be 70 centuries
(7,000 YEARS).

b. Assume for a moment that the seven angels of Revelation 8:2-7 were given the seven trumpets in March, 1994 because the allotted time of mercy for the world (corporately speaking) ended. And, as the first four angels prepared to harm Earth, they were told to wait until the 144,000 were sealed. (Revelation 7:1-4) Because the seven trumpets are future, because the seven trumpets are judgments of God, because the seven angels are given the seven trumpets at a point in time when God’s patience with Earth has expired, it seems rational to place the empowerment of the seven angels in Revelation 8:2 at 1994 – at the end of 70 Jubilee cycles. If this is the case, then we are currently living in a delay. The first four angels are waiting for the sealing of the 144,000 to be completed before they begin their harm. At an appointed time, Jesus will declare the delay to be over. (Rev 10:6) The commencement of the seven trumpets could begin any day. The Great Tribulation will be a maximum of 1,335 days in length (Daniel 12:11,12) and this time-period will reach to the end of the 6,000th year of sin, to the very day. For reasons stated earlier, the approximate window for the 6,000th year appears to be somewhere between 1998 and 2017, such estimation.

c. A number of time-periods will occur during the Great Tribulation. Each of these require planetary clocks instead of Jubilee clocks. Otherwise, these time-periods would be translated into day/year units, which would make nonsense of the prophecies. For example, the fifth trumpet has a time-period of 5 months within it. If one insists on using a Jubilee clock, then the five months would equal 150 years (30 days per month x 5). This would frustrate the prophecy in Daniel 12:11,12 which establishes the length of the Great Tribulation as being 1,335 days.

Therefore, this writer follows this general rule of interpretation: “The presence or the absence of the Jubilee calendar determines whether God reckons apocalyptic time in day/year units or in literal units.” If this approach is followed, there is ample room for the fulfillment of several prophetic time-periods during the Great Tribulation and also allowing the 6,000th year since sin to occur somewhere between 1998 and 2017. The following chart (Chart 24) outlines the harmonious operation of God’s great clocks, including the possibility of an eighth clock, a week of millenniums.

{Chart 24)
. . . . . WEEKS of YEARS
. . . . . . . . . . Since
. . . . . . . . . .EXODUS
Sun Mo Tu We Th Fri Sab
Exodus BC________________|
( 1437 ) 1436 1435 … 1431|
_____________________ Week = 1
1430 1429 1428 1427… …|
_____________________ Week = 2
1402 1401 1400..(1397)1396|
_______________________Week = 6
961 960 959( 958 )957…955|
_____________________Week = 69
_______Hezekiah’s Jubilee|
709… …706 705 704(703)|
_____________________Week = 105
( 702 ) 701 700 … … … …|
____________________Week = 106
596 595 594 593 592 (591)|
____________________ Week = 121
_ Decree_________________|
(457) 456 455 454 …. 451|
____________________Week = 141
__________________________| * 1st
AD______ Calvary__________|
27 . 28 . 29 ( 30 ) 31 . 32 . 33 |
____________________Week = 210
__________________________| *70th
_Little Horn_____________|
(538) 539 540 541 … 544|
____________________Week = 283
… … ..1795 1796 (1797)|
____________________Week = 462
(Chart 25 *Below)
. . . . . . . . . . THE
START. . . . . . . . . . .6000th
Rev 8:2. . . . . . . . . . .YEAR
Censor. . . . . . . . .2nd Advent
1|–1335 DAYS———|
2|–1290 DAYS—–|. .|
3|–1260 DAYS–|*75|
. |. . . . . . . . . . . *Days|
4|–42 MONTHS—-| .|
. . .5 (5 MONTHS). . . .|
. . . . . . .6 (3.5 DAYS). .|
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 |(1K Yrs)


1. Daniel 12:12

4. Revelation 13:5

7. Revelation 20

2. Daniel 12:11

5. Revelation 9:5

* SEVEN Last Plagues
are 75 DAYS in Length

3. Revelation 11:3

6. Revelation 11:9

* The 70 weeks occurred between 457 B.C. through A.D. 33. It began with the decree of Artaxerxes. (Ezra 7 and 8) This count totals 70 weeks inclusive. Notice also that Solomon’s 480th year is a Wednesday year (958 B.C.) and the year of Christ’s death is also a Wednesday year, the middle of the 70th week (A.D. 30). It is interesting to note that construction on Solomon’s temple began in the middle of the 69th week, counting from the Exodus, and the temple of Jesus (His body) was destroyed in the middle of the 70th week, counting from the decree. (John 2:19)


Where Does the Count of Years Begin?
Some scholars claim that the week of years and the Jubilee cycle began operating at the time Israel entered into the Promised Land rather than at the Exodus. They base this assumption on this text: “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: “When you enter the land I am going to give you, the land itself must observe a Sabbath to the Lord.” (Leviticus 25:2) On the surface, this text could be understood to mean that the Jews were to begin counting off seventh year sabbaticals “when you enter the land. . .” However, the text could be understood in the future tense, not the future indicative tense. To paraphrase this text, God says, “I know you are in the wilderness right now and sabbatical years are not necessary here, but when you enter the land I am going to give you, that land must observe my sabbatical years according to the calendar that I have given you.”

The following text contains language that is similar to the above text. “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land I am going to give you and you reap its harvest, bring to the priest a sheaf of the first grain you harvest. He is to wave the sheaf before the Lord so it will be accepted on your behalf; the priest is to wave it on the day after the [seventh day] Sabbath.” (Leviticus 23:10,11, insertion mine) The presentation of the wave sheaf on the first day of the week was not observed in the wilderness because there was no harvest. But, the “week of seven months” clock that determined the timing of the ceremonial year began operating at the time of the Exodus. God was very firm about the importance of maintaining the synchrony of His clocks before the actual feasts were observed. “But if a man who is ceremonially clean and not on a journey fails to celebrate the Passover, that person must be cut off from his people because he did not present the Lord’s offering at the appointed time. That man will bear the consequences of his sin.” (Numbers 9:13)

During the wilderness sojourn of 40 years, it appears the Passover was not observed because the rite of circumcision was suspended. Therefore, the younger generation could not participate in the Passover. (Exodus 12:48) When the time came to enter Canaan, Joshua had all of the males circumcised. (Joshua 5:2-5) The point here is that the “week of seven months” clock (the clock that marked off the ceremonial year) did not stop operating because Passover was not observed in the wilderness. On the contrary, Passover was celebrated according to this clock when the feast of Passover was resumed. (Joshua 5:9-12)

How then, do we prove that we should begin counting from the year of the Exodus instead of the year of entry into Canaan? It is quite simple if we approach the question from three different points of view. Keep in mind that each approach is not conclusive, but when combined, they become “airtight.”


First, let us assume for the point of argument that the Jubilee calendar is synchronized with a date for the Exodus. Therefore, the year of the Exodus needs to be a Sunday year (the weekly cycle begins with a Sunday year). Let us also assume the Sunday year is 1437 B.C. This date will be demonstrated to be true later on. The 1437 B.C. date of the Exodus forces the entrance into Canaan on the 16th day of the first month of a Friday year, 1397 B.C. (See the following chart.) After Israel spent exactly 40 years to the day in the wilderness, they entered Canaan on the 16th day of their 41st year of sojourn. (Joshua 5:11) Therefore, Israel’s first full year in the Promised Land was a Sabbatical year (just like Adam and Eve’s first full day in Eden was a Sabbath.) With these two dates in mind, notice what the Bible says: “In the four hundred and eightieth year after the Israelites had come out of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, the second month, he began to build the temple of the Lord.” (1 Kings 6:1) If we subtract 480 years from the Exodus date of 1437 B.C. we arrive at 958 B.C., a very reasonable date for the fourth year of Solomon’s reign. (See chart below.) I say reasonable because the regnal years of Israel’s kings are a matter of dispute. It is not possible to assemble a flawless time-frame for the reign of kings because of the problem of counting ascension years and co-regent years. Even more, the poverty of ancient data makes it impossible to accurately date the Exodus using historical records. Nevertheless, scholars who know nothing about the perpetual synchrony of God’s six clocks have dated the commencement of Solomon’s temple between 966 and 961 B.C. This finding commends those who have put forth the painstaking work that such research requires, because their calculation is not far from the date which the synchrony of God’s calendar produces (958 B.C.). However, if one counts backward 480 years from 966 B.C. the date of the Exodus becomes a Friday year, 1446 B.C., a date which is not synchronous with the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 nor Hezekiah’s year of Jubilee in 702 B.C. Further, if we count the 480 years from Israel’s entrance into Canaan in 1397 B.C., the resulting date for Solomon’s fourth year is several years beyond the window of time that history allows.


(Chart 26)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WEEKS of
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .YEARS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Since EXODUS:
Sun Mon Tu We Thu Fri Sab
Exodus ____________________|
(1437) 1436 1435 …. …1431|
_____________________ = Week # 1
1430 1429 1428 1427 … … |
_____________________ = Week # 2

1402 1401 … … (1397) 1396|
_____________________ = Week # 6

961 960 959 (958) 957…955|
_____________________ = Week # 69

Hezekiah’s Jubilee_________|
709 708 707 706..704 (703)|
_____________________ = Week # 105
(702) 701 700 … … … … …|
_____________________ = Week # 106

__________________ Zedekiah|
..596 595 594 593 592 (591)|
_____________________ = Week # 121

(457)456 455 …453 452 451|
_____________________ = Week # 141
____________________________|. .*1st

27 . 28 . 29 . ( 30 ) 31 32 33|
_____________________ = Week # 210 ___________________________|.. *70th

Little Horn _________________|
(538)539 540 541… 543 544|
_____________________= Week # 283
. . . … … … …1795 1796 1797| _____________________ = Week # 462

* The 70 weeks occurred between 457 B.C. through A.D. 33. It began with the decree of Artaxerxes. (Ezra 7 and 8) This count totals 70 weeks inclusive. Notice also that Solomon’s 480th year is a Wednesday year (958 B.C.) and the year of Christ’s death is also a Wednesday year, the middle of the 70th week (A.D. 30). It is interesting to note that construction on Solomon’s temple began in the middle of the 69th week, counting from the Exodus, and the temple of Jesus (His body) was destroyed in the middle of the 70th week, counting from the decree. (John 2:19)


The second reason we should date the commencement of the Jubilee calendar from the Exodus is because God reckons the weekly cycle of years from the year of the Exodus. This topic was presented earlier and is referenced again because God’s actions confirm the synchrony of the "weeks of years," as well as the Jubilee calendar, because they share the same synchrony. There is one more point that could be added: "For forty years I was angry with that generation; I said, "They are a people whose hearts go astray, and they have not known my ways." So I declared on oath in my anger, "They shall never enter my rest." (Psalm 95:10,11) The generation that perished in the wilderness never experienced one of God’s sabbatical years (His rest).


The third reason we should date the Jubilee calendar from the year of the Exodus is because of the compelling alignment that synchrony imposes on events. (See the previous chart for location of dates.) If we allow the Exodus to occur in the Spring of 1437 B.C. (and this is well within historical allowances) there is perfect synchrony with a series of known dates such as the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 (Spring 457 B.C. through A.D. 33), the seventh year of Zedekiah (591 B.C.), and the 14th and 15th years of Hezekiah (703 and 702 B.C.). Even more, there is perfect synchrony within the 70th week (Spring A.D. 27 to Spring A.D. 34). The 70th week began with the Sunday year A.D. 27, and according to Daniel 9, Messiah would be "cut off" during the middle of the 70th week. The middle year of the 70th week is a Wednesday year, A.D. 30.

(Chart 27)
Sun Mon Tue (Wed) Thu Fri Sab
. 27 . 28 . 29 . ( 30 ) . 31. 32 . 33
As shown earlier, there is sufficient astronomical evidence and Scriptural evidence to conclude that Jesus died on Friday, April 7, A.D. 30. If we allow God’s synchrony of time to place Him there, all the pieces comfortably agree. In fact, A.D. 30 exclusively satisfies the synchrony required by all seven clocks which the Creator imposed upon Earth! Furthermore, A.D. 30 is the only year during which the events described in Scripture can occur.


When these three points of view are aligned, Leviticus 25:2 cannot be interpreted to mean that the "week of seven years" clock began operating when the Hebrews entered Canaan. On the contrary, when all of the evidence is assembled for dating the Exodus, i.e. the Jubilee calendar beginning with the year of the Exodus, the weekly cycle of years beginning with the year of the Exodus and the death of Jesus confirming a precision alignment of seven clocks, the weight of evidence answers the question. If we establish Solomon’s fourth year as 958 B.C. and the year of the Exodus as 1437 B.C., there is perfect synchrony. When we consider that God used an existing scale of time, namely the "week of seven years," for punishing Israel 40 years from the date of the Exodus, we have very strong evidence showing that a day for a year mechanism began operating at the year of the Exodus. We know the week of years and the Jubilee calendar are not only synchronized with each other, they are also aligned with the four clocks established at Creation. When we consider the harmony of all seven clocks at the death of Jesus during the 70th week, there remains no justification to date the commencement of the Jubilee calendar from any other date than that of the Exodus in 1437 B.C.


FIVE STEPS will Produce a Satisfactory DATE for the YEAR of the EXODUS:

STEP 1. GOD Established the SYNCHRONY of the "WEEK of YEARS" and the JUBILEE Calendar two Weeks before the EXODUS by Identifying the 1st DAY – 1st MONTH – 1st YEAR. (See Exodus 12:1_12; 40:17.)

STEP 2. The 70 WEEKS of DANIEL 9 (457 B.C.- A.D. 33) are SYNCHRONOUS with the "WEEK of YEARS" Established at the EXODUS. JESUS was Baptized during the Sunday YEAR of the 70th WEEK, A.D. 27. (Luke 3) JESUS confirmed the Synchrony of the JUBILEE Calender by Dying in the Middle of the 70th WEEK, a Wednesday YEAR, A.D. 30.

(Chart 28)
The Week of Years Counting
. . . . . . . From 457 B.C.
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sab
( 457) 456 455 454 453…455| _____________= Week of Years #1 _____________________________|
450 449 448 447 446 … … …|
_____________= Week of Years #2
A.D. . . . . . . . . 23 24 25 26 |
_____________= Week of Years #69
27 . 28 . 29 . 30 . 31. 32 ( 33 )|
____________ = Week of Years #70
. 34 . 35 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 40 |
______________ = Week of Years #71

STEP 3. Since A.D. 27 is a SUNDAY YEAR and A.D. 30 is a WEDNESDAY YEAR, the Following Would also be TRUE:

(Chart 29)
457 BC = Sunday| AD 27= Sunday
. . . . . . . . .Year. . .|. . . . . . . .Year
1437BC=Sunday | AD 538= Sunday
. . . . . . . . Year . . .|. . . . . . . . .Year
1388BC=Sunday | AD 1988= Sunday
. . . . . . . . Year. . . |. . . . . . . . . . Year

*The 70 WEEKS Prophecy began in the Spring of 457 B.C. with the Decree of Artaxerxes and it ended with the 70th Sabbatical year in A.D. 33. A total of 490 years (counting from Spring to Spring) elapsed. The decree by Artaxerxes was issued in the first days of Spring, 457 B.C. (Ezra 7:9; 8:31) which also happens to be a year of Jubilee. (See Step 4.)

STEP 4. The BIBLE Mentions the Presence of a YEAR of JUBILEE During the 15th YEAR of KING HEZEKIAH. "In the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah’s reign, Sennacherib king of Assyria attacked all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them. [Isaiah said to the king] "This will be the sign for you, O Hezekiah: "This year [your fourteenth] you will eat what grows by itself, and the second year [your 15th year] what springs from that. But in the third year sow and reap, plant vineyards and eat their fruit.’" (See Isaiah 36:1, 37:30, insertions mine.) Since the synchrony of Jubilee cycles remains intact from the Exodus, this Sabbatical/Jubilee year sign can be accurately located because Sennacherib has to be in power and Jubilee years are always Sunday years. In addition to this, we know that kings went off to war in the Spring of the year. (2 Samuel 11:1, 1 Chronicles 20:1) A review of history reveals that Sennacherib came to power around 705 B.C. So, the fourteenth and fifteenth years of Hezekiah have to occur after 705 B.C. The first Sunday year (using the synchrony of the 70 weeks) after 705 B.C. is 702 B.C.

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sab
(1437)1436..1433 1432 1431 = # 1
1430 1429 1428 1427. . . . . = # 2
_____________________________ Week
1402 1401 1400..(1397)1396 = # 6
_____________________________ Week
961 960…(958) 957 956 955= # 69 ____________________________|
( Hezekiahs Jubilee )_______|
709 708 707…705 704(703)= #105
(702) 701 700 . . . . . . . . . = #106 ____________________________|
Zedekiah __________________|
597 596 595…593 592(591)= #121
Decree ____________________|
(457) 456 455 454…452 451= #141
____________________________| 1
_____________________________ Week
(AD) 27 28 29 (30) 31 32 33 = #210 ____________________________| 70

We can determine if 703 / 702 B.C. is a reasonable time-frame by backtracking to the well known date of 586 B.C. when Nebuchadnezzar finally destroyed Jerusalem. Therefore, a list of kings, their regnal years of reign according to Scripture, and the actual years of reign (computed as though 703 B.C. was Hezekiah’s fourteenth year) is provided:

(Chart 31)

. . . . . Regnal*|Actual| Julian Year
1.Hezekiah**14th|15|703-688 BC
2. Manesseh 55 | 54 |692-638 BC
3. Amon . . . . . 2 |.. 2 |638-636 BC
4. Josiah . . . . 31 | 29 |636-607 BC
5. Jehoiakim 11 | 10 |607-597 BC
6. Jehoiachin 25 | 25 |597-596 BC
7. Zedekiah . 11 | 11 |596-586 BC
8. Jerusalem's 3rd Destruction –
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 586 BC
Total. . . . . .125*| 118|

*A regnal year is counted as any part of a year on the throne – even if it is only a partial year. A regnal year is also credited to a king even if two kings reign at the same time. For example, David and Solomon (Father – Son) were kings of Israel at the same time. They both reigned 40 regnal years, but the actual number of years they reigned over Israel does not equal 80 years since their reigns ran concurrently for a few years. In ancient times it was often customary for the outgoing king to stay on the throne to ensure the transfer of power to the incoming king, especially if the new king was a young heir to the throne.

**During Hezekiah’s 14th year, he was given a promise of fifteen more years of life – so his total reign lasted 29 years. We know from Scripture that a Jubilee year occurred during his fifteenth year on the throne (702 B.C.) – leaving him fourteen more years of life. It is assumed that he placed his heir, Manesseh, on the throne when he turned twelve years old in 692 B.C. to teach him the ways of the court before he died. After all, Hezekiah foreknew the year of his death. Thus, Hezekiah reigned for a total of 29 years, but he reigned alone for about 25 years.


According to Scripture, regnal years for this time-period total 125 years, while the actual number of computed years is 118. The seven year difference is well within the ten years allowed by scholars for this time-period. Therefore, the synchrony of God’s clocks forces two matters to be true:

A. Since Jesus died in the middle year of the 70th week (A.D. 30), we can determine the date of all Sabbatical and Sunday years, forward and backward.

B. Hezekiah's fourteenth and fifteenth years are Sabbatical and Jubilee years respectively. Hezekiah’s fourteenth and fifteenth years have to occur after Sennacherib comes to power in 705 B.C. The only two dates that can satisfy this equation is 703 and 702 B.C. Other Sunday years are either too late or too early to meet historical specifications. Notice the impact that synchrony produces on this conclusion: If 702 B.C. is correctly identified as a Jubilee year and a Sunday year, then Artaxerxes’ decree in 457 B.C. was a Jubilee year since it aligns with 49 year cycles dating from 702 B.C.! Earlier, the point was made that Daniel 9 indicates the restoration decree occurs at the beginning of a Jubilee cycle because the 70 weeks are divided as 7 + 62 + 1. The "seven sevens" in Daniel 9:25 is a reference to the seven weeks of a 49 year cycle that constitutes one Jubilee cycle. (457 B.C. – 409 B.C.) God used this terminology (7 weeks + 62 weeks) to reveal the synchrony of the decree from which He would begin counting. Obviously, when one Jubilee year is known, all Jubilee years can be calculated. For example, 16 B.C. is a Sunday year and it is also a Jubilee year.

STEP 5. The synchrony of God’s clocks forces certain events to be positioned at certain times, but can we rely on this synchrony? To make sure our conclusions are reasonable, one more step is necessary to determine the year of the Exodus. We must test the validity of 958 B.C. against a widely known historical event. The Bible indicates Solomon began to build the temple in the 480th year after the Israelites came out of Egypt. (1 Kings 6:1) According to Exodus 12:1-2, year one of the Exodus is also year one of the Jubilee calendar. It is a Sunday year because Sunday is the first day of the week and it is also the first year in a Jubilee cycle. Therefore, the year of the Exodus has to synchronize with 702 B.C., 457 B.C., the 70 weeks, and of course, the 70th week. Good news, it does! If we can confirm the approximate time of Solomon’s reign through some external evidence, then we can count 480 years backwards and determine the date of the Exodus with some degree of confidence. We also know that 702 B.C., 457 B.C. and the 70th week are perfectly synchronized. So, one of the following dates must be the year of the Exodus because they land on 49 year cycles within reach of the 480 years dated from the fourth year of Solomon’s reign:

1486 B.C. – 1437 B.C. – 1388 B.C. – 1339 B.C.

Providentially, there is a well confirmed, widely accepted date outside the Bible showing that Ahab, king of Israel was killed during the 22nd year of his reign in 852 B.C. The distance between Solomon’s 4th year and Ahab’s death is a maximum distance of 120 regnal years. (Based on the Jubilee calendar, the length of time proves to be 106 actual years). Here are the regnal years from Solomon’s 4th year to Ahab’s 22nd year:

(Chart 32)

. . . . . . REGNAL YEARS
1. Solomon . | 36 Years
2. Jeroboam | 22 Years
3. Nadab . . .|. 2 Years
4. Baasha . . | 24 Years
5. Elah . . . . .|. 2 Years
6. Zimri . . . . |. 1 Week
7. Omri . . . . | 12 Years
8. Ahab . . . . | 22 Years
Total =
Regnal Years |120 Years

Beginning with Ahab’s death in 852 B.C. and counting backwards to Solomon’s 4th year, we can calculate the following data:

(Chart 33)

The Date of Ahab’s Death| 852BC
Plus: The REGNAL Years
. . . . . that date back to
. . . . . Solomon’s 4th Year | 120
Plus: The 480 Years that
. . . . . Date back to the
. . . . .Year of the EXODUS| 480
Equals: The Approximate
. . . . . . .Date of EXODUS |1452 BC

However, 1452 B.C. is not a Jubilee year, nor is it a Sunday year. Moving forward in time to the closest Jubilee year, since regnal years always total more than actual years, we find:

(Chart 34)

Date of Ahab’s death . . | 852 BC
Add: 106 Actual Years
. . . . .(reducing REGNAL
. . . . . Years by 14) . . . . . | 106
Plus: The 480 Years that
. . . . date back to the
. . . . .Year of EXODUS . .| 480
Equals: Date of EXODUS|1437 BC

The difference between regnal and actual years for Solomon and Ahab is 14. This is well within the tolerance allowed for the succession of these eight kings. Some scholars reduce the regnal years for this time-period by five and say the actual years are 115 instead of 106. But, the records of co-regent reigns during this time-period are virtually nonexistent. So, the actual years must remain within the realm of “educated guessing” unless we allow the synchrony of the Jubilee calendar to impose a timing matrix on this time period.
Summary — 1437 B.C. Is the Exclusive Solution for the Date of the Exodus

There are several reasons why 1437 B.C. is the only year that can qualify for the date of the Exodus. It is a Sunday year and it is the first year of the Jubilee calendar. In addition, 1437 B.C. occurs within the time-frame allotted by Scripture. All other Jubilee years are too near or too far away from the regnal or actual reigns of the kings to qualify. Therefore, 1437 B.C. is the only synchronous date possible for the Exodus.


The measurement of time can be a complex process because planetary motion does not align in a convenient way. Fortunately, God’s calendar was not based on a series of complex calculations, instead it was based on observation and weekly cycles. Yes, man has invented and used many types of calendars, but only God’s calendar is perpetually self-correcting each month and each year. The accuracy of God’s marvelous calendar is not hampered by the fact that some years had 13 moons and others had 12. God’s calendar is not frustrated by bad weather or global position. God’s calendar and the means for synchronizing it are adequate for an entire world. Even more, to insure that the synchrony of all seven units of time would not be lost or forgotten, God commanded Israel to observe a number of feasts and rituals at appointed times each year that no manmade calendar could accurately determine in advance. How marvelous of God. Each obligation imposed upon man contributes to the preservation of His timing. Nearly 6,000 years later we are just now waking up to discover that we are living at Earth’s last hour!


A great deal of misunderstanding exists on the nature, purpose and synchronism of the Jubilee calendar. Listed below are five common issues of misunderstanding concerning the Jubilee calendar.

(1) Some people say no Biblical record exists from which Jubilee cycles can be determined and any choice of an initial date is purely arbitrary. This article attempts to:
(a) demonstrate that God initialized and synchronized the Jubilee calendar with the Exodus,
(b) that God has confirmed the synchrony of the Jubilee calendar at least three times since the Exodus, and
(c) that a number of historical dates and events confirm the presence and operation of the Jubilee calendar.

(2) Some people say there is uncertainty regarding the number of years which constitute a Jubilee cycle. This article attempts to demonstrate from Scripture that Jubilee cycles are 49 years in length. The year of Jubilee (the 50th year) and the first year of a new cycle run concurrently.

(3) Some people say the seventh year sabbaticals and Jubilee cycles were civil institutions. This article provides evidence showing that the observance of the Sabbatical and Jubilee cycles were as sacred to Israel as was the observance of the seventh day.

(4) Some people say there is no initial date from which to figure Jubilee cycles. This article offers an explanation showing that one can historically determine the date the first Jubilee cycle.

(5) Some people say the Jubilee calendar is a topic having no relevance today. This article attempts to show that God reckons a number of prophetic time-periods in Daniel and Revelation in Jubilee units as well as in literal units. The operation of the Jubilee calendar uniquely explains this variance.

CLAIM#1: There is no record of an actual observance of a year of Jubilee. There is no factual basis from which we can compute Jubilee cycles. Any choice of an initial date is purely arbitrary.

This statement uses the same logic that many Christians today use to avoid observing the true seventh-day Sabbath. They say, “There is no Scriptural record of anyone keeping the seventh-day Sabbath from Creation to the time of Moses.” Their underlying argument is that the synchronism of the weekly cycle from Creation cannot be determined, therefore no one can reliably prove from Scripture that Saturday really is the seventh day of the week since Creation. This argument is easily eliminated since God Himself confirmed the synchrony of the seventh-day Sabbath about 2,500 years after Creation when He withheld manna in the wilderness for 40 years. (Exodus 16:1-35) Certainly, God knows the synchrony of His own calendar! In fact, it is only through the synchrony of the weekly cycle with Creation’s week that we can have any confidence as to which day of the week is God’s seventh day! God did not impose the observance of seventh-year sabbaticals and the year of Jubilee upon Israel and then abandon their synchronism. On the contrary, He repeatedly confirmed the synchrony of the Jubilee calendar. The following references, Jeremiah 34:13-15; Isaiah 37:30 and Daniel 9:24-27, will be addressed later in this section.

Some people claim that any initial date for the Jubilee calendar is purely arbitrary. The Bible does not support this assertion. (Exodus 12:1,2) The Israelites understood the synchronism of the Jubilee calendar and they knew when to observe sabbatical years, as well as the year of Jubilee. Every Israelite knew when day 1, month 1, of year 1 took place and they defined their history by it. (1 Kings 6:1) God did not declare every seventh-year holy and then leave Israel to question which years were sabbatical years. Did God leave Israel to decide by a committee vote when the year of Jubilee should occur? Did God allow Israel to determine for themselves which day of the week was the seventh? Absolutely not. God does not create a Sabbath rest and then leave it up to man to guess when or where it occurs. This claim treats the sabbatical years and the year of Jubilee as though they were an inferior creation. God Himself declared the seventh-day of the week holy at Creation (Genesis 2:1-3), and He also declared the Sabbatical years holy (Leviticus 25:2). We know about the penalty for showing contempt for the seventh-day Sabbath (Exodus 35:3, Numbers 15:33-36), and we should be aware of the severe penalties for violating God’s sabbatical years. (Leviticus 26:33-36)

Similarly, the Jubilee calendar was established and synchronized just before the Exodus. (Exodus 12:1,2) God initiated the Jubilee calendar 14 days before Passover and the Exodus occurred on the 15th day of the first month in the first year of His calendar. By definition, a week always begins with a first day and it always ends with a Sabbath rest. When God synchronized the weekly cycle with Creation’s week, it was a deliberate act that makes it possible for man to accurately identify the Sabbath rest. In a similar way, when God synchronized the Jubilee calendar at the time of the Exodus, He made it possible for Israel to accurately schedule annual feasts, Sabbath years and the year of Jubilee. God’s seven clocks, the day, month, year, week, the week of months, week of years and seven weeks of seven years have perpetual synchrony that He established. Any other synchrony is asynchronous.


The calendar which God gave to Israel at the Exodus was superior to any calendar contrived by man. The Jubilee calendar was synchronized with the Exodus (for counting off Sabbatical years) as well as with the Sun and Moon (for purposes of planting crops). God planned that Israel should flourish as long as they remained in sync with His calendar. God’s calendar was properly synchronized for maximum daylight, seasons of rain and favorable weather patterns. In fact, the presentation of first fruits at Pentecost mandated the presence of a harvest. So, it can be seen that God’s calendar was designed to be beneficial in many ways.

In the wilderness, the synchrony of the weekly cycle was observed for forty years by the absence of manna on the seventh day. Similarly, the Jubilee calendar was determined by the observation of heavenly bodies. A new day was marked by the setting of the Sun. A new moon marked the beginning of a new month and a new year was marked by the first new moon on or after the Spring Equinox. Before Israel entered Canaan, God had informed them on the synchrony of days, weeks, months, years and years of Jubilee.

Today, we often reckon time inappropriately. For example, a co-worker might say, “I’ll be out of the office for a week, starting Wednesday and returning next Wednesday.” However, the worker will not be gone for “a week.” The co-worker will be gone for seven days. A week is not any seven day time-period. A week is a unit of time that requires synchrony with the seven days of Creation, therefore the seven days Sunday through Sabbath make a week. Any other time-period of seven days is simply seven days. This point will be more clearly seen in the next section.


Previously, three references were provided showing that God confirmed the synchronism of the Jubilee calendar. Please consider each of these in light of how they relate to history and each other.


It was shown previously in this article how the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 confirm the operation and synchrony of the Jubilee calendar. The specifications of Daniel 9 are fulfilled with the decree of Artaxerxes in 457 B.C. and the appearing and deat of Jesus during the 70th week. Even though these issues have been discussed earlier, the point is emphasized that God confirmed the synchrony and operation of the Jubilee calendar by His own actions during the 490 years of Daniel 9.

ISAIAH 37:30

The dating of Isaiah 37:30 also confirms the synchronization of the Jubilee calendar. God spoke to king Hezekiah through the prophet Isaiah saying, “This will be the sign for you, O Hezekiah: “This year you will eat what grows by itself, and the second year what springs from that. But in the third year sow and reap, plant vineyards and eat their fruit.” The language used in Isaiah 37:30 is identical in concept with the language used in Leviticus 25, when God said to Israel shortly after the Exodus, “You may ask, “What will we eat in the seventh year if we do not plant or harvest our crops?” I will send you such a blessing in the sixth year that the land will yield enough for three years. While you plant during the eighth year, you will eat from the old crop and will continue to eat from it until the harvest of the ninth year comes in.” (Leviticus 25:20-23) The point is that Isaiah 37:30 confirms the presence and location of a 49th Sabbatical year and its sequential 50th year of Jubilee. Isaiah 36:1 and Isaiah 37:30 indicate that Hezekiah’s fourteenth year was a 49th Sabbatical year. At that time, Sennacherib was attempting to destroy Jerusalem. Scholars widely agree that Sennacherib came to power around 705 B.C., therefore dating the occurrence of this event is not difficult since we know the synchronism of Jubilee weeks from Daniel 9. This 49th Sabbatical year and the 50th year of Jubilee occurred during Hezekiah’s reign in 703 and 702 B.C. It is amazing how Bible dating precisely synchronizes with the seventy weeks of Daniel 9 and the history of Hezekiah’s reign.

God’s words in Isaiah 37:30 confirm several things. First, they indicate that God was still marking the passage of time in sabbatical years and the year of Jubilee since the Exodus. Second, God confirmed the synchrony of His calendar to Hezekiah that year (in case the king’s court had any doubt). Third, God’s confirmation of the year of Jubilee confirms the synchrony of the Jubilee calendar. Last, this statement to Hezekiah is 246 years before the implementation of the seventy “weeks” prophecy in 457 B.C. Isaiah 37:30 confirms the presences, synchrony and location of the week of years and the year of Jubilee that began with the year of the Exodus.

JEREMIAH 34:8-17

The book of Jeremiah also offers additional evidence indicating that Israel not only knew about the synchronism of the week of years, but the presence of a seventh year is confirmed during the time of Zedekiah. Notice these words, “The word came to Jeremiah from the Lord after King Zedekiah had made a covenant with all the people in Jerusalem to proclaim freedom for the slaves. Everyone was to free his Hebrew slaves, both male and female; no one was to hold a fellow Jew in bondage. So all the officials and people who entered into this covenant agreed that they would free their male and female slaves and no longer hold them in bondage. They agreed, and set them free. But afterward they changed their minds and took back the slaves they had freed and enslaved them again. Then the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah: “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: I made a covenant with your forefathers when I brought them out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery. I said, ‘Every seventh year each of you must free any fellow Hebrew who has sold himself to you. After he has served you six years, you must let him go free.’ Your fathers, however, did not listen to me or pay attention to me. Recently you repented and did what is right in my sight: Each of you proclaimed freedom to his countrymen. You even made a covenant before me in the house that bears my Name. But now you have turned around and profaned my name; each of you has taken back the male and female slaves you had set free to go where they wished. You have forced them to become your slaves again. “Therefore, this is what the Lord says: You have not obeyed me; you have not proclaimed freedom for your fellow countrymen. So I now proclaim ‘freedom’ for you, declares the Lord — ‘freedom’ to fall by the sword, plague and famine. I will make you abhorrent to all the kingdoms of the earth.” (Jeremiah 34:8-17, NIV)

This lengthy reference has been included to demonstrate that God is referring to His calendar and its seventh-year Sabbatical synchronism since the Exodus. This text proves that God continued to hold Israel responsible for the observance of the seventh-year Sabbaticals which required, among other things, the release of slaves. Not only did God know when the seventh year Sabbatical was supposed to take place, but so did King Zedekiah and the people. It is evident that the synchronism of the Jubilee calendar was not lost or arbitrary as some claim. God does not hold people accountable for violating something that they do not know about. Incidentally, because of the synchronism of the 70 weeks and Hezekiah’s year of Jubilee, the only seventh-year Sabbatical to occur during Zedekiah’s reign was 591 B.C.

Scriptural evidence eliminates the assertion purporting that there is no record of an actual observance of a Jubilee or any factual basis from which to compute Jubilee cycles. The choice of an initial date is not purely arbitrary.

CLAIM #2 states: “There is uncertainty on how many years constitute a Jubilee cycle.”

This statement is false. There is no uncertainty in the Bible on this point. The Bible explicitly explains there are 49 years within a Jubilee cycle. (Leviticus 25:8) A cycle consists of seven weeks of years. Thus, there are seven Sabbath years within a Jubilee cycle. The Bible also confirms the fact that the year of Jubilee, the 50th year of celebration, occurs concurrently with the first year (the Sunday year) of the following Jubilee week. In other words, weekly cycles continue without interruption (as we see in 70 consecutive weeks of Daniel 9). There are never more than six years between two seventh year sabbatical years. This simple fact requires the year of Jubilee to occur during the first year of the next Jubilee cycle. When seven Jubilee weeks end with the 49th Sabbath year, the next cycle of 49 years begins with a Sunday year, the first year of a new week. The perpetual repetition of the weekly cycle leaves no uncertainty on the length of a Jubilee cycle.

To ensure that Israel’s reckoning of Jubilee cycles would not get lost, God installed a “miniature Jubilee calendar” within Israel’s annual feast calendar. This miniature is called “the feast of weeks” or Pentecost. Pentecost, the 50th day feast always fell on a Sunday (the first day of the week) after seven, seventh-day Sabbaths had passed. (Leviticus 23:15,16) Just as the 50th day4 of Pentecost occurred on the first day of the following week, so the 50th year of Jubilee occurred during the first year of the next Jubilee cycle. (Incidentally, anniversaries are celebrated today the same way as they were in Biblical times. For example, a married couple celebrates their first anniversary during the second year of marriage. If a couple was married on January 1, 1998, then their first anniversary is celebrated on January 1, 1999, which happens to be the first day of their second year of marriage.)

Therefore, a Jubilee cycle is 49 years in length (and not 50) and it has a total of eight holy years within it: (1) year of Jubilee + (7) sabbaticals. Notice again how the Bible mathematically confirms the repetitive cycle of 49 years. In Ezekiel 4:5-6, Ezekiel was told to lay, first on one side and then on the other, for a total of 430 days – each day representing one year of Israel and Judah’s apostasy. In 430 years, there are exactly 70 Sabbath years! The Babylonian captivity was precisely 70 years in length because within a period of 430 years, Israel and Judah had violated 70 holy years. God had warned them that they would be evicted from the land if they did not keep the Sabbath years! (See 2 Chronicles 36:21; Leviticus 26:33-35)

CLAIM #3 says: “The sabbatical and jubilee cycles were civil institutions designed to regulate certain aspects of the secular life of the nation. They were not integral parts of the sanctuary ritual system (as were the spring and fall festivals).”

The Bible shows that God initiated and instituted Jubilee cycles. (Leviticus 25:8) He who declared the seventh day of the week to be holy (Exodus 16:23), also declared the Day of Atonement to be holy (Leviticus 23:28). This same God also declared each seventh year and the year of Jubilee to be holy. (Leviticus 25:4-11) What God sets apart from the common is neither secular nor civil. The Bible does not diminish the significance of the seventh-year sabbaticals and Jubilee cycles as some do. On the contrary, the observance of seventh-year sabbaticals and the year of Jubilee was as important to God as the observance of any annual feast! This is proven by the serious penalty associated with failing to observe sabbatical years. (Leviticus 26:33-36; 2 Chronicles 36:21)

CLAIM #4 says: “There is no initial date from which to figure Jubilee cycles. Interest in calculating such cycles has led to a focus on what we now know to have been sabbatical year dates: 457 B.C., A.D. 27, and A.D. 34 . . . ”

God Himself established the first day, first month, and first year of the Jubilee calendar and it began operating fourteen days before the Passover in Egypt took place. (Exodus 12:1,2) Therefore, we should not be surprised to find that the synchronism of the week of months, the week of years and the seven weeks of seven years dating from the year of the Exodus. In fact, it is God’s perfect synchronism and relentless accuracy that help us accurately date the decree mentioned in Daniel 9 that led to the restoration of Jerusalem, as well as the death of Christ. According to the synchronism of Jubilee weeks, the 70th week necessarily began with a Sunday year.

CLAIM #5 says: “The Jubilee calendar is a topic having no relevance today.”

This claim is interesting in light of the fact that a very large percentage of Christians believe the 70th week of Daniel 9 is yet future. While most Christians have been led to understand that the 70th week is a period of seven years, most have no clue as to the origin, synchrony or function of the Jubilee calendar. Even worse, Christians who anticipate a future fulfillment of the 70th week have no problem with disconnecting the 70th week from the earlier 69 weeks. Somehow, many Christians have been led to believe that such reckoning is allowed or justified in Scripture. This writer finds the insertion of “a gap of time” between the 69th and 70th weeks to be unwarranted and a violation of God’s great clocks. It is not possible for man to insert time between two units of perpetual synchrony. When Wednesday ends, Thursday begins. No one can insert time between days of the week, nor can anyone insert years of time between the weeks of years cycles established at the Exodus. This type of time manipulation violates everything known about the synchrony of time.


A correct understanding of God’s great clocks is of utmost importance in the process of interpreting Daniel and Revelation’s time-periods. Since the prophetic time-periods in Daniel and Revelation were pre-decreed before they came to be, God evidently had eight clocks in mind from the beginning of time and He set them in motion as needed, by His own authority, to measure off the length and time for the duration of this world. Today, we stand on a mountain precipice. We can see 6,000 years into the past, and like Moses on Mt. Nebo, we can see over the Jordan into the Promised Land. We are that close! Because we are at the end of the age, an understanding of God’s great clocks is essential. Yes, there are many scoffers within the Christian community that dismiss the idea that we can know the end is here. They denigrate any study of God’s time-tables and to support their disbelief, they usually offer two texts: “No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” (Matthew 24:36) and “Then the King will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance, the kingdom prepared for you since the creation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me.” (Matthew 25:34-36)

The first text, they allege, means that we don’t know anything about the exact timing of the return of Jesus Christ. The second text, they say, means that believers should primarily be focused on the suffering of the world, not on a date for the Second Coming. While there is an element of truth in both statements, there is more…

True believers should be preparing the way for the day, as John the Baptist did, for the Messaiah’s first advent. And it is true that they should also be caring and concerned about those who suffer. But, in this world, suffering never ends. The only solution to suffering, sickness, death, sorrow, disease and injustice is the return of Jesus Christ! The whole of creation is groaning for the day. Second, when Jesus told His disciples that “no one knows the day or hour”, that was the case at that time. It will not forever be the case. The date of the Second Coming is not designed to be an event cloaked in mystery forever. On the contrary, there will be a host of rapid-fire prophetic fulfillments that will herald the return of Jesus Christ! The return of Jesus will not be secret. (1 Thessalonians 5:4) There will be definitive prophetic signs of the onset of it. He then won’t only appear in just some isolated locations or region, but rather, all eyes shall see him.

When Jesus was upon Earth, He did not explain the lengthy prophetic time-periods written in the book of Daniel. His disciples may have been overcome by the forest for the trees. Jesus said to His disciples, “I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth…” (John 16:12,13) Later on, the disciples pressed Him again about the time of His return and Jesus said to them, .”..It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority.” (Acts 1:7) Do these statements mean that Jesus’ disciples will never know or understand the times or dates the Father has set? No. The inclusion of prophetic time-periods in Daniel and Revelation were put there for understanding. We can understand the times and dates set by the Father when the time arrives. If the disciples knew in A.D. 30, that 2,000 years were ahead of the church, would they have have lost some focus or fervor in their imperative? But, now that we have reached the end of the age, a comprehensive understanding of the times and dates which the Father has set is not harmful to our faith. Actually, this knowledge will prove to be helpful during the Great Tribulation because an understanding of the duration of certain time-periods will be a source of immeasurable encouragement.

I do not know the day or hour of our Lord’s return, but I am confident that we have entered a narrow whisker of time where the 6000th year will occur. I should also mention that I expect the return of Jesus in the Spring of the year since in God’s synchrony, a year begins in the Spring! Shouldn’t the 1,000 years begin in the Spring? In fact, I’m looking for a day in the near future when the synchrony of the day, month, year, week and millennial clocks converge on one day as God’s great clocks did at the time of the Exodus. Jesus is coming. His appearing will be right on time! When He comes we can joyfully say, “This is the day the Lord has made!” Let us be glad and rejoice in it.” (Psalms 118:24)


Passover Week Chronology The timing of events according to the gospels during Passover A.D. 30.

For a color view of the “Jubilee Calendar,” see:

A.D. 30 chart showing two Passovers

(Chart 35)
. . . . . .A.D. 30 PASSOVER
. . . . . . Using 2 Methods
. . . . . to Start the MONTH
JULIAN – Midnight to Midnight

MARCH. . . . . APRIL
W Th F Sab. … .W Th Fri Sab Su
. 22 23 24 25. . . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9
|__|__|__|__ __|__|__|__|__
. |. . .|. . . |. . . . . . . . . . .|. . . |
. |. . .|. . . |NISAN… . . .|___|
Sunset Evening – Evening Sunset
. |. . .|. . . |. . .. . . . . . . . |Pas|
. |A. .|. . . |B —-C|D EF|G . .|H
. |. . .|. . . |(1) –12 13 14|15 |16
. . .|(1)|2 | 3 —14 15 16|17 |18
__|__|__|__ – – -__|__|__|__|__
W Th F Sab… W|Th Fr Sab Su
. . |New . |1st . . |Pas. . .|__|
. . .Moon. . .Crescent . . . .|__|
A. Spring Equinox and New Moon
. . . occur, Month of Nisan begins
. . . for Jesus and Disciples.

B. First Cresent Seen. Nisan begins
. . . for nation of Isreal.

C. Passover Lamb slain at the correct
. . . time.

D. Jesus eats Passover with Disciples
. . . on 15th day of the Month of Nisan.

E. Full Moon, 10 pm.

F. Jesus crucified.

G. Israel eats Passover on 15th day
. . . . of Nisan using the Babylonian
. . . . method.

H. Jesus resurrected before daylight.

As in heaven, so shall it be on earth.
Matthew 6:10
Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.

The earthly temple was built according to God’s instructions to Moses because it is a parallel of the one in heaven. Therefore, the time of cleansing of the temple when the high priest enters the Holy of Holy’s has its parallel occurance in heaven, by Christ, the high priest in the year 1844 AD. This year is obtained by same method that the year 1994 AD was calculated by the author. But, without allotting 100 years to Adam and Eve in the Garden before the birth of Seth, then minus one Jubilee and the “six days.”
Partially excerpted and edited from
© Wake Up America Seminars, Inc.




“God said, ‘Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate day from night; they shall serve as signs for the set times – the days and the years; and they shall serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth.’ And it was so. God made the two great lights, the greater light to dominate the day and the lesser light to dominate the night, and the stars.” Gen.1:14-16
These two great lights are the sun, and the moon, respectively. The word for ‘set times’ here is moedim (appointed times) which is the very word that Yahweh chooses to use to describe His festivals. One more passage that speaks of these two lights is found in Psalms 104:19: “He made the moon to mark the seasons; the sun knows when to set.”
This passage clearly sets the moon apart as the main marker of the seasons, while the sun is to mark the day. The moon that reflects the light of the Sun confirms throughout the month as it waxes and wanes that the created order is not chaotic. Its visible rebirth each month is very orderly and precise, but not absolutely predictable. Therefore, each month has a degree of expectancy about it.

1 The Scriptual Precedent
2 The Ordination of the New Moon
3 The Ordination of the New Year
4 Sighting the New Moon
5 Determining the New Year
6 Historical Observance of the Feast
7 The Significance of the New Moon
8 Celebrating the New Moon


“God said, ‘Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate day from night; they shall serve as signs for the set times – the days and the years; and they shall serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth.’ And it was so. God made the two great lights, the greater light to dominate the day and the lesser light to dominate the night, and the stars.” Gen.1:14-16
These two great lights are the sun, and the moon, respectively. The word for ‘set times’ here is moedim (appointed times) which is the very word that Yahweh chooses to use to describe His festivals. One more passage that speaks of these two lights is found in Psalms 104:19: “He made the moon to mark the seasons; the sun knows when to set.”
This passage clearly sets the moon apart as the main marker of the seasons, while the sun is to mark the day. The moon that reflects the light of the Sun confirms throughout the month as it waxes and wanes that the created order is not chaotic. Its visible rebirth each month is very orderly and precise, but not absolutely predictable. Therefore, each month has a degree of expectancy about it.
The Ordination of the New Moon[edit]

The months in the Sacred calendar are established as lunar months. Therefore the sighting of the new moon was ordained to establish the beginning of the monthly cycle and therefore the first day of the month. The moon’s full cycle of illumination lasts a little over 29 days. Thus we have our biblical months of either 29 or 30 days.
The New Moon is a precise astronomical event and can occur on different days because of the rotation of the earth. The determination of the New Moon, therefore, must be determined from the time in which it occurs in Jerusalem to ensure the uniformity of religious worship throughout the world, given increased communication.
This is based upon scripture which places Jerusalem as the throne of Yahweh (Jeremiah 3:17), the centre-point of the law which will be given under Messiah (Isaiah 2: 3) through the waters of the Spirit (Zechariah 8:22; 14:8-21). God has placed His name there for ever (2 Chronicles 33: 4) Before the time of modern calendars, the new moon was vitally important as it was the official announcement of when the new month had begun. Because Yahweh gave commandment to observe the feasts and festivals in their given times it was vital to keep accurate count of when the new month began to celebrate the festivals correctly.
“Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying: Speak to the Children of Israel and say to them: Yahweh’s appointed festivals that you are to designate as holy convocations — these are My appointed festivals.” (Leviticus 23:1-2) “These are the appointed festivals of Yahweh, the holy convocations, which you shall designate in their appropriate time.” (Leviticus 23:4).
God is very clear that the festivals are to be celebrated not because they are for man but because they are His appointed times. These festivals are holy not because man makes them so, but because Yahweh Himself declares them holy. Since Yahweh is the One who instituted them, it is a reasonable act of worship and obedience to observe them when He designated.
The Sanhedrin, which was the council of elders in Israel, would confirm the sighting of the new moon based upon reliable witnesses and shofars were blown in accordance with the scripture to announce the beginning of the month. Today, the rabbinical calendar is based on calculations set up by Rabbi Hillel the second in the mid fourth century. Around this time, the Sanhedrin (the high court of ancient Israel) ceased to exist. Hillel felt that the New Moon could not be declared visually without a Sanhedrin to affirm its sighting, so he decided it must be calculated. Rabbis now know that Hillel’s calculations were/are off, sometimes as much as two days, which means the festivals are not celebrated on the correct day. But they have decided to wait until a Sanhedrin is established again to change it.


The annual calendar is set by the alignment of both the monthly lunar cycle and the annual solar cycle. The lunar cycle sets the seasons based on the solar equinoctal cycle. The moon and sun together are governing signs. God’s Sacred Year begins with Abib or Nisan (Exodus 12:1-2).
“And Yahweh spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month [Abib] shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you”. (KJV)
This is determined from the New Moon nearest to the spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, which begins the summer season,(Note all scholars within the Hebrew Roots believe this statement is totally correct. Herb Solinski who has researched this quite indepth says this should be the new moon crescent on or after the vernal equinox , . At this website you will find his sources quoted in 300 plus pages of documentation) at which time the barley crop will be “in the green” ready for harvest at Passover. This month Abib or Nisan was to be the first of months and, hence, its determination would set the start and finish of the year and, hence, the calendar. The autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere begins the winter season. These are the two seasons mentioned by the Bible which are used to determine the beginning of the year to coincide with the festival harvests. (Genesis 8:22; Psalm 74:17) The day of the New Year is to be kept as a solemn feast day. A record of the festival of the New Moon is found in the Temple Scroll (11Q19-20). In column 14 we see that the sacrifices for the first day of the month, that is the New Moon, are listed, as are the special instructions for the New Year of the first day of the First Month. Thus, the Dead Sea Scrolls quite clearly identify the New Moon of the First Month (Nisan) as the New Year and as a day of solemn assembly and sacrifice. These ordinances are followed by the requirements for the seven day purification of the annual ordination of the priesthood. This is what column 14 says of the New Year of Nisan: “On the first day of the [first] mon[th falls the beginning of months; for you it is the beginning of the months] of the year. [You are to do] no work, [You shall offer .. .. ..”

Judaism changed the New Year from Nisan to Tishri, which is the seventh month, based on a man-made system derived from the rabbinical determinations introduced from Babylon in 344 CE and sanctioned by Rabbi Hillel II in 358 CE.. The Dead Sea Scrolls, the LXX and modern scholarship have exposed this change which was made. However, even rabbinical scholars such as Rabbi Kohn, the Chief Rabbi of Budapest writing in 1894, states categorically that the New Year of Rosh haShanah in Tishri is a late third century post Temple period innovation (Sabbatarians in Transylvania, CCG Publishing, 1998, p. v et. seq). The Bible gives instruction that Israel kept, as we are to keep, the Feast of Nisan (New Year’s Day) as a feast day.
Various factors such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity along the light path, altitude, latitude and longitude, fog, cloud/dust cover, glare etc. can all affect a first sighting. No one can infallibly predict the moment when the new moon will become visible to the naked eye. The general consensus of authoritative opinion is that a first sighting of the new moon could occur any time between about 15 and 48 hours after a conjunction. The conjunction being when the earth is between the sun and the moon in perfect alignment. The first sighting of the moon will be after the moon has moved out of this alignment.
In sighting the New Moon, one faces the western sky at sunset, drawing an imaginary line from the zenith overhead toward the setting sun, seeking the thin scimitar of light on either side of this imaginary line. The sun sets in the west slightly right of where the new moon will be seen. As the sky darkens the first star is seen which is actually the planet Venus. Gradually the crescent appears as a sliver just above the horizon. The faint New Moon will bulge out to the right, with the horns pointing toward the left. However, in early spring (autumn in southern hemisphere) the “Passover moon” will appear much like a saucer with both horns pointing upward. Variations of this New Moon may be seen in springtime. Biblical months are either 29 or 30 alternating days in length; at times two consecutive 30-day months may occur. Only on the new moon will the moon be invisible until the sun sets. It is as if Yahweh is concealing it so we will intentionally have to look for His sign in the sky.
Determining the New Year[edit]

The New Year is determined by the New Moon which falls nearest the equinox, which ensures that the Full Moon falls after the equinox, while the sun stands in the sign of Aries. In the Gregorian system the equinox can fall on 21-23 March. The earliest date for the New Year has to be 14 days before 21 March, so that Passover will be at the full moon – i.e. 8 March. This was the earliest date for 1 Nisan. The latest date is determined by 15 Nisan and the sun in Aries. The sun leaves Aries on 19 April. Thus, the day 19/20 April is the last day in which Passover can begin. The 15th Nisan cannot be later than 20/21 April. According to the ancient rules of the Hebrews, 1 Nisan, or the start of the sacred year, was not earlier than 8 March and not later than the Hebrew day on 8/9 April (Gregorian) in the case of a thirty day month falling with an equinox on 23 March. It is impossible, therefore, for there to be a Passover earlier than the vernal equinox (21 March) or one later than 20/21 April.
Philo, the Jewish historian and contemporary of Yeshua the Messiah and the apostles, says that Moses established the moon of the vernal equinox as the first month of the year (The Works of Philo, On the Life of Moses II, chapter XLI, Part 222 and 224) Josephus the Jewish historian also confirms this and defines it as “when the sun was in Aries” (Josephus, Ant. 3.201; III.x.5].
Because harvests are governed by the seasons, which are controlled by the movements of the heavenly bodies, the maturity of the barley crop in Israel will coincide with these calculations and is the necessary factor for establishing the new year so that there is the required grain to be offered at Firstfruits.
Historical Observance of the Feast.

Psalm 81 tells us that Joseph instituted the Rosh Chodesh during his tenure as the viceroy of Egypt. Joseph had the power to declare the decree and the people of Egypt, principally the sons of Israel, were delighted to make the recognition of the new moon as a joyful feast. The testimony was to honor Joseph for what he did as a righteous deliverer, who in many ways prefigured the coming Messiah of Israel and the redemption that He would ultimately bring. All of Yahweh’s feasts are a role play of eternal truths in His eternal purposes and keep His redemptive plan before us. What Joseph set in place as a testimony, has been established as a “statute for Israel, a law of the God of Jacob” (Psalm 81: 3-4)
In numbers 10:10 it is recorded that the trumpet is to be blown to sanctify the new Moon as a feast day. “At the beginnings of your months you shall offer a burnt offering to Yahweh: .. .. this is the burnt offering of each month throughout the months of the year .. .. it shall be offered besides the continual burnt offering and its drink offering. (Numbers 28:11-15 RSV) Moses called the people to assembly on the new moon and spoke to them according to the commandments he had been given by Yahweh, exhorting them to faith and obedience. (Deuteronomy 1: 3) It is also recorded that Yahweh chose this sabbatical day to speak to Moses and give him instructions for Israel. Numbers 1: 1-5
Moses commanded the keeping of the new Moons. 2 Chronicles 8:12-13 Solomon said that it, as well as the other feasts, were “an ordinance forever to Israel” 2 Chronicles 2: 3-4
The kings of Israel kept the feast of the new moon with its stipulated temple procedure. 1 Chron. 23:31; 2 Chron. 31: 3
We find a record that Saul held feasts on the new moon, according to the law. When Saul turned against David and he fled and hid in the country, David gave instructions to explain his absence from the feast, indicating that this was a day when David would be missed, if he did not attend the King’s table on the New Moon. (1 Samuel 20:4-18, 24)
It was usual during the Temple period to seek guidance from the prophets on the New Moons. ( 2 Kings 4:23)
In the restoration of the law under Nehemiah the New Moons were re-instituted and kept from that time through to the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. Josephus records that they were kept during the entire Temple period and the High Priest attended in the Temple on the New Moons and Sabbaths.
The New Testament church also understood them, hence the reference in Colossians chapter 2 when the Gnostics were criticising them for their festivities, contrary to their ascetic practices. “Therefore let no one pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink or with regard to a festival or a new moon or a sabbath”. (Colossians 2:16 RSV)
The Church of God kept it for centuries. We know that at the Reformation the true followers of Messiah were still keeping the entire sacred calendar intact, as it was in the Temple period.
During the Millennium, the Sabbaths and New Moons will be kept. Isaiah tells us the entire world will be honoring the New Moons and the Sabbaths as they worship Yahweh in the coming Kingdom. “From new moon to new moon, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, says Yahweh”. (Isaiah 66:23 RSV) – see Zech. 14:16-19
Also in Ezekiel 45:17 – the aspect of temple service for the new moons in the millennium
46: 1,3 – enforcement of the New Moon as a sabbath (Holiday) and for worship.
As sincere followers of Yahweh’s word, we should be observing them now and preparing ourselves as His Bride, fully adorned in all righteousness.


The word used for New Moon in Hebrew is ‘Rosh Chodesh’ literally means “beginning, head, or renewal” and thus. the beginning or head of the month. It is a time of spiritual renewal.
All through the scriptural record, the New Moon was a day when the prophets heard from Yahweh, being a day designated for waiting upon Yahweh, for discerning His purposes and for prophetic revelation. Isaiah 47:13; Ezekiel 26:1; 29:17; 31:132:1; Haggai 1: 1
They were days of assembly and God dealt with Israel at these times, speaking through His servants, the Prophets.
We are also told in the New Testament these days are prophetic and foreshadow future events. (Colossians 2:16-17) The celebration of the new moon has great prophetic significance for Israel as the Bride of Yahweh and it was/is an appointed time of His choosing to give prophetic revelation to His people of His purposes for them.
The New Moon and the Sabbath were closely linked as both were holy, set-apart days unto Yahweh Himself and the celebration of the new moon is placed in importance in the scriptures alongside keeping the Sabbath. It is not cited in the Torah until Numbers chapter 10 because it is a celebration based upon the testimony of Yahweh’s corporate people being established as His luminary in the world. Yahweh called Israel to be a light to the Gentiles, a holy, set-apart nation which reflected His glorious light (Exodus 19: ; 1 Peter 2: 4-5). At the beginning of each month they were called to come aside from their normal functions for existence in this world, to reflect upon their ordained purpose of reflecting His presence in the world and revitalizing their spiritual lives in Him.
Joseph was given a dream of the sun, moon and stars as it related to their initial household of faith (Gen. 37: 9). This is carried through into its fulfillment in Revelation 12 with the woman (God’s corporate people) arrayed with the glory of the sun (representing the glory of the Father), with her feet standing upon the moon (the reflected light of the sun), and the deputation of the twelve stars of His government assigned to her. This portrays that the woman (Yahweh’s Bride) in the end days will have come into the glory of the Father in her witness and testimony as the light-bearer of the Son (sun) in her earthly commission (standing upon the moon – i.e. established in her testimony as being THE light to this world).
As His Bride keeps this feast of her appointment with Yahweh and comes into alignment with Him, she will reflect His light in ever increasing degrees of magnitude, until she actually shines with the glory of the Son of righteousness. “But we all with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of Yahweh.” 2 Corinthians 3:18


The beginning of the month is determined by the conjunction of the moon and for it’s commencement the shofar is blown in one long blast. Numbers 10:10 states that the trumpets should be blown at all New Moons to sanctify the day and the offerings. The new month is announced and brethren commence to fellowship. After the blessing is said, greetings of peace are given to one another. A traditional greeting of peace is Shalom Alechem! (peace be with you) The response is Alechem Shalom! (upon you peace)
It is a time of fresh dedication of ourselves to Yahweh and of blessing Him and seeking His direction for the new month ahead. We also take this time to ask His blessings on the planned endeavors for the coming month.
These days are sanctified or set apart as days of sacrifice, for worship, for assembly and for us to make our spiritual offerings to Yahweh. (Exodus 13:10; 23:14-17; 34:18-23; Leviticus 23; 2 Chronicles 2:4; Nehemiah 10:33; Ezekiel 44:24; 45:17)
It is now a spiritual act in a spiritual Temple, which makes it more powerful and just as important, as now we see its real significance in preparing us for the kingdom to come.
Traditionally there is singing and dancing in celebration of the occasion, and the partaking of a festive meal together with suggested scripture reading of Deuteronomy 4: 7-9; Psalm 104; and Psalm 81
They were days of festivity, as Psalm 81 portrays — To the chief Musician upon Gittith, (guitar) A Psalm of Asaph. “Sing aloud unto God our strength: make a joyful noise unto the God of Jacob. Take a psalm, and bring hither the timbrel, the pleasant harp with the psaltery. Blow the shofar in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day” Psalm 81:1-3 They were a “joyous occasion” (Numbers 10:10), so much so that Yahweh threatened to take away these festive times, in punishment for their disobedience (Hosea 2:13).
The First New Moon of the Year is a Solemn Feast Day. The New Moon of the Seventh Month is also the Day of Trumpets and hence also a Solemn Feast Day. The New Moon of Trumpets was also a day of restoration of the Law of God. (Nehemiah 8: 2)
A cleansing process began in the physical temple with the commencement of the new year and this points towards the spiritual cleansing of the spiritual Temple. We are that spiritual Temple and the process of cleansing begins with us on the First New Moon of each year as a preparation for the coming Passover season. It then is repeated throughout the year from New Moon to New Moon as we each come before Yahweh and renew our life in Him. (Ezekiel 45:18; Numbers 28:11) This will continue in the Millennium. (Isaiah 66:22-23)
The New Moons of the other months of the year are similar to Sabbath days in which no trade or unnecessary work is done. (Amos 8:5; Nehemiah 10:31) [work which has to be done is allowed on the new moon]

Yahweh keeps His appointments with those who choose to meet with Him at His designated times and He enters His assembly at these times on these holy days of the Sabbaths and the New Moons to fulfill the spiritual reality of these feasts in the lives of His people. (Ezekiel 46: 1-6)

America & Great Britain in Prophecy

Special Commentary – The United States and Great Britain in Prophecy

Excerpts From:

The United States and Great Britain in Prophecy
By John H. Ogwyn

What does the future hold for the world’s English-speaking peoples? What really is on the horizon for the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand? Heads of government do not know. Leading analysts of foreign affairs do not know. Neither do the overwhelming majority of editors and newscasters. But you can know!
Astounding? Absolutely, but it is true!

How can you know? The answers to the really big questions in life, including the very future itself, are contained in the world’s perennial best-seller, the Bible. More than a quarter of the Bible is prophecy, mostly for our day and beyond.

How can you understand these prophecies? Perhaps the most vital key to unlocking the mystery of Bible prophecy is the one you will see revealed right here in the pages.
These are a shadow of what was to come; the substance is the Messiah. Colossians 2:17 …things to come—the blessings of the covenant, the substance of which, were but a type. Compare “ages to come,” that is, the Gospel dispensation (Eph 2:7). Heb 2:5, “the world to come.”

…the body is of Christ—The real substance (of the blessings typified) belongs to Christ (Heb 8:5; 10:1).

Nations such as Egypt and Ethiopia are directly mentioned in your Bible. What about the big nations that are major players on the modern world scene? Could it be possible that end-time prophecies would ignore the United States and Great Britain, and the British-descended peoples of the Commonwealth countries?

The vital key to unlocking many Bible prophecies is the knowledge of the real identity of the English-speaking peoples. These peoples are identified in the Bible by the name of their ancient ancestor. Who is that ancient ancestor, and can you prove it?

Why have the British-descended nations come to possess the richest portions of the globe? Why have they enjoyed wealth and power without parallel? Rising quickly to prominence after the year 1800, Great Britain and the United States have clearly dominated the 19th and 20th centuries. But what about the 21st century? Will the English-speaking nations continue to play a leading role, or is a change ahead? It is vital that what the future holds is understood. The events of the next few years will absolutely confound the experts. But you can know if you understand how to use the lost master key to understanding prophecy.

Though much has been written about Bible prophecy in recent years, most of these works have been fatally flawed, because writers have not known the master key to Bible prophecy!

Simply put, most Old Testament prophecies are directed at the House of Israel. Supposing erroneously that all the references to Israel in prophecy mean the Jewish people and the Jewish state in the Middle East, most Bible commentators have completely missed the point. They do not know the modern-day identity of the descendants of ancient Israel. Yet they could know, for the records of both history and scripture are very clear.

While the Jewish state and the city of Jerusalem do certainly play an important role in end-time prophecies, not all Israelites are Jews. The ancient patriarch Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel, was the father of 12 sons. One of those sons, Judah, was the progenitor of the Jewish people. What happened to the descendants of the other sons?

When the 12 tribes returned to the Promised Land after their Egyptian captivity, each settled in a different region. Eventually, the tribes split into two kingdoms after Solomon’s idolitry and sorcery commmitted in his later life, having to do with his love for his pagan wive who were princesses from neighboring kingdoms. Pharoah’s daughter having been his first wife, who he had built an idolitrous temple for her religious worship, which he had been in full complicity with her and headed for her with his complete involvement because of his love of these ungodly women. Or should it be said rather, women who served other gods and goddesses. Solomon having been previously blessed by God, the word of God warning him about the abomination went unheaded with the result of the word of God having been borne out on his son, Rehaboam who was his successor to the throne upon his death. The great majority of the kingdom was rent from him leaving only a shadow of the kingdom of his father in a greatly diminished capacity of rulership of Judah. 1 Kings…With his gift of wisdom,,,how could he of all people start worshipping other gods?
1 Kings 11
That was a shocking turn of events regarding Solomon’s decline snd demise that became a stunning upset for his son of the ammonite princess ironically named, Rəḥaḇʻām ; meaning “he who enlarges the people.
Solomon’s many wives and concubines turned his heart away from God, and got him to worship their goddesses and foriegn false gods… His having 1,000’s of women he loved led to his compromising his love of God. He had many foreign paganistic wives which translated into many strange dieties and practices that alienated his heart..

The succession of Rehoboam to the throne of Israel was confirmed at the Assembly of Israel at Shechem in c. 930 BC. This site had figured in the history of Israel since the Covenant renewal ceremony instituted by Joshua at the beginning of the Conquest of Canaan [Joshua 24:1]. Shechem, about 35 miles north of Jerusalem, may well have been chosen as the site of the investiture of the king for this very reason.

Who is it, when hearing of this change in government, returned to Israel to make trouble for the son as he had made trouble or the father? 1 Kings 11:26-40.

Answer: Jeroboam, an ambitious prince of the tribe of Ephraim, a descendant of Joseph.

1 Kings 12:12-20: The Northern Kingdom – Israel

Led by Jeroboam, prince of Ephraim, what petition do the 12 tribes take to the new king?

It was the old question of relief from the burden of taxes! Jeroboam probably saw this problem as an excellent opportunity to claim the prophecy of the prophet in 1 Kings 11: 34-39 when he was promised kingship over Israel.

How does Rehoboam respond to the request for tax relief?

He does not consult Yahweh; instead he seeks the advice of the elders of Israel, which he rejects, and the poor advice of his young friends. Instead of relieving the tax burden on the people he decides to increase the burden in an attempt to portray himself as a strong leader. It is interesting that often weak leaders mistakenly believe that unreasonable and inflexible behavior constitutes strength and leadership. King Saul was also guilty of such weakness in leading the community of Israel.

What happens as a result of Rehoboam’s inflexibility and harshness, The United Monarchy of Israel splits into 2 kingdoms: Israel in the North, consisting of 10 of the 12 tribes with Ephriam being the largest and Judah in the South, consisting of only of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, Judah being the largest. Thus, the names of the largest tribes were used euphamistically for the kingdoms. Jerusalem will remain the capital of the Southern Kingdom of Judah with Rehoboam as her king, but the 10 tribes elect Jeroboam, prince of Ephraim as king of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Shechem will become the first capital of the Northern Kingdom but later the capital will be moved to the city of Samaria. The kingdoms were divided at the northern end of the Dead Sea.

This episode marks a division of the nation of Israel that lasted 3,877 years! The united nation Israel ceased to exist and would not be reestablished as a unified people until 1947 when the United Nations voted the creation of a new Jewish nation of Israel and a new Arab-Palestinian nation of Jordan from the lands the British held as a protectorate after the fall of the old Ottoman Empire.

The southern kingdom, called Judah, consisted of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin and most of the Levites. The remaining ten tribes formed the northern kingdom, called Israel.

In 721bc, after a three-year siege, the Assyrians conquered Samaria, Israel’s capital. They began a systematic deportation of the Israelites to the area north of the Euphrates River, in the area between the Black and Caspian Seas (2 Kings 17).

After swallowing Israel, the Assyrians later advanced into Judah, the southern kingdom. King Hezekiah, on the throne in Jerusalem at the time, cried out to God in a heartfelt way, and God intervened by sending an angel to destroy the Assyrian army of King Sennacherib in 701bc. Judah, thus spared, continued on for about a century before her independence was again threatened.

Then, in 604bc, the Babylonians under King Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judah and advanced on Jerusalem. Judah was made a tributary state within the Babylonian Empire. Returning again in 597bc, Nebuchadnezzar took Judah’s King Jehoiakim into captivity and placed Zedekiah upon the throne. Dissatisfied with Zedekiah’s behavior, King Nebuchadnezzar returned approximately ten years later and completely destroyed Jerusalem, burning the temple and taking most of the Jewish population into captivity in Babylon.

Decades passed. Finally, in the fall of 539bc, Babylon fell to the Persian armies of Cyrus the Great. Within a short time, Cyrus issued a decree allowing the Jews to return from Babylon and to rebuild their temple in Jerusalem under the leadership of Zerubbabel.

The “Lost” Ten Tribes
However, and here is the crucial point that most seem to overlook: The northern ten tribes never returned from their captivity! Settled in an area hundreds of miles from where the Jews were taken more than a century later, the ten tribes of Israel remained completely separate and distinct from the Jews.

What happened to the ten tribes of Israel? History has called them the “lost ten tribes.” Where did they go? The answer to that question is one of history’s most fascinating stories. In fact, the answer to that mystery is the actual key that unlocks most of the Old Testament prophecies!

As you may guess, the identity and location of these ancient peoples reveals who those are in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and among the British-descended peoples of South Africa. It explains why these people have achieved such national greatness, and what will culminate near the end of this present age!

The knowledge of the identity of the descendants of ancient Israel is revealed by a close examination of scripture together with the record of secular history. The most highly educated leaders of our modern world are blind to the true facts of this matter. They are blinded by the theory of evolution into completely discounting the Bible as relevant for today. As a result, they fail to see the amazing story laid out in scripture and its relevance for our future.

But it is not just a question of ancient history! Your future, your family’s future, as well as the future of your nations hangs on the answer! Where are the “lost ten tribes” of Israel today? As we shall see, this lost master key to unlocking Bible prophecy has been found!

Ezekiel’s Dramatic Vision –

A young Jewish captive stood on a riverbank near the southern Mesopotamian city of Babylon. He had been among the thousands of Jews removed from their homeland more than four years earlier by the conquering Babylonian armies under King Nebuchadnezzar.

At age 30, in his fifth year of exile, Ezekiel the priest looked up to behold a remarkable sight. At first it looked like a whirlwind approaching from the northern horizon. Looking intently, he saw that this was no ordinary approaching storm. Brilliant flashes of light emanated from the “whirlwind.” Seeing an increasing glow of light as the “storm” approached, Ezekiel began to identify details within this remarkable whirlwind.

First he saw four strange-looking angelic creatures. They had the general shape of men, but each possessed four wings and four faces. As he continued to stare, Ezekiel noticed gyroscope-like wheels next to each of these creatures. Then he noticed a great crystalline expanse stretched over their heads.

As the whole apparatus came ever closer, Ezekiel was able to discern a brilliant glow of light from above the crystalline expanse. Within this light he could make out the shape of a throne and of a glorious Being seated upon that throne. This, we are told, “was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord” (Ezekiel 1:28). At this point, Ezekiel simply fell upon his face.

Suddenly a voice came forth from the throne and told Ezekiel to stand up. The God of Israel proceeded to give him a commission. He was being set as a watchman for the House of Israel (Ezekiel 2:3; 33:7).

This awesome display of glory and majesty deeply impressed Ezekiel with the importance of his task since, for God to reveal Himself in such a dramatic way, there must have been a very important purpose indeed.

Ezekiel’s Commission –

Notice that Ezekiel’s commission set him as a watchman not to his own people (the House of Judah), but to the northern ten tribes of the House of Israel! Judah was then only partially in captivity; the destruction of Jerusalem itself lay several years in the future. But the House of Israel had been transported into a strange land, hundreds of miles from Ezekiel, more than 120 years before. What would be the point of warning those people, already captive, of impending invasion and captivity?

Clearly, Ezekiel’s message was not for the Israel of his day! God was not more than a century late in warning them of future punishment! That would make no sense at all. Besides, Ezekiel never had a chance to deliver his message in person to the House of Israel. We thus can see that his message was for the end time, and was written down and preserved for delivery by God’s faithful servants today!

God commissioned Ezekiel to be a watchman. What exactly is a watchman? In ancient times it was customary to place someone in a high tower atop the city wall to serve as lookout when danger threatened. It was the watchman’s job to be alert and vigilant, ever scanning the horizon for signs of an approaching enemy. When he saw evidence of an enemy’s approach, the watchman was to sound a trumpet of alarm.

In the same way, God impressed upon Ezekiel that if he did not sound the alarm God gave him, and calamities overtook the people unaware, God would require their blood at his hands. If, on the other hand, he sounded the alarms but the people failed to respond, they would bear the responsibility themselves and Ezekiel would be guiltless (Ezekiel 33:9).

The House of Israel in Ezekiel’s day was already in captivity. The generation that suffered the captivity had received a final warning more than a century earlier by the emissaries of faithful King Hezekiah of Judah (2 Chronicles 30:1–12). Only a few responded; the nation as a whole laughed the warnings to scorn, and Israel went completely into captivity. Now, more than a century later, Ezekiel was given a similar message of vital importance.

The events that would occur in Jerusalem and Judah were to be a “sign” to the House of Israel (Ezekiel 4:3). Ezekiel’s warnings were for end-time Israel. In fact, we are told that the warnings are to be heard near the time of the day of the Lord (Ezekiel 7:19; 13:5; 30:1–3), the time of God’s intervention at the end of this age. Other prophecies in Ezekiel point to the regathering after the coming of the Messiah who will be a king forever on the throne of David. David having been a shadow type of Christ. (Ezekiel 37:21–25). These are a shadow of what was to come; the substance is the Messiah. Colossians 2:17
Clearly Christ is on the Throne in heaven as King of Kings who comes in on a white horse and defeats the Dragon. This will take place after the resurrection of the saints and the Millenium wedding party that is like a Honeymoon period. A time prophesied to occur at Jesus Christ’s return to this earth in power and glory (1 Corinthians 15:50–53; 1 Thessalonians 4:16).

Ezekiel’s dramatic vision has great meaning for us today. It impresses us with the seriousness and importance of the commission God had for him. Recognizing this, it is vital to understand clearly the whereabouts in today’s world of the descendants of the ancient House of Israel. Once we understand their identity, we must share with them the contents of Ezekiel’s urgent message.

Ezekiel’s message is a message of indictment for sin, a call to repentance, and a promise of future deliverance and restoration. While on the one hand it is a message of dire warning of God’s impending judgment, it is on the other hand a message of glorious hope for the future. In fact, it contains the only real hope there is for our nations. The English-speaking nations have lost their moral compass and have seemingly lost their way in the world. Beset with serious problems and challenges at home and abroad, these peoples lack both the wisdom and the will to respond.

Having fallen from the pinnacle of world power at the close of World War II, the American and British peoples have seen increasing challenges in the post-war world. But worse than the challenges on the world scene, has been the moral slide from within. In the midst of material prosperity are the trappings beset with moral poverty! There are challenges that lie ahead in the immediate future of which the leaders and people do not even dream.

How can you know for sure that the Bible prophecies relating to Israel relate primarily to the American and British peoples? What do those prophecies really portend for your future?

Ancient Promises Are Made
In Genesis 11:26–32 we are introduced to Abram, whose name was later changed to Abraham. The rest of the Bible is an outgrowth of God’s dealings with him and the promises He made to Abraham and to his descendants. The promises to Abraham are the basis of nearly all future Bible prophecies!

Abram was born into a family that lived in Ur of the Chaldees, a city in southern Mesopotamia near ancient Babylon. After the death of one of his brothers, Abram, his father, and other family members moved a few hundred miles to the northern Euphrates city of Haran. A while after that, Abram’s father, Terah, died and was buried. In the aftermath, God told Abram, then age 75, to leave the remainder of his family and to go to a land that He would show him. He promised to make him a great nation because he had responded to God looking on all the earth for a man who would accept him by relating to him as an intimate friend and submitting his will to God’s leading through believing in him. The Gentiles are spliced into the covenant when they accept and believe the fulfillment of Jesus Christ as their personal atonement for the consequences of sin and develop the loving friendship with Christ as Abraham was a shadow and/or pattern of the things to come.

The promise first given in Genesis 12 is quite vague. It simply consists of an undefined land that Abram and his family would afterward be given for an inheritance. Throughout the remainder of Genesis we read a remarkable story of the unfolding of the promises made by God.

The Unfolding Promise to Abraham-

In Genesis 12:1–3 we have record of the first promises that God made to Abram. God told him that He would make of him “a great nation,” that he would be blessed and that through him all nations would be blessed, and that God would “bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who curses you” (v. 3).

After Abram and his wife, along with his nephew Lot, came into the land of Canaan, an incident occurred which led God to further clarify the promises. Abram and Lot both had large herds and flocks and strife had arisen between their herdsmen over grazing rights. Abram settled the issue by offering Lot his choice of grazing land. Lot chose to cross the Jordan River and to graze his herds in the plain of Jordan, near the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.

In the aftermath of the separation between the two, God reiterated to Abram the promises. “And the Lord said to Abram, after Lot had separated from him: ‘Lift your eyes now and look from the place where you are northward, southward, eastward, and westward; for all the land which you see I give to you and your descendants forever. And I will make your descendants as the dust of the earth; so that if a man could number the dust of the earth, then your descendants also could be numbered” (13:14–16). In Genesis 15 this promise is further amplified. Abram was told that his descendants would be like the number of the stars (v. 5). He was also given the boundaries of his inheritance in the Middle East. In verses 18–21 Abram was told that the land God was giving to his descendants would stretch from the river of Egypt all the way to the Euphrates and include the territory of several peoples who were currently occupying the land.

Father of Many Nations
Abram and his wife Sarai were both advancing in years and had not been able to have children. Yet God had told him that he would have descendants who would inherit a land. For 24 years after they left Haran, Abram and Sarai waited and pondered these promises. Finally, when he was 99 years old, God appeared to Abram once again.

In Genesis 17:6, God promised: “I will make you exceedingly fruitful; and I will make nations of you, and kings shall come from you.” At this point Abram also learned that he would become the father of many nations (v. 4). God told him that He was changing his name to Abraham, meaning the “father of a multitude,” and Sarai’s name to Sarah, meaning “princess.” Within a year, he was told, Sarah would bear him a son (Genesis 17:19; cf. 18:14). Such a thing seemed too incredible for words, but nevertheless it happened just as God said that it would and Isaac was born at the appointed time.

Actually, Abraham had had a son 14 years before Isaac’s birth, but this son Ishmael was not the son of promise. After ten years of waiting on God’s promises, Sarah had encouraged Abraham to take her maid servant Hagar and have a child by her following in the local custom and tradition of the region at the time. He did this and thereby engendered problems and conflicts that have endured to this day.

After Isaac’s birth, Abraham sent Hagar and Ishmael away (Genesis 21:14). Ultimately Ishmael married among his mother’s people, the Egyptians, and had numerous children. Many Arab nations take their origin from Ishmael’s sons.

Years later, God came to Abraham once again, this time to put him to the supreme test of his faith. God, who by this time had been personally dealing with Abraham for decades, told him to take his son Isaac and bring him to the mountains of Moriah to offer him as a sacrifice to God. Responding in faith, Abraham did as God asked and was at the point of offering up his heir and only legitimate son when God interceded and told him to stop, and instead offer a ram caught in a nearby thicket, as a substitute for Isaac.

In the aftermath, God reconfirmed the promises to Abraham as having become unconditional. “Then the Angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time out of heaven, and said: ‘By Myself I have sworn, says the Lord, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son, in blessing I will bless you, and in multiplying I will multiply your descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies. In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice” (22:15–18).

There are a couple of key things to notice here. No longer are the promises contingent upon future actions of Abraham and his descendants. Because Abraham has now passed this supreme test of obedience, God has guaranteed the unconditional future fulfillment of His promises.

Additionally, one other detail is now given. Abraham’s descendants would ultimately possess the “gates of their enemies.” A gate is a narrow passage, a means of entrance and exit. This promise means that not only would Abraham’s descendants become many nations, but they would control the means by which their enemies must pass to come and go. The significance of this remarkable promise will be more closely examined later in this discussion..

Promises Both Spiritually and Physically Fulfilled –

“But aren’t all of the promises to Abraham fulfilled in Christ?” some might ask. That is a question that must be answered directly from the Bible.

Clearly, according to Galatians 3:26–29, all true Christians are accounted as spiritual children of Abraham and heirs of the promise. The ultimate fulfillment of God’s blessings upon Abraham include the promise that he and his spiritual offspring would inherit the whole earth (Romans 4:13; cf. Matthew 5:5). Abraham was promised an everlasting inheritance (Genesis 17:8), which certainly presupposes the possession of eternal life!

Obviously there was a spiritual aspect to the promises that God made to Abraham! God’s grace was to be extended to all mankind through the one Seed, Christ (cf. Galatians 3:16). The Messiah, descended from Abraham, would be the One through whom the blessing of salvation from sin and the gift of eternal life would become available to all mankind through God’s grace.

However, there was also a physical aspect to the promises to Abraham. The birthright involved promises of national greatness as well as agricultural and mineral wealth. In Genesis 13:16 Abraham was told by God that He would make his seed number like the dust of the ground. Here, clearly, the reference is to Abraham’s numerous physical descendants who would inherit national greatness and possess the gates of their enemies.

The promises to Abraham include both spiritual and physical components. They point toward Jesus the Messiah, but they also point toward the birthright blessings that would be bestowed upon a multitude of his descendants who would become a great nation and a great company of nations. This does not mean that the recipients of these blessings are any better or more special than those who did not receive the blessings. In fact, we see that those who received the physical blessings have, for the most part, squandered them and turned from God, for which they will have to face His judgment.

Israel’s Beginning –

Many years after the promises were first made, God reconfirmed them to Abraham’s son Isaac. “Sojourn in this land, and I will be with you and bless you; for to you and your descendants I give all these lands, and I will perform the oath which I swore to Abraham your father. And I will make your descendants multiply as the stars of heaven; I will give to your descendants all these lands; and in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; because Abraham obeyed My voice and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:3–5). The promise to Isaac was based upon Abraham’s obedience to God (cf. v. 24).

Isaac and his wife, Rebecca, had two sons. Jacob and Esau were their names and, in spite of being twins, they were totally different in temperament and character from the very beginning. God had revealed prior to their birth that the older, Esau, was to serve the younger, Jacob (25:23). Yet Jacob, who was a natural wheeler-dealer, was unable to wait for God to give him the birthright blessings. He contrived to trick his father so as to secure this for himself on the timetable he and his mother conceived. God allowed this because it was His purpose for Jacob to receive the promises. Jacob then had to learn some difficult lessons through experience to bring him to repentance.

However, let us notice the birthright blessings that Isaac conferred to Jacob. “Therefore may God give you of the dew of heaven, of the fatness of the earth, and plenty of grain and wine. Let peoples serve you, and nations bow down to you. Be master over your brethren, and let your mother’s sons bow down to you. Cursed be everyone who curses you, and blessed be those who bless you!” (27:28–29). Here two details are mentioned for the first time. The first is that Jacob’s descendants would possess great agricultural wealth. The second is that they would obtain rulership over other peoples and nationalities.

After Jacob’s deception of his brother, Isaac and Rebecca told him to travel to the area where his mother’s family lived. There he could find a wife and spend some time until his brother’s anger cooled off. Isaac’s parting words were: “May God Almighty bless you, and make you fruitful and multiply you, that you may be an assembly [“multitude,” KJV] of peoples; and give you the blessing of Abraham, to you and your descendants with you, that you may inherit the land in which you are a stranger which God gave to Abraham” (28:3–4).

A short time later, God came to Jacob in a dream and further amplified the promises. In his dream he saw a vast staircase reaching up to heaven and angels ascending and descending. “And behold, the Lord stood above it and said: ‘I am the Lord God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie I will give to you and your descendants. Also your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread abroad to the west and east, to the north and the south; and in you and in your seed all of the families of the earth shall be blessed” (28:13–14).

Here, for the first time, we learn that the inheritance God promised to Abraham encompassed more than just the land in the Middle East. Jacob’s descendants were to spread abroad from that inheritance and affect the entire world. Their inheritance would bring them into contact with peoples all over the earth.

The story continues in Genesis and we see the lessons that Jacob learned during the time of his exile from Canaan. Finally, as he returned to his homeland, God met him at a location afterward named Peniel. After Jacob had wrestled all night with the Divine Messenger, God told him: “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel; for you have struggled with God and with men, and have prevailed” (32:28). Jacob-Israel was the father of 12 sons, who were the ancestors of the 12 tribes of Israel.

The promises to Abraham were being passed down from father to son and had gradually been expanded. There is much more yet to come! Abraham had been told that he would produce “many nations” who would achieve national greatness and also that he would give rise to a kingly line. This promise was now divided among two of Jacob’s 12 sons. Notice the clear delineation given in 1 Chronicles 5:1–2: “Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel he was indeed the firstborn, but because he defiled his father’s bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel, so that the genealogy is not listed according to the birthright; yet Judah prevailed over his brothers, and from him came a ruler, although the birthright was Joseph’s.”

Judah was clearly given the scepter promise of a line of kings culminating in the Messiah who would be king of kings forever. But take note! The birthright promises of national greatness went not to the Jews, but to the descendants of Joseph. Understanding this is the master key that begins to open up everything else!

Ephraim and Manasseh Receive the Birthright
Let us look further at how the birthright promises were amplified for the descendants of Joseph. An important part of this story occurred a short time before the death of Jacob-Israel. By this time he and his entire family were living in Egypt where Joseph was serving as Administrator directly with Pharaoh. Joseph came to visit his elderly and infirm father and brought with him his two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. A little-understood ceremony occurred during this visit.

In Genesis 48:5, Israel informed Joseph that he was adopting Ephraim and Manasseh that they would be counted as his firstborne and therefore be counted among the tribes of Israel. Thus Joseph was given a double portion. After Joseph brought his sons close, Israel embraced them, proceeded to lay hands on them and set them apart for special blessing.

At this time a remarkable event occurred. Joseph had purposely arranged the boys so that the older, Manasseh, was standing on Israel’s right side and the younger, Ephraim, was standing on his left side. This was so that he would place his right hand, signifying the greater blessing, on Manasseh and the left on Ephraim. Israel, however, crossed his hands and put the right hand on Ephraim and the left on Manasseh. When Joseph saw this he tried to correct what he perceived as a mistake on the part of his nearly-blind father. Israel resisted, however, and explained that this crossing of his hands was purposeful.

(Genesis 48 – Jacob Blesses Joseph’s Sons

A. Jacob calls for his sons.

1. (1-4) Jacob’s remembers God’s promise.

Now it came to pass after these things that Joseph was told, “Indeed your father is sick”; and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. And Jacob was told, “Look, your son Joseph is coming to you”; and Israel strengthened himself and sat up on the bed. Then Jacob said to Joseph: “God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will make of you a multitude of people, and give this land to your descendants after you as an everlasting possession.’ “

a. God Almighty appeared to me at Luz: Luz is another name for Bethel, where Jacob first met God. Jacob vividly remembered this outstanding encounter with the Lord.

b. Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you: Jacob’s phrasing is reminiscent of exact promises God made to Abraham in Genesis 17 (see Genesis 17:2, 17:6, and 17:8). Abraham was careful to pass down the exact words of God’s covenant with him to the inheritors of the covenant, because the exact words of God were important.

2. (5-6) Jacob adopts Joseph’s sons as his own.

“And now your two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. Your offspring whom you beget after them shall be yours; they will be called by the name of their brothers in their inheritance.”

a. As Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine: Reuben and Simeon were the first and second born of Israel. Jacob received the two sons of Joseph as adopted into the family at the highest level (as if they were the first and second born).

i. And, perhaps, they were something like replacements for Reuben and Simeon, who were in a sense disqualified from positions of status and leadership in Israel’s family because of their sin (Genesis 34:25, 35:22).

b. They shall be mine: Jacob’s adoption of Manasseh and Ephraim explains why there are 12 tribes often listed in different combinations. Because of this adoption, there were actually 13 sons of Israel. The 12 were born, but Joseph was divided into two tribes.

i. Therefore as the tribes are listed through the Old Testament, they can be arranged different ways and still remain 12 tribes. There are more than 20 different ways of listing the tribes in the Old Testament.

ii. As a number, 12 is often associated with government or administration in God’s eyes. There are 12 tribes, 12 apostles, 12 princes of Ishmael, 12 pillars on Moses’ altar, 12 stones on the high priest’s breastplate, 12 cakes of showbread, 12 silver platters, silver bowls, and gold pans for the service of the tabernacle, 12 spies to search out the land, 12 memorial stones, 12 governors under Solomon, 12 stones in Elijah’s altar, 12 in each group of musicians and singers for Israel’s worship, 12 hours in a day, 12 months in a year, 12 Ephesian men filled with the Holy Spirit, 12,000 from 12 tribes sealed and preserved through the tribulation, heaven has 12 gates of 12 pearls, and 12 angels at the gates, the New Jerusalem has 12 foundations, each with the names of the 12 apostles of the Lamb, it’s length, breadth, and height are all 12,000 furlongs, and the tree of life in heaven has 12 fruits. So it is that in Revelatation 7:5), when twelve thousand people are sealed from each tribe, The number 12 is of special note.

3. (7) Jacob concludes his testimony with an eye to his soon death.

“But as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died beside me in the land of Canaan on the way, when there was but a little distance to go to Ephrath; and I buried her there on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).”

B. Jacob blesses Manasseh and Ephraim.

1. (8-12) Jacob calls for Joseph’s sons, to bless them.

Then Israel saw Joseph’s sons, and said, “Who are these?” And Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place.” And he said, “Please bring them to me, and I will bless them.” Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. Then Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them. And Israel said to Joseph, “I had not thought to see your face; but in fact, God has also shown me your offspring!” So Joseph brought them from beside his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the earth.

a. These are my sons, whom God has given me in this place: We remember that the names of Joseph’s sons were Manasseh (the firstborn) and Ephraim (the younger). The name Manasseh means forgetfulness, and the name Ephraim means fruitfulness (Genesis 41:51-52).

b. He bowed down with his face to the earth: Joseph lived his own life as the highest official next to Pharoah of Egypt for many years, and had no contact with his father during that time. Yet it did not diminish the love and reverence he had towards his father and the Gid of his father.

2. (13-14) Jacob puts the favored hand on the second-born, despite Joseph’s efforts.

And Joseph took them both, Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh with his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near him. Then Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands knowingly, for Manasseh was the firstborn.

a. Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel’s left hand: The right hand in the Bible always has the idea of the favored position because generally speaking, the right hand is the hand of strength and skill.

i. The right hand is associated with God’s strength (Exodus 15:6), favor (Psalm 16:11), and help (Psalm 20:6). This is why Jesus is described as sitting at the right hand of God the Father (Mark 14:62).

b. Guiding his hands knowingly: Israel knew exactly what he intended to do. He deliberately chose the second-born to receive a greater blessing than the firstborn.

3. (15-16) The blessing of Jacob upon Manasseh and Ephraim.

And he blessed Joseph, and said: “God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has fed me all my life long to this day, the Angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; let my name be named upon them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.”

a. And he blessed Joseph: Israel gave the same blessing to both sons, but the son of the right hand received a greater proportion of the blessing.

i. This was fulfilled in Israel’s history. Both tribes were blessed, but Ephraim was greater as a tribe, even to the point where the name Ephraim was used to refer to the whole northern nation of Israel (see examples in Isaiah 7:8, 7:17, and 11:13).

b. The God who has fed me all my life long to this day: Jacob’s testimony was a testimony of grace, not personal merit. He did not say how faithful he was to God, but how faithful God was to him.

i. The phrase, “the God who has fed me” is literally “The God who has shepherded me.” This is the first mention in the Bible of God as a shepherd to His people.

4. (17-20) Jacob answers Joseph’s objection about the order of blessing.

Now when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him; so he took hold of his father’s hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. And Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head.” But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become a multitude of nations.” So he blessed them that day, saying, “By you Israel will bless, saying, ‘May God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh!’ “ And thus he set Ephraim before Manasseh.

a. This one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head: As the two sons of Joseph stood before Israel, the older (Manasseh) was before Israel’s right hand and the younger (Ephraim) was before Israel’s left hand. Joseph positioned them intentionally so the older could receive the right hand blessing according to custom. Yet Isaac deliberately crossed his hands and put his right hand on Ephraim’s head and his left hand on Manasseh’s head.

b. For this one is the firstborn…truly his younger brother shall be greater than he: Ephraim was not the firstborn but God chose him to take the position of firstborn. Jeremiah 31:9 described this: For I am a Father to Israel, and Ephraim is My firstborn (Jeremiah 31:9).

i. This shows how the idea of firstborn in the Bible is often a position of pre-eminence, not necessarily meaning “first out of the womb.”

ii. David had the position of firstborn, even though he was the youngest son (1 Samuel 16:11 and Psalm 89:27).

iii. Jesus has the pre-eminent position of firstborn (Colossians 1:15), though this does not mean Jesus was literally the first “born” creature of God, because Jesus was not created.

5. (21-22) Jacob makes a personal bequest to Joseph.

Then Israel said to Joseph, “Behold, I am dying, but God will be with you and bring you back to the land of your fathers. Moreover I have given to you one portion above your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Amorite with my sword and my bow.”

a. Behold, I am dying: This was truly a passing of the torch from Israel to Joseph. Israel was the last of the three great patriarchs to pass from the scene.

i. “If Abraham dies, there is Isaac; and if Isaac dies, there is Jacob; and if Jacob dies, there is Joseph; and if Joseph dies, Ephraim and Manasseh survive. The Lord shall never lack a champion to bear his standard high among the sons of men. Only let us pray God to raise up more faithful ministers day and night. We have plenty of a sort, but, oh, for more that will weigh out sixteen ounces to the pound of gospel in such a way that people will receive it. We have too much of fine language, too much of florid eloquence, and little full and plain gospel preaching, but God will keep up the apostolic succession, never fear of that. When Stephen is dying, Paul is not far off. When Elijah is taken up, he leaves his mantle behind him.” (Spurgeon)

b. One portion above your brothers: This referred to Joseph being father of two tribes, while each of his brothers only fathered one.

c. Which I took from the hand of the Amorite: Apparently, while still in Canaan, Jacob battled for control of a portion of land from the Amorites, and he deeded the land to Joseph and his descendants. The descendants of Joseph would take this land some 400 years later.

d. God will be with you and bring you back to the land of your fathers: This completed a wonderful work regarding Jacob’s recognition of God’s presence his life.

· I am with you (Genesis 28:15): God gives the young believer every possible assurance of His presence and grace

· I will be with you (Genesis 31:3): God expects the growing believer to trust He will be with us, even when we only have the promise of His presence

· God…has been with me (Genesis 31:5): God gives a glorious testimony to the mature believer, able to say how God has been with us.

· God will be with you (Genesis 48:21).

C. Joseph as a picture or shadow type of Jesus (list continued from the end of Genesis 41).

35. His brethren were driven out of their own land.
36. In his second appearing, he did not first go to his brothers; they came to him.
37. He knew his brethren even while unknown and unrecognized by them.
38. He blessed his brethren without their knowledge.
39. He wanted all of his brethren to come to him.
40. There was a significant time gap between his initial relationship with his brothers and his second relationship to his brothers.
41. He his brothers a way of deliverance through substitution.
42. His “second coming” to his brothers had two appearances. He made himself known to his brethren at his second appearing to them.
43. He was revealed as a man of compassion.
44. His brothers repented of rejecting him, with great wonder and tears.
45. He allowed no fellowship (as in eating together) until his brothers repented and he revealed himself.
46. His brethren went forth to proclaim his glory.
47. He made provision for his brethren.
48. He prepared a place for his brethren, and he received them into it.
49. He brought Jew and Gentile together in the land.

50. He was brought to sojourn in Egypt to live for a portion of his youth.

©2013 David Guzik)



The twelve tribes of Israel are the descendants of Jacob’s twelve sons: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph, and Benjamin. Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel (Genesis 32:28; 49:2), called for his son Joseph and told him he was dying, but God would be with him and bring him back to the land of his fathers (Genesis 48:21). So before Jacob’s death he blessed his twelve sons (Genesis 49:1-28).

Although there were twelve sons, thirteen different tribes are referenced to in Scripture because Joseph’s two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, were adopted and blessed by Jacob in (Genesis 48:5). So instead of speaking about a tribe of Joseph,” the Bible more often speaks of the tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim. There are, however occasions when the tribe of Joseph is referenced, such as (Ezekiel 47:13, and ( Revelation 7:8).

Tribal heritage was important in ancient Israel. Examples in the New Testament would include Jesus, whose genealogy is given in Matthew 1, and the apostle Paul, who mentions that he is of the tribe of Benjamin. Even today in modern Israel, there are many Jews who take pride in identifying their family lineage and which tribe they belong to.


Reuben was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah (Genesis 29:32; 46:8) and forefather of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Reuben usually receives the the place of honor in lists of the tribes, being named first (Numbers 13: 4). Similarly, in lists of the two in a half tribes residing east of the Jordan, Reuben is always mentioned first (Joshua 1: 12), though Gad seems to have held a larger portion of land.

Because of Reuben sin his father prophesied that his preeminence among his brothers would disappear (Genesis 49: 4). In spite of the prayer of (Deuteronomy 33: 6), this disaster did overtake the tribe in later years. In desert days, Reuben’s tribal chief appears with all the others (Numbers 1: 5), and a spy goes forth from Reuben as with the other tribes (Genesis13: 4). Only the spies of Ephraim (Joshua) and Judah (Caleb) are faithful (Numbers 14: 6), but Reuben appears no worse than his brothers tribes: All were equal in unbelief.

Although living east of the Jordan, and separated from their brothers by what was sometimes an insuperable natural obstacle, they had no desire to form an independent state. They showed this by building a great memorial altar at the spot where they crossed the Jordan on their way home (Joshua 22:10). Reuben was rich in herds of cattle (Numbers 32: 1) and was presumably a powerful tribe. Reuben does not appear again until the time of Deborah the prophetess. When the clans of Israel rallied to God’s call under Barak to fight Sisera the Canaanite, Reuben did not respond. Reuben has not changed; the tribe, like its ancestor, was still ”unstable as water” (Genesis 49: 4). Indeed, although Reuben finds his place in the list of the redeemed in Revelation (Revelation 7: 5).


Simeon was the second of Jacob’s twelve sons (Genesis 35:23; 1st Chronicles 2:10) and the second son born to him by Leah (Genesis 29:33). Because of Simeon’s evil deed at Shechem, Jacob foretold that Simeon’s descendants would be dispersed among the other tribes of Israel (Genesis 49:7).

In the book of (Joshue19:1;9) Simeon’s inheritance was included in Judah’s territory; (Judges 1:3), points to a close bond between the tribes of Simeon and Judah. They march and fight together as brothers to establish themselves in Canaan. Simeonitesh were linked to the Kingdom of Judah throug out the period of the monarchy, and its tribal destiny was tied to that of the southern division of the divided monarchy (1st Chronicles 4:24-42). Simeon’s tribe settled in the southern extremes of Canaan called ”Negev in Hebrew” (1st Chronicles 4:28-33). Simeon’s territory is also called ”Negev of Judah,” a phrase that serves to differentiate them from other racial groups occupying parts of southern Canaan (1st Samuel 27:10; 2ed Samuel 24:7).

The genealogies of the Simeonites reveal a certain amount of intermarriage with other Israelite tribes as well as with non-Israelites. Shaul, Simeon’s son was the son of a Canaanite woman (Genesis 46:10; Exoudus 6:15). Two of Simeon’s sons bear names of Ishmeal’s sons (Genesis 25:13-14; 1st Chronicles 1:29-30). In The New Testament, Simeon’s tribe appears seventh in the list of the tribes who are sealed by God, ( Revelation 7:7).


Levi tribe taking its name from the third son of Jacob and Leah, ( Genesis 29:34). The meaning of the name (”attached”) is a pun on Leah’s position as an unloved wife: now that she has borne three sons to Jacob, surely he will be ”attached ” to her. The tribe of Levi is described as ”attached” to Aaron (Numbers 18: 1-2).

Levi’s name is associated with the tragedy at Shechem, where the male inhabitants of the city were ruthlessly murdered when Levi and Simeon sought to avenge the violation of their sister Dinah by Shechem the Hivite, (Genesis 34: 25-29). This brings Jacob’s rebuke (34: 30), and on his death bed he fore tolded that the descendants of Levi and Simeon will be scattered through out Israel (Genesis 49: 5-7).

True, Moses and Aaron were of Levi (Exodus 2: 1), but no stress is laid on this. Levi’s later position was God’s reward for it costly faithfulness when Israel rebelled against God 9Genesis 32: 25-29); this inaugurated the ”Covenant with Levi” (Numbers 18: 19). Henceforth the tribe of Levi would be accepted by God instead of Israel’s firstborn sons, who belonged to Him by the law of ”firstfruits” (3: 11-13).

Levi, as a tribe, could therefore own no tribal territory: God Himself was their inheritance (Numbers 18: 20). Since Levi could not amass wealth, the tribe was to be supported by gifts and tithes (Numbers 18: 21); like the widow, orphan, and stranger, they were commended to the care of God’s people (Deuteronomy 14: 29). Since they were God’s tribe, Joab was unwilling to include Levi in David’s census (1st Chronicles 21: 6; Numbers 1: 49).

Naturally, Levi did not serve in war except in a religious capacity (2ed Chronicles 20:21). Their service pertained to the matting tent (Numbers 1: 50-53) and later the temple ( 1st Chronicles 23:25-32). Within the Bible makes a clear distinction among: 1. The High Priest, ( 1st Samuel 1: 9), who came from the branch of Aaron’s family; 2. The rest of the Priests, also of particular families; and 3. a mass of subordinate Levities,who has lesser tasks. In early days they packed and moved the portable tent of meeting (Numbers 1:50-51).

Barnabas, in the New Testament days, belong to the tribe of Levi (Acts 4:36). Indeed, among Jews, wherever the surname Levy is found, a member of the tribe lives on.


The fourth of Jacob’s twelve sons (Genesis 35:23; 1st Chronicles 2:1) and the forth son born to Jacob by Leah, who, overjoyed with the thought of bearing Jacob another son, named him Judah, meaning ”praise” (Genesis 29:35). Judah fathered five sons: Er, Onan, and Shelah by Bathshua the Canaanites (38:3-5; 1st Chronicles 2:3); and the twins Perez and Zerah by Tamar, his daughter-in-law (Genesis 38:29-30; 1st Chronicles 2:4).

He eventually settled his family in Egypt with his father and brothers (Exodus 1:2), although his first two sons, Er and Onan, were divinely killed in Canaan for their disobedience (Genesis 46:12). Judah became the founder of one of Israel’s tribes (Numbers 1:26-27). At the time of Jacob’s, Judah was granted the birthright privileges of the firstborn; the leadership of Jacob’s family would come through Judah’s seed, as would the promised Messiah of Abraham’s covenant (49:8-12). Later, Judah’s family was praised at the time of Ruth’s engagement to Boaz (Ruth 4:12). The line of Davidic King (1st Chronicles 2:1-15; 3:1-24) traces its descent through Judah.

For two hundred years, until the fall of the northern kingdoms in 722 BC, there were two little kingdom side by side: a larger one in the north andeast, called Israel (the ”ten tribes” of 1st Kings 11:35), and a smaller one in the south, called Judah. With this, the history of Judah as a tribe virtually comes to a end, for this little kingdom was really a ”Greater Judah.” It contained not only the old tribe of Judah but also the newly conquered territory of Jerusalem, some of the old Philistine country, the tribes of Benjamin and Simeon, as well as many Levites (2ed Chronicles 11:14) and other Israelites from the north who remained loyal to the southern kingdom after the two were split.

Jews were of the tribe of Judah; the very name ”Jew” comes from that name. But the chief ”Glory” of the tribe of Judah, now and forever, was that the family of David sprang from it. When Jesus Christ was born, He came from the line of David which is the line of the tribe of ”Judah.” So it is that in Revelatation 7:5), when twelve thousand people are sealed from each tribe, Judah is named first in the list, as it was in Numbers, (Numbers 2:3) as long before.


Dan was the fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, maid of Jacob’s wife Rachel (Genesis 30:1-6). Dan’s name was given to him not by Bilhah but by Rachel, who considered the child her own. the name Dan (”he judged”) meant that God had judged her and had validated her through the child’s birth (Genesis 30:6). The tribe of Dan, descended from Dan’s only Known son, Hushim (”Shuham” in Numbers 26:42-43), had little distinction in its early years.

Some Danites are mentioned in the Old Testament: Oholiab, a craftsman of the tabernacle (Exodus 31:6; 35:34; 38:23); another whose mother married an Egyptian and who blasphemed God (Leviticus24:11), and Ahiezer, chief prince of Dan during the Exodus (Numbers 1:12). Dan was the second largest tribe at the first census taken in the wilderness 62,700 warriors (Numbers 1:38-39). They were instructed to camp on the north side of the Israelites’ camp along with Asher and Naphtati (Numbers 2:25-31).

At the second census 40 years later just before entering the Promised Land, they had grown to 64,400 still second in size (Numbers 26:42-43). Dan is listed among the tribes who remanded Israel of the covenant curses at Mount Ebal (Joshua 8:30-33). The tribe is called a ”Lion’s Whelp” in Moses’ blessing (Deuteronomy 33:22). The Danites were among the tribes who did not drive the Canaanites from their territory recover their land as God commanded them (Joshua 13:4-5). Eventually, the Danites gave up the effort and sought other land in the north, where conquest was easier. Their disobedience went further when they set up not only one idol but also a rival priesthood to this idol (Judges 18:30-31).

The Danites’ lack of obedience continued throughout their history (2ed Kings 10:29) and because of it they were eventually carried into captivity with the other tribes to Assyria (17:1-23).The tribe of Dan is mentioned in the by the prophet Ezekiel’s idealized description of the restored land and Jerusalem (Ezekiel 48:1-2; 32). In the New Testament, Dan’s tribe is omitted from the list of Israel’s tribes (Revelation 7:4-8).


Zebulun was one of Jacob’s twelve sons (Genesis 35:23; 1st Chronicles 2:1). He was the sixth and last son born to Jacob by Leah. Leah named him Zebulun, meaning ”abode, dwelling,” for she said, Now my husband will dwell with me, because I have borne him six sons” (Genesis 30:20). Zebulun tribe was divided into three clans named after his three sons: the Seredites, the Elonites, and the Jahleelites (Genesis 46:14).

In the blessing of Moses (Deuteronomy 33:18-19), Zebulun, along with Issachar, ”shall draw out [literally, such] the abundance of the sea. In addition, Zebulun’s ”lot,” with it fruitful fields and valleys, ensured olive groves, vineyards, and splendid hatvests. In 1st Chronicles 12:40) the tribe was able to provide rich supplies for David. Throughout the centuries the tribe maintained its identity. The tribe of Zebulun held a strong position among its tribal neighbord around Galilee.

Other references point to the strength and importance of Zebulun’s tribes. During the United Kingdom period, Zebulun’s fighting force was the largest of the western tribes armies that fought under King David (1Chronicles 12:33). In the New Testament there are two references to Zebulun. The first: Zebulun as a region into which Jesus, the great light, made an appearance (Matthew 4:13-15). The second mantion of Zebulun appears in the list of the twelve tribes in: Revelation 7:8 after Issachar.


Gad was one of the twelve sons of Jacob. Gad was considered the son of Jacob and his wife Leah. He was actually the first of the two sons born to Jacob by Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant (Genesis 35:26). Delighted with giving Jacob another son , Leah named him Gad, meaning ‘Good Fortune” (Genesis 30:11). Gad became the father of seven sons (Genesis 46:16) and the founder of the tribe of Gad (Numbers 2:14; Deuteronomy 3:12,16), one of the twelve tribes of Israel.

The Gadites were the largest of the twelve tribesthat came out of Egypt with Moses (Numbers 1:1-3,24-25). While the Israelites wandered in the wilderness, the Gadites were led by Eliasaph’s son, Deuel (Numbers 1:14; 2:14). When the nation made camp, Gad was located south of the tabernacle behind the tribes of Reuben and Simeon (2:14-15). After the end of the conflict, Gad, and Reuben, and the half-tribe of Manasseh settled their land east of the Jordan(Numbers 12:6; 13:8). Gad’s inheritance was between Manasseh’s tribes to the north and Reuben’s to the south.

Some Gadites joined David at Ziklag during his exile (1st Chronicle 12:14,37). In the fourteenth year of David’s reign, the two and a half tribes were formally brought together under an overseer named Jerijah, and his brothers, (1st Chronicles 26:30-32). After the Hebrews returned from their exile, Gad is mentioned only once-in Ezekiel’s vision of the restoration of Israel (Ezekiel 48:1, 27-28, 34). In the New Testament, Gad is mentioned only in the book of Revelation, in the list of the tribes sealed by God (Revelation 7:5).


Issachar was Jacob;s ninth son, and fifth by his wife Leah (Genesis 30:17-18). Jacob, in his final message to his twelve sons says: ”Issachar is a strong donkey, lying down between the sheepfolds” (Genesis 49:14); [a donkey who refuses to move his burden, a lazy man who is unwilling to do his share of the work]. Issachar had four sons (Genesis 46:13) who headed clans in the tribe (1st Chronicles 7:1-5).

The descendants of Issachar numbered 54,400 at the first census (Numbers 26:25), and to 87,000 during David’s reigh (1st Chronicles 7:5). Issachar was the main tribe involved in the fighting against Canaanite enemies led by Deborah, the female judge of Israel, herself a member of the tribe (Judges 5:15). During the time of David,there were men of Issachar who had an understanding of what Israel ought to do in warfare (1st Chronicles 12:32).

Issachar was assigned the fourth lot of land after the ark of the covenant was taken to Shiloh (Joshua 19:17). This included the cities of Jezreel, Shunem, and En-gannim, and it lay between the mountains of Gilboa and Tabor. Their allotment was bordered on the south and west by the tribe of Manasseh, on the north by Zebulun and Naphtali, and by the east by the Jordan River.

All three areas- Issachar, Naphtali, and Zebulun- met at Mount Tabor. On the south side there were some major towns not conquered in Joshua’s time (Judges 1:27) that were takenfrom Issachar and given to Manasseh (Joshua 17:11). These town included important centers such as Beth-shan, Abloom, and Tanaach.


Asher was the name of Jacob’s sons. He was born to Leah’s maid Zilpah (Genesis 30:12-13). The name Asher, probably meaning ” happy,” Leah was in delight at the birth of the child. Asher had four sons, Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah, and a daughter, Serah (Genesis 46:17; 1st Chronicles 7:30). Asher and his brothers received a special blessing and prediction from Jacob as he was dying (Genesis 49:20). In Deuteronomy 33:24-25, the dying Moses blessed Asher and the other tribes.

Asher an Israelite tribe that inhabited the fertile coastal territory of the Promised Land, Asher’s land stretched north of Mount Carmel to a point slightly above the city of Sidon. The eastern boundary ran along the western slopes of the hills of Galilee (Joshua 19:24-34). The tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali were Asher’s eastern neighbors. The Carmel mountain range was a natural barriers between Asher and the tribe of Manasseh to the south.

As a tribe, Asher fluctuated in size. From the few who entered Egypt with their father, Jacob, the tribe grew to 41,500 adult warriors at Mount Sinai (Numbers 1:40-41). At the second census in the wilderness the tribe numbered 53,400 soldiers (26:47). At the time of King David the number varied from 26,000 to 40,000 warriors (1st Chronicles 7:40; 12:36). Asher was never more than fifth in size among the tribes of Israel. The tribe joined the rest of Israel in rejecting Caleb and Joshua’s optimistic report about the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:30; 14:10). As a result, they wandered in the wilderness forth years (14:22-25).

Joshua later gave the remaining seven tribes their own territory (Joshua 18:2). The fifth part went to Asher’s descendants. Ahihud had been chosen by God to distribute land within the territory given to Asher’s tribe (34:16,27). Like all the Israelite tribes, Asher was never able to possess all of its inheritance. It failed to drive out the inhabitants of Acco, Sidon, Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik, and Rehob; Asher was then degraded and corrupted by pagan culture (Judges 1:31). In the New Testament, one of Asher’s descendants is mentioned, an eighty-four-year-old woman named Anna, a prophetess. She described Jesus as ”the Redemption of Jerusalem” when He, as a baby, was dedicated to the Lord in the Temple (Luke 2:36-38).


Naphtali was one of Jacob’s sons (Genesis 35:25). He was the second of two sons borne to Jacob by Bilhah, Rachel’s maid. Over joyed with giving Jacob another son, Rachel named the boy Haphtali, meaning ”My Wrestling,” I have wrestled with my sister, and have prevailed. (Genesis 30:8). Naphtali fathered four sons (Numbers 26:50) and founded one of the twelve tribes of Israel (Numbers 1:43).

Acting as the leader of the tribe, Ahira helped conduct the census of Naphtali as Israel prepared for war where as later census, taken near the end of their desert sojourning, records 45,400 men capable of battle (Numbers 26:48-50). When Moses sent the twelve spies to search out the land of Canaan, Nahbi represented Naphtali tribe (13:14). Naphtali tribe during the wilderness wanderings include the position of encampment around the tabernacle in the desert (Numbers 2:29).

The tribal inheritance of Naphtali was located on the east side of upper Galilee, bordered on the south by Zebulun and on the west by Asher (Joshua 19:32-39). The most significant of these was the war with Jabin, King of Hazor. Barak, from Kedesh in Naphtali, joined Deborah the prophetess, and together they led the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali against the Canaanites (Judges 4-5). Along with the tribes of Asher, Zebulun, and Manasseh, the tribe of Naphtali was also called by Gideon into battle against the Midainites (Judges 6:35).

The other major foreign power to exert its influence in the region of Naphtali was Assyria, particularly during the reign of Tiglath-pleaser lll. During the rule of Pekah in Israel and Rezon in Syria, this Assyrian monarch came and captured Gilead, Galilee, and Naphtali in 732 B.C. (2ed Kings 15:29). Though the Lord had made Naphtali’s land contemptible, He would make it glorious once again (Isaiah 9:1). Matthew sees the fulfillment of this prophecy in the person of Christ, who brought the message of God’s Kingdom to the Jews living in the region of Naphtali’s tribe (Matthew 4:13-15).


Joseph was Jacob’s eleventh son and the first born son of Rachel. Rachel named him Joseph, which meant, ”The Lord will add.” This showed Rachel’s desire that God would give her another son after Joseph (Genesis 30:24). The Bible does not not tell us anything more about Joseph until, at the age of seventeen, we read about him tending his father’s flocks with his brothers (Genesis 37:2). Joseph was the favorite of his father, Jacob, since he was the son of Jacob’s old age (Genesis 37:3) and the first born son of his favorite wife.

Because of this favoritism, Joseph’s brother hated him. They envy towards Joseph only got worse when Jacob gave Joseph a ground-length, long-sleeved, multicolored robe (Genesis 37:3-4). Joseph revealed to them he was having dreams where his brothers would one day bow down before him (Genesis 37:5-11).Jacob sent Joseph to check on his brothers and the flocks near Shechem, his brothers tricked him and sold him to a caravan of traders going down to Egypt (Genesis 37:25-28).

In Egypt, Joseph was sold to an Egyptian officer of the guard named Potiphar (Genesis 37:36), who eventually put Joseph in charge of his entire household. Soon, however, trouble arose because of Potiphar’s wife, who was attracted to Joseph and tried to seduce him (Genesis 39:6-10). One day, however, Potipphar’s wife grabbed Joseph’s coat and asked him to sleep with her. Joseph was put in the king’s prison (Genesis 39:20), where Pharaoh’s butler and baker were also confined.

While in prison, Joseph, with God’s help, interpreted these men’s troublesome dreams. As Joseph had predicted, the baker was executed and the butler was restored to royal favor (Genesis 40:21-22). Two years later Pharaoh had dreams that his magicians and wise men could not interpret. God revealed to Joseph that the dreams foretold seven years of abundance in Egypt, followed by seven years of great famine (Genesis 41:25-36).

Pharaoh, impressed with Joseph’s interpretation, made him ruler of Egypt, second to only himself (Genesis 41:39-44). Joseph was given a new name, Zaphenath-paneah, and a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera (Genesis 41:45).Joseph was thirty years old when he became ruler of Egypt. During the seven years of prosperity, he was in change of gathering the extra food and supplies for the seven years of famine to come (Genesis 41: 53-56).

Back in Palestine, the famine became severe because they had not stored goods away. Jacob sent all his sons, except Benjamin, his youngest son (Genesis 42:7-9).When the famine got worse in Palestine, Jacob asked his sons to go back to Egypt to buy more grain (Genesis 43:1-2). Joseph finally disclosed his identity and declared that God had commanded him to preserve their lives (Genesis 45:4-8).When he learned his father was ill, Joseph took his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, to him for his blessing.

Joseph arranged his sons around Jacob so that the older brother ,Manasseh, would receive the blessing of the first born. Jacob, however, crossed his hands and with his right hand on Ephraim gave him the greater blessing (Genesis 48:14-20). He also gave some land to Joseph that Jacob had won from the Amorites in battle.

When Joseph was 110 years old, he called his brothers and told them he was about to die. He made them take an oath that when they returned to Canaan they would take his bones with them. Joseph died, was embalmed, and was placed in a coffin in Egypt (Genesis 50:26). Many years later, during the Exodus, Moses took the bones of Joseph with him from Egypt (Exodus 13:19). Joseph’s remains were eventually buried at Shechemina piece of land that Jacob had bought when he was alive (Genesis 33:18-20).


Benjamin was the youngest of Jacob’s twelve sons. He was a full brother to Joseph. Jacob named him Benjamin (”son of my right hand”) His dying mother Rachel had called him Ben-oni (”son of my sorrow,”Genesis 35:18). Benjamin was used in the reunion in Egypt of Jacob and his twelve sons (Genesis 42-45). When prophesying concerning each of his sons, Jacob spoke of Benjamin’ s skill as a warrior. He also prophesied of the military fame of his descendants by saying, ”Benjamin is a wolf that prowls. He devours his enemies in the morning, and in the evening he divides the plunder (Genesis 49:27).

The tribe of Benjamin was one of the smallest of the twelve tribes of Israel, made up of descendants of Jacob’s youngest son (Numbers 1:36). Palti was one of the scouts making a bad report when the twelve spies returned from the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:1-2,9,31-33). The tribe as a whole displayed disobedience and a lack of consistent courage by failing to clear their land of Canaanites (Judges 1:21).

Following the custom of the day, the whole tribe defended a few of their tribesmen who had sexually mistreated and murdered a concubine from another tribe (Judges 19-20). That act of gross immorality united the remaining tribes of Israel against them, and the tribe of Benjamin was almost completely destroyed. To keep the tribe from dying out, the other tribes allowed the Benjaminites to take captive several hundred women who then became their wives (Judges 21).Benjamin’s tribe proved to be dependable in various ways.

During the exodus from Egypt, it took its place in the organization (Numbers 1:11) and the army (2:22) and made its tribal offerings (7:60). It demonstrates remarkable loyalty to the throne, initially to Saul and his family (2ed Samuel 2:8-31). Later David received its faithful support, as did his descendants, for Benjamin remained with Judah, loyal to Solomon’s son Rehobam when Jeroboam led a secession (1st Kings 12:21-24). Other men of Benjamin often called ”Benjaminites” spoken in the Old Testament Cush, of whom David sang (Psalm 7:1 superscription); Jeremiah the prophet, who though a Levite, lived within Benjamin’s tribe (Jeremiah 1; 32:8); and Mordecai, uncle and adviser to Hadassa, Queen Esther, (Esther 2:5).

In the New Testament the apostle Paul made no apologies for his ancestry, twice referring to himself as a Hebrew of Benjamin’s tribe (Romans 11:1; Philippians3:5). In his sermon of Israel’s history (Acts 13:21). In one other New Testament reference Benjamin is named with the other twelve tribes in John’s apocalyptic vision (Revelation 7:8).


Ephraim ‘s tribe descended from the patriarch Joseph’s second son. Both Ephraim and his brother Manasseh were regarded as sons also by their grandfather Jacob and became his heirs. Many Bible commentators think that in naming his son Ephraim (Genesis 41:52), Joseph was making a play on words based on a Hebrew root meaning ”to be fruitful.”

Ephraim’s tribe was one of the most fertile areas in Palestine, and at present is still planted with vines and fruit trees, such as olive, pomegranate,and carob. Prior to Israelitesettlement, the area was wooded (Joshua 17:18). During the monarchy, wild animals still roamed there(2ed Kings 2:24).

One half of Manasseh’s allotment formed Ephraim’s northern boundary (Joshua 16:5-6). Ephraim became a great tribe, and its members often held prominent position. The first census taken in the wilderness lists the total of Ephraimite soldiers as 40,500 (Numbers 1:33). After the wilderness wanderings, the number of warriors dropped to 32,500 (26:27).

Ephraim was the leader of the western camp, supported by the tribes of Manasseh and Benjamin (Numbers 2:18-24). Joshua the son of Nun, one of the tewlve spies, was descended from Ephraim (Numbers 13:8,”Hoshea”). Under Joshua’s leadership, Ephraim and the other tribes conquered Canaan and received their promised inheritance (Joshua 16).

The prophets proclaimed that Ephraim and the other northern tribes would one day be reunited with the southern Kingdom of Judah in the Messianic Kingdom (Hosea 1:11), and would rule over Judah, Ephraim, and all the tribes of Israel, in Ezekiel 37 :11 the bible says: Then He said to me ”Son of man, these bones are the ”whole house of Israel.” Isreal is Jacob and his ”whole” house do not main one tribe but it main the whole house. ”the twelve tribes of Israel” (Ezekiel 37: 1-14).


Firstborn son of Joseph and his Egyptain wife, Asenath (Genesis 41:50-51). Manasseh, along with Ephraim his brother, visited their grandfather Jacob on his deathbed. Jacob announced that Manasseh and Ephraim were to be considered his own, not Joseph’s sons (Genesis 48:5-6).

Manasseh, the firstborn, would have descendants not quite as great as those of Ephraim (Genesis 48:13-20). This explains why Ephraim and Manasseh [ in that order] provided their names for two of the twelve tribes of Israel but Joseph did not, at least in most listings (Revelation 7:6. Manasseh also founded the Manassite family (Deuteronomy 4:43; 2ed Kings 10:33).

At the age of twelve he became co-ruler with his father. In 686 BC, his father died and he became sole monarch at only 23. His 55-year reign (2edKings 21:1) is dated from the beginning of his co- regency, so he ruled 11 years as co- regent and44years as sole king-longer than any other king in Judah or in Israel.

He was the most wicked of all the Judean kings, even resorting to a series of murders, presumably to stay in power (21:16;24:4). In addition to murder, among his sins listed in (21:2-9) are rebuilding the high place for pagan worship; encouraging Baal, sun, moon, and the star worship; and burning his son as a child sacrifice (2ed Kings 21:6;23:10; Jeremiah 7:31).

When Manassah died in 642 BC, at the age of sixty-seven, he was buried in his own garden (2edKings 21:18). As son Amon reverted to his father’s wicked practices, but reigned only two years [642-640BC] before being assassinated. It was his Godly grandson Josiah [640-609BC] who led the people back to the true worship of Yahweh (2ed Kings 23:4-14). But even his reforms could not avert the judgment promised on account of Manasseh’s sins (2ed Kings 23:26-27).

Israel told Joseph that his older son Manasseh was to become a great people, but that Ephraim was to become a multitude or company of nations (v. 19). Here we find that a great nation and also a great company of nations were to spring from the descendants of Joseph. They were the ones who receive the birthright blessings of national greatness. This included possession of strategic check points through which their enemies would have to pass, vast agricultural and mineral wealth, and status as world powers that would exercise dominance over other nations. Since God had promised that they would be a blessing to other nations, we know that their dominance as world powers would be exercised in a benign way overall.

Is there historical record of these promises being fulfilled? Before we examine that, look at a few more details that unfold in the book of Genesis. A short time after adopting Ephraim and Manasseh and conveying the birthright blessings upon them, Israel called all of his sons to his bedside. He was at the end of his long life and wanted to give his last admonition and blessing to his family.

Notice what he told them. “And Jacob called his sons and said, ‘Gather together, that I may tell you what shall befall you in the last days” (49:1). Israel’s prophecy that followed was not for his day or for the time when his descendants would come out of Egypt and enter into the Promised Land. It was for the end-times! Clearly at the end-time the descendants of Israel were still to exist as separate, identifiable tribes.

Notice his words for Joseph. “Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a well; his branches run over the wall” (v. 22). This is a poetic allusion to a people who would multiply and spread out all over and beyond the confines of that border. After all, Joseph’s sons were ultimately to give rise to a great nation and a great company of nations. Israel therefore foresaw them as a great colonizing people. He also conveyed the blessings of heaven above and of the deep that lies beneath. This implies great mineral wealth (blessings of the deep) as well as blessings of weather that would provide great agricultural wealth (blessings of heaven above).

But were these fabulous promises ever fulfilled for the descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh? The very authenticity of your Bible as the word of God stands or falls on that point!

After they left Egypt, the tribes of Israel lived for centuries in the Middle Eastern territory that God had promised. There is no record of Ephraim and Manasseh ever becoming a great nation and company of nations prior to Israel’s captivity. They never became a blessing to all the nations of the world before they went into Assyrian captivity in the eighth century before Christ. Clearly, the fulfillment of the promises that God made to Abraham and reconfirmed to his descendants did not occur before ten-tribed Israel disappeared from the pages of your Bible and then from the pages of secular history.

How these promises were yet fulfilled, as we shall see, is “the rest of the story!”

Israel’s Captivity and Lost Identity
Before the children of Israel ever entered the Promised Land, Moses was inspired by God to warn them of the future. The promises of God were sure, but the timing of their fulfillment was up to God and depended upon Israel’s conduct. A Bilateral contract, so to speak.

In Leviticus 26:1–2 God, through Moses, warned the Israelites: “You shall not make idols for yourselves… You shall keep My Sabbaths and reverence My sanctuary: I am the Lord.” He went on to tell them: “If you walk in My statutes and keep My commandments, and perform them, then I will give you rain in its season, the land shall yield its produce, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit” (vv. 3–4). In the following verses God detailed blessings of agricultural bounty and peace that would come upon the nation if it was faithful. In verse 12 He concluded His promised blessings by stating: “I will walk among you and be your God, and you shall be My people.”

Just as there were blessings for obedience, however, there were serious curses as consequences for disobedience. If Israel went into idolatry and forgot God’s Sabbaths, then God would punish the nation for its actions. In verses 16 and 17 He detailed the punishments of diseases and of enemy incursions into their territory which would result. What would happen, if, after repeated punishment, Israel persisted in rebellion against God and His laws? Verse 18 tells us: “And after all this, if you do not obey Me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins.” The Hebrew word here rendered “seven times” can refer either to length of time or to intensity of punishment.

Seven Times Punishment
In Daniel 4 we read of a dream that King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had. In the dream he was told that he would be punished for his pride by losing both his kingdom and his sanity. In this dream he was told that “seven times” would pass before his restoration. In the historical fulfillment of this dream, it is apparent that the seven times were a period of seven literal years.

What were the seven times of Israel’s punishment promised in Leviticus 26:18? If this indicated a duration of time, how long was it to last? Understanding the significance of Israel’s seven times punishment opens up history to far deeper meaning than you have probably ever understood before.

First, let us answer the question concerning the length of the “seven times.” How many days would “seven times” be? In Revelation 11 and 12 we find keys to understanding this.

Revelation 11:2–3 equates two periods of time: 42 months and 1,260 days. This is simple to understand, as there are exactly 1,260 days in 42 months of 30 days. In Revelation 12:6 we find another mention of 1,260 days, but this time that figure is paralleled in verse 14 by the term, “time, times, and half a time.” We have already seen that 1,260 days is equated with 42 months, which is exactly three-and-a-half years. Clearly then, the Bible equates “time, times and half a time” with a three-and-a half-year period of 1,260 days.

“Seven times” is double the length of “time, times, and half a time” (or three-and-a-half years). Therefore, seven times would represent a duration of 2,520 days (twice the length of the 1,260 days). How long a period of punishment upon Israel would these 2,520 days represent in Bible prophecy? To understand this, look at another incident of punishment on Israel. Numbers 13 and 14 give the account of Moses sending 12 spies, one from each tribe, to investigate the Promised Land. Ten of the spies brought back an evil report that discouraged the people and caused them to refuse to enter the land. God was greatly displeased with the people’s lack of faith. Notice the consequences that followed: “According to the number of the days in which you spied out the land, forty days, for each day you shall bear your guilt one year, namely forty years, and you shall know My rejection [‘breach of promise’ KJV]” (Numbers 14:34).

Israel’s disobedience led to a 40-year delay in entering the Promised Land and inheriting the promises God had made to their ancestors. The 40 years of punishment were figured on the principle of a day for a year. A similar point is made in Ezekiel 4 about punishment on Judah and on Israel. In this account, the prophet Ezekiel was told to lie upon his left side each day for 390 days to symbolize the duration of God’s punishment upon Israel. Then, he was told to turn and to lie upon his right side each day for 40 days in order to show the punishment of Judah. Next, Ezekiel was told: “I have laid on you a day for each year” (v. 6). In other words, once again a day equaled a year in the fulfillment of certain Bible prophecies.

With each day representing a year in the fulfillment of Israel’s punishment, seven times would represent 2,520 years. What is the full significance of this period of time? We will shortly see the amazing answer. But first, let us examine why Israel went into captivity at all.

Why the Ten Tribes Went into Captivity
In Leviticus 26, God made it plain that if Israel began to worship idols and to break His Sabbath, He would work through punishments to get their attention. Fulfillment of this prophecy is seen throughout the book of Judges as Israel lapsed into sin and God allowed terrorist raids by surrounding nations to disrupt Israel’s peace and its economy. Sometimes these nations actually brought Israel under direct rule for years. This cycle continued for more than three centuries before the monarchy was established.

After the death of King Solomon the kingdom of Israel split into two totally separate nations. The northern ten tribes chose Jeroboam the son of Nebat as their king, while Judah remained loyal to Rehoboam, Solomon’s son by his beloved Queen Naamah the ammonitess princess. In Solomon’s old age, his many foriegn wives led him into idolitory as he loved them so which resulted in the curse falling upon his son and successor after his decline into sorcery and idolitory in his old age leading to his death. Rehaboam whose name meant “He who enlarges his people,” in short order dimished the kingdom to a small fraction of its size, people, wealth, prestige and glory with the split of the kingdom after Gods warnings to Solomon went unheeded, because God had already blessed Solomon unilaterally. 1 Kings 14:21 and 2 Chronicles 12:13.

Shortly after the division of the kingdom, Jeroboam made a decision that affected the ten tribes of Israel for the remainder of their history.

We read this crucial story in 1 Kings 12. Jeroboam began to fear that the ten tribes would, in the future, long for reunion with Judah. He decided that going up to worship God at Jerusalem during the festival seasons each year would lead to nostalgia for “the good old days.” He feared a future yearning for the time when they had been one nation under David’s dynasty in Jerusalem. This, he believed, would lead eventually to displacing himself or his descendants.

As he pondered this problem, Jeroboam came up with what he considered the solution. He called the people together and announced some changes. To make things more convenient, he told them that henceforth they would have two worship sites in northern Israel from which to choose. This way they would no longer have to go all the way to Jerusalem. He established his new sites of worship at the city of Dan in the north and at Bethel in the south. At each location a golden calf would be the object of worship. Additionally, the Levitical priesthood would be replaced by men loyal to Jeroboam and his new religion. We are told that, in fact, Jeroboam made “priests of the lowest of the people” (v. 31). As if all of this were not enough, he also introduced a change in the timing of God’s annual festivals. The Feast of Tabernacles, which came in the seventh month of God’s sacred calendar, was postponed until the eighth month.

Answer: This is more than a political schism, it is also a schism in Church of the Covenant people.

According to the Law of Moses all Jewish men were required to travel to the Temple three times each year for the Pilgrim Feasts of Unleavened Bread, Feast of Weeks and Feast of Tabernacles [see Deuteronomy 16:16]. But Jeroboam could not consolidate power in the North if his people remained loyal to the Temple in the Southern Kingdom. Jeroboam set up his own worship centers and told his people they must no longer travel to Jerusalem. 1 Samuel 12:28
Jeroboam reintroduced the worship of the Egyptian Apis Bull, infamous the “golden calf” of the Mt. Sinai experience. Calves were used as idols to symbolize fertility and strength. Both the Egyptians and the Canaanites worshiped a bull god. Jeroboam shrewdly placed the golden calves at Bethel and Dan, strategic locations. Bethel was only 10 miles north of Jerusalem on the main road and Dan was the northernmost city in the Northern Kingdom.
He drove out the members of the ministerial priesthood [Priests and Levites] who were loyal to the Temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem and established his own priesthood. Yahweh had forbidden anyone to be a priest who was not from the tribe of Levi [see Numbers 3:10]. Yahweh’s priests were free of political control because they were assured of lifetime support from the priestly tithe. Jeroboam’s new priests were financed by the king and his national fees which made them susceptible to corrupted by bribes.
Jeroboam is warned against this fall into apostasy by Yahweh prophet in 1 Kings 13:1-6, but Jeroboam continues in his apostasy and establishes a false shrine at Bethel and inaugurates the shrine during the Pilgrim Feast of Tabernacles [the same feast when the Temple in Jerusalem had been dedicated]. Yahweh’s prophet prophesies the rule of good king Josiah of the House of David who will bring judgment on Israel’s false priesthood and then withers the kings arm as a “sign”. However, “Jeroboam did not give up his wicked ways after this incident, but went on appointing priests for the high places from the common people. He consecrated as priests of the high places any who wished to be. Such conduct made the House of Jeroboam a sinful House, and caused its ruin and extinction from the face of the earth.” 1 Kings 13:33, 34

Jeroboam’s substitute religion removed Israel from God’s holy covenant by creating another cult, worshiping according to “their own understanding” and influenced by the popular trends of the day. Over time little remained of the true faith as articulated in the Covenant at Sinai.

Throughout the remaining 200 years of northern Israel’s existence as an independent nation, many dynasties came and went. Regardless of who was king, however, we are told over and over that “he departed not from the sin of Jeroboam the son of Nebat who taught Israel to sin” (cf. 1 Kings 15:34; 16:19; 2 Kings 3:3; 10:29; 13:2; 6, 11; 14:24; 15:18; 24, 28; 17:22). The ten tribes totally disregarded God’s admonitions to their ancestors through Moses. They worshiped idols, violated God’s Sabbaths and, in general, simply disregarded God’s laws.

The consequences were inevitable. God had warned centuries earlier, through Moses, that a “seven times” punishment would come upon them if they persisted in disobedience. Finally, in the mid-eighth century, armies of the mighty Assyrian Empire invaded Israel.

Israel’s King Menahem bought a respite by giving Assyrian King Pul a large sum of money to withdraw. A few years later, however, during the reign of one of Menahem’s successors, Pekah, the Assyrians returned under Tiglathpileser. This time the Assyrians subjugated much of the eastern and northern part of the kingdom. Several tribes, including much of Reuben, Gad and Naphtali, were taken into captivity and transported to Assyria. During the reign of Pekah’s successor, Hoshea, things worsened. The Assyrians returned under their new king Shalmaneser and exacted tribute from the remnant of Israel. Then they returned a few years later and laid siege to Samaria. After a three-year siege, Samaria fell. The Assyrians then began to deport the population of ten-tribed Israel en masse.

Israel’s Last Chance
This deportation took years to accomplish. Before it progressed very far, a righteous king came to the throne in Judah, the southern kingdom. This king, Hezekiah, assumed complete authority in 714bc, upon the death of his father Ahaz. He had been joint ruler with his father for several years, but did not have independent authority until his father’s death. He, in sharp contrast to his father, was a man who sought with his whole heart to follow God. He initiated a revival in Judah at the very start of his sole reign. He opened the temple in Jerusalem, and called upon the people to repent and rededicate themselves to the worship of the true God.

Hezekiah told the people: “For our fathers have trespassed and done evil in the eyes of the Lord our God; they have forsaken Him, have turned their faces away from the habitation of the Lord, and turned their backs on Him… Therefore the wrath of the Lord fell upon Judah and Jerusalem, and He has given them up to trouble, to astonishment, and to jeering, as you see with your eyes. For indeed, because of this our fathers have fallen by the sword and our sons, our daughters, and our wives are in captivity. Now it is in my heart to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel, that His fierce wrath may turn away from us” (2 Chronicles 29:6–10).

This revival under Hezekiah not only offered Judah a reprieve from the sword of the Assyrians, which was destroying the kingdom of Israel just north of them, it was also a last chance for the northern ten tribes to avert complete exile. Notice what King Hezekiah did: “And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and also wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, to keep the Passover to the Lord God of Israel… So they resolved to make a proclamation throughout all Israel, from Beersheba to Dan, that they should come to keep the Passover to the Lord God of Israel at Jerusalem, since they had not done it for a long time in the prescribed manner” (2 Chronicles 30:1, 5). Hezekiah’s messengers warned the remaining inhabitants of the northern kingdom: “Now do not be stiffnecked, as your fathers were, but yield yourselves to the Lord… For if you return to the Lord, your brethren and your children will be treated with compassion by those who lead them captive, so that they might come back to this land” (vv. 8–9).6

What was Israel’s response? “So the runners passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh, as far as Zebulun; but they laughed them to scorn and mocked them. Nevertheless some from Asher, Manasseh, and Zebulun humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem” (vv. 10–11). By and large Israel ignored King Hezekiah’s warning and his call to repentance the final warning they were to receive. In the years immediately following, the Assyrians completely depopulated northern Israel and brought in people of Babylonian stock to resettle there. These newcomers were later known as Samaritans, taking their name from Israel’s capital city.

Israel had begun an odyssey that would not conclude for many centuries 2,520 years would pass before the descendants of Israel would begin to receive the birthright blessings promised their ancestors. For 2,520 years a year for a day they would experience God’s “breach of promise.”

Israel’s Lost Identity
In Exodus 31:12–17, God instructed Moses that His Sabbaths were to be a sign between Him and Israel forever. A sign is something that identifies. The Sabbath, established by God to commemorate his at time of creation, is a perpetual reminder of who God is and who His people are. As long as Israel kept the Sabbath, they maintained their identity.

To this day, the people of Judah have maintained their identity, regardless of what far-flung corner of the world in which they may live. They have retained the sign of the Sabbath and have never lost sight of who they are.

Israel, on the other hand, from the time of King Jeroboam has abandoned God’s Sabbaths and substituted its own days of worship. As a result, captive Israel did not stand out as different from the surrounding nations and peoples. Those whom they met did not associate them with the Jews, and eventually most Israelites forgot their true origin.

Many of the customs that Israel carried into captivity were borrowed from the pagan nations around them. At the time of Israel’s Assyrian captivity, the prophet Micah was in Judah. He warned Israel of their impending punishment and why it was to come. “For the statutes of Omri are kept; all the works of Ahab’s house are done; and you walk in their counsels, that I may make you a desolation and your inhabitants a hissing. Therefore you shall bear the reproach of My people” (Micah 6:16).

Who was Omri, and what were his statutes? What did this have to do with Israel’s lost identity?

Captive Israelites Become Known as Cimmerians
In captivity, Israel lost even its national name. Having abandoned their sign of identity that God established, the Israelites have become lost to most secular historians. However, they were certainly not lost to God. Notice the message he inspired the prophet Amos to record in the years prior to Israel’s captivity. “‘Behold, the eyes of the Lord God are on the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from the face of the earth; yet I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob,’ says the Lord. ‘For surely I will command, and will sift the house of Israel among all nations, as grain is sifted in a sieve; yet not the smallest grain shall fall to the ground'” (Amos 9:8–9).

In 1 Kings 16, we read of Omri and of his rise to power. He overthrew his predecessor, Zimri, and established a powerful dynasty. Though he only reigned 12 years, he established the capital city of Samaria and put laws in place that guided the nation through the rest of its history. His role as lawgiver was so established that 150 years after his death, and many dynasties later, the prophet Micah still referred to Israel as keeping “the statutes of Omri.” Clearly rejecting the laws that God had given through Moses, the House of Israel chose instead to keep the laws enacted by Omri. “Omri,” we are told by scripture, “did evil in the eyes of the Lord, and did worse than all who were before him” (v. 25).

Plainly, then, the statutes of Omri included pagan religious practices. His son Ahab was married to Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal priest-king of the Baal worshipping Sidonians. Though many of the outward trappings of Baal worship were later eliminated by a subsequent king, Jehu, Israel never really returned to God.

Notice the comments of Langer’s Encyclopedia of World History regarding the extent of Omri’s influence. “Omri established a long-lived dynasty. He built a new capital at Samaria and renewed alliances with Tyre… He also reconquered Moab as we learn from the Mesha inscription. Omri was evidently a strong king. The Assyrians called Israel after his name, Bit Omri (Khumri)” (1968 edition, p. 44).

The history of the ancient world, apart from what is recorded in scripture, comes down to us in the writings and monuments of the great empires of antiquity and in the writings of the Greek historians. The Assyrians, in their monuments, did not use the name “Israel,” but rather referred to the “Khumri.” This is the name by which Israel was known in captivity. This name, and variants of it in the languages of neighboring peoples, is the name by which the people of Israel are identified in secular history.

The people who were identified on Assyrian monuments as Khumri were called in the Babylonian language Gimmirra (or Gimiri). The Greek geographers such as Herodotus called them Cimmerians. Thus, the names by which captive Israel is identified in secular history are the names by which others called them, and those names varied in spelling and pronunciation according to the language of the writer.

Israel’s Migrations
What happened to the Israelites who were taken captive by the Assyrians? The Bible tells us that they were settled near the River Gozan and in the cities of the Medes. Gozan was a tributary of the northern Euphrates River. The cities of the Medes were in the area just south of Armenia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.

The apocryphal book of 2 Esdras, written a century or so prior to the time of Christ, records the tradition that had been preserved among the Jews. “Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land… and he [Shalmaneser] carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land. But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt… And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river” (13:40–43).

To say that the migrating Israelites followed the “narrow passages of the river” simply means that they went northward through the narrow mountain passes of the headwaters of the Euphrates. This took them north of the Caucasus Mountains and on to the northern shore of the Black Sea. This is exactly where history places the Cimmerians, who later traveled up the Danube and Rhine River basins into northwestern Europe.

Lempriere’s Classical Dictionary locates the Cimmerii “near the Palus Maeotis” (p. 149). Palus Maeotis was the name the ancient Greeks gave to the large lake at the northern tip of the Black Sea, now called the Sea of Azov. From this area some of the Cimmerians migrated directly up the river system into northwestern Europe, while others invaded Asia Minor, and after being pushed out also went up into northern Europe.

Regarding the Cimmerii-Israelites’ entrance into northwestern Europe, M. Guizot in The History of France from Earliest Times to 1848 states: “From the seventh to the fourth century B.C., a new population spread over Gaul, not at once, but by a series of invasions, of which the two principal took place at the two extremes of that epoch. They called themselves Kymrians or Kimrians… the name of a people whom the Greeks placed on the western bank of the Black Sea and in the Cimmerian peninsula, called to this day Crimea” (p. 16). Called Gauls or Celts by the Romans, these people spread through what is modern France and into the British Isles.

The heaviest periods of this migration into northwestern Europe were shortly after the original Assyrian invasions, and again almost 400 years later. In 331bc, Alexander the Great defeated the Medes and the Persians. Those Israelites who were still in the ancient area of the Medes were now free to leave. Interestingly, this marks 390 years from the fall of Samaria to the overthrow of the Medes (721bc–331bc) the exact period that Ezekiel had prophesied for the House of Israel in Ezekiel 4:5.

Another ancient name by which the exiled Israelites were known is “Scythian.” A vast area of what is today the Eurasian plain of Russia was anciently called Scythia. Various peoples inhabited this huge area, including many tribes of exiled Israelites. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, “the Persians called them Sacae, since that is the name they give to all Scythians” (The Persian Wars, VII, 64). The word Sacae or Sakae is ultimately derived from Isaac, ancestor of the Israelites. This is the true origin of the names Scotland, Saxon and Scandinavia.

The Scots preserve the story of their Scythian origins in the most famous document in Scottish history, the Declaration of Arbroath. This declaration was written in 1320 and signed by Robert the Bruce and his nobles. In it is the statement that the Scots “journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea… they came twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea [ca. 250bc], to their home in the west where they still live today.” The original of this ancient letter, called by many “Scotland’s most precious possession,” is on display in a glass case in the Register House in Edinburgh. To the parchment is attached the seals of the 25 subscribing Scottish nobles.

Thus we see that the ten tribes of Northern Israel were uprooted from their homeland in the eighth century before Christ, and transported to a different area by their captors. Losing their identity, they became known to history by a variety of names. Cymri, Celts and Scyths are but a few. Today, guided by ancient records, we can trace the migrations of these peoples from the Black Sea to the British Isles and northwestern Europe.

How does all of this fit in with the prophecies of your Bible?

The Birthright Promises Are Fulfilled –

Anciently, God made remarkable promises to Abraham and his descendants. We have already seen that the northern ten tribes were uprooted from their homes and that they ultimately migrated into northwestern Europe. What became of the fulfillment of the promises to Abraham?

Look at the remarkable way in which God has intervened in history to accomplish His purpose and to fulfill His word.

Seven prophetic times 2,520 years went by from the time of Samaria’s fall and Israel’s captivity in 721bc. This brings us to 1800ad and the time when, according to scripture, Abraham’s descendants would begin coming into possession of the birthright promises. The remarkable story that unfolded in the history of the English-speaking people after 1800 is astounding.

To fully understand what happened and to put it into perspective, let us briefly look at the history of Europe. By the close of the 11th century after Christ, most of the European migrations were completed and nations were mostly in the areas in which we find them today. The Israelites had arrived, in waves of migration extending over centuries, in the new lands that they were destined to inherit. After all, God had anciently told Jacob that his descendants would spread abroad to the north, the west, the east, and the south (Genesis 28:14).

Throughout the ten centuries from Rome’s collapse until the 15th century, Europe was totally dominated by the Catholic church and was in the throes of poverty, ignorance and warfare. Much of this period has traditionally been called the “Dark Ages” by historians. In the last half of the 15th century, three milestone events took place. The first was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. This brought an influx of scholars and Greek manuscripts of the New Testament into Western Europe. Secondly, in 1456, Johannes Gutenberg perfected the use of moveable type and the printing industry was born. This made possible the widespread diffusion of knowledge. In 1492, Christopher Columbus sighted land, thus beginning the unbroken connection between Europe and the new world of the Americas.

At this same time, England finally emerged from the internal strife of the War of the Roses. At last a stable government emerged, under the Tudor dynasty of Henry VII. Over the next century a remarkable transformation began to occur in England. Literacy spread, Catholic control was overthrown, and the tiny island nation began to develop into a sea-power.

The year 1588 was a benchmark in England’s history. Spain had set out to conquer England and restore it to the fold of the Catholic church. In pursuance of this goal, a vast Armada set sail from Spain. Shattered by storm winds off the coast of England, the Armada was defeated and little England was saved.

Notice what Sir Winston Churchill, in his History of the English-Speaking Peoples, wrote. “But to the English people as a whole the defeat of the Armada came as a miracle. For 30 years the shadow of Spanish power had darkened the political scene. A wave of religious emotion filled men’s minds. One of the medals struck to commemorate the victory bears the inscription ‘Afflavit Deus et dissipantur’ ‘God blew and they were scattered.’ Elizabeth and her seamen knew how true this was” (vol. II, p. 131).

This miraculous victory guaranteed that England would not come back under the domination of the Papacy, and it set the stage for future religious freedom in England. An awareness of God’s role in English history fueled a newfound interest in the Bible, resulting in the translation and widespread dissemination of the Bible during the reign of Queen Elizabeth’s successor, King James I.

Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, English sailors and explorers set out across the globe. This marked the beginnings of England as a sea power and set the stage for future commercial and economic greatness.

Still, when 1800 came, England and her former American colonies, the fledgling United States, possessed only a small portion of the world’s land and wealth. In Europe, Napoleon was attempting to put together a vast continental empire with France at its head. Instead of that effort being successful, however, something altogether different occurred.

Over the following decades, England emerged in possession of the vast British Empire. It was the largest that the world had ever seen. Over one quarter of the world’s land and people were under the British flag by the end of the 19th century. The United States, in 1800 still clinging to the eastern seacoast, had completely spanned the North American continent within five decades. The most powerful company of nations, the British Empire, and the greatest single nation, the United States, emerged right on schedule. The year 1800 marked the time when the 2,520 years of withholding the birthright concluded.

The British Empire Emerges
“How had the British done it? How, in the first place, did a peripheral island rise from primitive squalor to world domination? And how did they, between the [world] wars, still manage to keep their rickety empire together with little visible effort?” (The Europeans, p. 47). This was the question posed by author Luigi Barzini and it has been echoed by many.

While other nations set out with a cohesive plan to conquer vast stretches of territory and to build an empire, the British, it has been said, stumbled into theirs in a fit of absentmindedness. How did such a remarkable transformation come about?

Canada, a vast trove of agricultural and mineral wealth, came almost unbidden into the British Empire. After England’s victory over France in the Seven Years War (1756–63), many in Parliament argued against even accepting Canada from France, warning that “its scanty trade in beaver skins would not offset the burden of defense and administration…” (A History of England and the British Empire, by Hall & Albion, p. 463). In fact, “Halifax [Nova Scotia] was the only community in America founded by direct action of the British government” (p. 456).

Australia and New Zealand were no less thrust upon Britain as part of the empire. Of Australia, it has been said that the 1851 discovery of gold “precipitated a colony into a nation” (p. 664). The population jumped from 250,000 to almost a million in a little over a decade. As for New Zealand: “The home government long resisted the efforts to bring New Zealand under the British flag… So New Zealand went its lawless way until the actual planting of regular English settlers necessitated more definite control” (p. 664).

Over the course of the 19th century, Great Britain came into the possession of territory in every far-flung corner of the earth. Among these possessions were virtually all of the strategic sea-gates. Possessing the “gates of their enemies” was one of the blessings that God had promised to Abraham on behalf of his descendants. These narrow passages, through which sea traffic had to pass, were of inestimable value, both in terms of commercial value of trade and for security purposes during the two world wars of the 20th century. British control of the Suez Canal and the Straits of Gibraltar as well as of the strategic Isle of Malta was crucial to Allied control of the Mediterranean during World War II.

With Australia, New Zealand and Canada, Great Britain came into possession of some of the richest agricultural land on earth. The vast fields of grain and the innumerable herds of sheep and cattle represented a fulfillment of God’s ancient promises to Abraham. In addition, there was the vast mineral wealth of Canada, Australia, and South Africa. Britain itself came to control much of the Middle Eastern oil reserves. Her possessions and pipelines there helped provide the Allies the oil that was needed to fight World War II.

Overall, British influence was beneficial for the whole world, just as God anciently prophesied that it would be. It was the British Navy that wiped out the international slave trade in the early 19th century. The British and Foreign Bible Society, headquartered in London, was responsible for the Bible being translated into virtually every language and made available for the first time to peoples all over the earth.

Throughout the empire itself, British rule was not enforced by huge occupying armies. In fact, during the 19th century, the British army was quite small. It was called “the thin red line.” In vast India, inhabited by scores of millions even in the 19th century, it was the British civil service, never more than several hundred, that ruled. They administered justice, collected taxes, and enforced the laws. “They alone came into direct contact with the native population… they worked hard and efficiently… corruption was unknown among them, and they had triumphantly upheld justice, peace, and order for several decades” (p. 738).

Tiny little England emerged, practically overnight, to rule the greatest, most extensive empire that the world had ever seen. That empire developed into a great company of nations held together by allegiance to a common crown. Where else can anyone point to the fulfillment of the ancient promise that Jacob claimed for his grandson Ephraim? Clearly, God had kept His word to Abraham!

The Throne of David
God made a remarkable promise to King David of ancient Israel. Speaking through Nathan the prophet, God told David: “When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his Father, and he shall be My son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the blows of the sons of men. But My mercy shall not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I removed from before you. And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever” (2 Samuel 7:12–16).

God explained to David that while he might punish his descendants for their sins, he would not remove the kingdom from their line as he had done with Saul. What happened to that line of kings? History records that King Zedekiah, a descendant of David, was the last king to sit upon the throne of Judah in Jerusalem. In 586bc Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took Zedekiah captive to Babylon, burned the temple, and destroyed the city of Jerusalem. Notice the statement in 2 Kings 25:7: “Then they killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, put out the eyes of Zedekiah… and took him to Babylon.”

Did God’s promise to David fail?

For the rest of the story, notice the prophecy that God inspired Ezekiel to record in Ezekiel 17. It starts out by posing a riddle that describes an eagle coming to a large cedar tree and cropping off the topmost branch. This small branch was taken to the “city of merchants” (v. 4). What is this riddle describing? Verse 12 tells us: “Say now to the rebellious house: Do you not know what these things mean? Tell them, Indeed the king of Babylon went to Jerusalem and took its king and princes, and led them with him to Babylon.”

That is not the end of the story, however. God went on to tell Ezekiel in verses 22 and 23: “I will take also one of the highest branches of the high cedar and set it out. I will crop off from the topmost of its young twigs a tender one, and will plant it on a high and prominent mountain. On the mountain height of Israel I will plant it; and it will bring forth boughs, and bear fruit, and be a majestic cedar. Under it will dwell birds of every sort; in the shadow of its branches they will dwell.”

We have already seen that the “top branch” of the cedar symbolized Judah’s last king, Zedekiah. A twig coming out from that branch would be one of his children. As we have also seen, his sons were killed. This “tender” twig must clearly refer to one of his daughters! God talks of her being taken to a high mountain (used in Bible prophecy to symbolize a nation) where she would be “planted” and would grow into a great tree. This shows that she would marry and produce offspring and that the dynasty would continue! Also note, while David’s line had been reigning over Judah, it would now be “replanted” ruling over Israel.

Irish history records the remainder of this story. It tells of the prophet Jeremiah and his scribe Baruch coming to Ireland after the fall of Judah with a young princess and the coronation stone, called in Gaelic lia fail. In ancient Irish records, the princess was named Tea Tephi. She married the son of the High King of Ireland. Their descendants reigned from Tara in Ireland for many centuries. Later, in the days of Kenneth McAlpine, they transferred their place of rule to Scone in Scotland. This same dynasty continues on down to today in the person of Queen Elizabeth II, a direct descendant of Tea Tephi and her husband. God has fulfilled his promises to King David just as He said!

The United States and the Blessings of Manasseh
What of the United States of America? Are the American people also truly descended from ancient Israel? Look at the plain record of history.

The first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States was Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. A few years later the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries settlers from the British Isles flowed into what became the United States. Actually, as Professor David Fischer points out in his important book, Albion’s Seed, there were four main waves of immigration during those two centuries to the future United States. These waves of migration had their origin in specific parts of the British Isles and came to particular areas of the American colonies.

New England, for instance, was settled primarily by immigrants from East Anglia. Certain parishes of this south-eastern part of England were almost emptied of population between 1629 and 1641, as whole family groups migrated en masse. “Today, East Anglia seems very rural by comparison with other English regions. But in the early 17th century, it was the most densely settled and highly urbanized part of England, and had been so for many centuries” (Albion’s Seed, p. 43).

Overwhelmingly, the immigrants who settled the United States before the Civil War came from northwestern Europe. Most were from either the British Isles or certain parts of northern Germany. These immigrants established the character of the American nation and have provided most of the nation’s leadership until this day. Even some whose ancestors immigrated later from other parts of Europe may well have Israelitish background. After all, the prophecy was made by Amos that the House of Israel would be sifted through the nations like corn through a sieve, but not a grain would be lost (Amos 9:9). Amazingly coincidental, the USA, America has become known as the great melting pot of all the nations.

Beginning in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, the United States began a rapid territorial expansion that led to its spanning the continent within one generation. The territory acquired by purchase from Napoleon, at less than a nickel an acre, included the richest farmland on earth the American Midwest.

Because of its combination of agricultural and mineral wealth, America was destined to lead the world in per capita wealth. Whether in grain and cattle, or in its coal, iron, and petroleum production, America has had matchless bounty. As an example, during World War II the East Texas oil field alone produced more oil than the combined production of all the Axis powers. The prophecy of aged Israel to his grandson Manasseh, that his descendants would become the greatest single nation, has certainly been fulfilled in the United States of America.

Additionally, with the acquisition of the Panama Canal and various island dependencies gained in the latter 19th century, the United States has also possessed the gates of its enemies. The United States, in combination with Great Britain, controlled virtually every strategic passageway on earth through most of the 19th and 20th centuries.

At their pinnacles, the American and British nations have possessed or controlled an overwhelming share of the world’s wealth. There are simply no other nations that can even compare with the wealth and power that has been exercised by the English-speaking peoples.

With great blessings also come great responsibilities, however. In addition, there are particular dangers for these nations of which they are warned in that book which became ubiquitous throughout the English-speaking world the Bible.

A Warning for the Modern Nations of Israel
Moses was anciently inspired of God to set down a reminder for our people in the midst of our fabulous wealth and bounty: “For the Lord your God is bringing you into a good land… a land in which you will eat bread without scarcity, in which you will lack nothing… Beware that you do not forget the Lord your God by not keeping His commandments… lest when you have eaten and are full, and have built beautiful houses and dwell in them… when your heart is lifted up… then you say in your heart, ‘My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth'” (Deuteronomy 8:7–17). Our nations are admonished: “And you shall remember the Lord your God, for it is He who gives you power to get wealth, that He may establish His covenant which He swore to your fathers, as it is this day” (v. 18).

One of the great dangers of wealth and plenty is a self-centered, materialistic outlook. Instead of being the most thankful of peoples, we have become the most self-indulgent.

This national greatness was not achieved because of innate superiority. Rather, the possession of the fairest portions of the earth is the direct result of faithful Abraham’s obedience and God’s promises to Him. Moses reminded our ancestors: “The Lord did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any other people, for you were the least of all peoples; but because the Lord loves you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 7:7–8).

Israel was called to be a holy nation to God. Today, we have direct access to God’s word in an unparalleled way. Yet the conduct of our people and our leaders falls far short of what God enjoins upon us. In the midst of plenty we are unthankful and disobedient to the God who blessed us. Just as God dealt with our ancestors of old, so also will He deal with us today.

The United States and Great Britain, and all the British-descended peoples, are on a rendezvous with God’s judgment!

The Coming Restoration
In 1897, the year of Queen Victoria’s “Diamond Jubilee,” one of Britain’s best-loved poets struck a somber note. The British Empire was at its height. In that context Rudyard Kipling wrote Recessional, a poem that was strikingly prophetic. “God of our fathers, known of old / Lord of our far flung battle line / Beneath Whose awful Hand we hold / Dominion over palm and pine / Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget lest we forget!” He went on to add: “Lo, all our pomp of yesterday is one with Ninevah and Tyre! Judge of the Nations, spare us yet / Lest we forget lest we forget!”

A century later, the American and British-descended peoples have forgotten their God. God’s direct warning to these forgetful nations thunders down through time: “Then it shall be, if you by any means forget the Lord your God, and follow other gods, and serve them and worship them, I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish” (Deuteronomy 8:19).

How have such blessed nations forgotten God and His laws? The most fundamental national building block, the family unit, has been shattered by divorce and illegitimacy. We have “gay pride” parades in the streets of major cities from London to San Francisco to Sydney. Violence and greed escalates until people draw back with fear. Greed, materialism, and immorality have seemingly been woven into our national fabric, that has glazed over things with drugs and alcoholic beverages.

The messages of the ancient prophets are as descriptive of our national condition as any newscast. “Alas, sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a brood of evildoers, children who are corrupters! They have forsaken the Lord, they have provoked to anger the Holy One of Israel, they have turned away backward” (Isaiah 1:4).

There is even a lack of shame at the national conduct. “The look on their countenance witnesses against them, and they declare their sin as Sodom; they do not hide it. Woe to their soul! For they have brought evil upon themselves” (Isaiah 3:9).

The Watchman’s Message
As we saw earlier in this booklet, God commissioned the ancient prophet Ezekiel as a watchman to the House of Israel. “So you, son of man: I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel; therefore you shall hear the word from My mouth and warn them for me” (Ezekiel 33:7). What is God’s message to modern Israel, preserved for our day through the pen of the prophet Ezekiel?

“Now, son of man, will you judge, will you judge the bloody city? Yes, show her all her abominations!… You have become guilty by the blood which you have shed, and have defiled yourself with the idols which you have made” (Ezekiel 22:2–4). In addition to violence and idolatry, God inspired Ezekiel to indict Israel for immorality, including adultery and incest (vv. 9–11). Also, he talks about the breakdown of the family structure and the grinding down of the needy and defenseless (v. 7). Additionally, God thunders at our peoples: “You have despised My holy things and profaned My Sabbaths” (v. 8). The 4th Commandment: Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy
6 Days shall you labour and do all your work,
But the 7th day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God
In it thou shalt do no work
You nor your son nor your daughter or man servant or your maid servant or you donkey nor your ass nor the stranger nor any that is within thy gates
For on the 7th day the rested and hallowed it.

The book of Ezekiel contains an indictment of national sins, a call to repentance, and a proclamation of God’s impending judgment. It also goes on beyond the coming judgment to look forward to a time of restoration after Christ’s return.

Collectively all our peoples have turned further and further away from God in our actions, even while still calling themselves “Christian nations.” Our national sins are an affront to Almighty God, Who has poured out upon us the choicest blessings of Heaven!

Rehoboam suffered a bad outcome. What were the sins of Solomon’s son?

He allowed idol worship and in a move toward ecumenism and tolerance toward the Canaanite pagans, he permitted the practice of male pagan shrine prostitutes, an abomination to Yahweh. The people of Judah were in spiritual and moral corruption.

What judgment did Yahweh bring against Judah to bring the people back into covenant reconciliation with Him? Remember God’s judgment is always meant to be redemptive’the goal is always repentance and restoration of fellowship.

There are coming on the English-speaking peoples, the modern-day House of Israel, problems that we can scarcely imagine. God declares that He will “break the staff of bread” (Ezekiel 4:16). He speaks of a time of famine and desolation when the cities will be laid waste (12:20). As unthinkable as this may seem to modern Americans, Canadians and Britons, God Almighty says that such things are coming!

The New World Order –
A great supra-national union one world religion and currency in Europe and America with the vatican even now shaping up, will become the seventh and final revival of the old Roman Empire. This system, according to Revelation 13 and 17, will come to dominate the entire world for a brief period of time. It is this powerful superpower which will ultimately attack and subjugate the the English speaking world. It will also occupy the Jewish state, called Israel, in the Middle East.

The people are complacent and materialistic. They have forgotten their Maker and ignored His Holy instruction book, the Bible. Yes, there is a day of reckoning coming! Most of you reading this can expect to see it come in your lifetime.

There is a way of escape for you and your family, however. “‘Do I have any pleasure at all that the wicked should die?’ says the Lord God, ‘and not that he should turn from his ways and live?… Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, every one according to his ways,’ says the Lord God. ‘Repent, and turn from all your transgression, so that iniquity will not be your ruin. Cast away from you all the transgressions which you have committed, and get yourselves a new heart and a new spirit. For why should you die, O house of Israel? For I have no pleasure in the death of one who dies,’ says the Lord God. ‘Therefore turn and live!'” (Ezekiel 18:23, 30–32).

God’s desire is for repentance, not punishment. For many, however, God will only get their attention through severe national punishment. Many simply will not pay attention to a message of warning until their world comes crashing down upon them.

Ezekiel’s message of warning and of hope to the modern-day House of Israel. It is vital that you, and all of the people of our Israelitish nations, understand what God’s word says is in store and then that you act upon that understanding!

Unfolding Events of the Years Ahead
Coming threats of catastrophic economic and social collapse will set the stage for some soon-coming events, according to Bible prophecy. In answer to growing fears, there will suddenly emerge onto the world scene a powerful and charismatic leader, perhaps in Europe. In alliance with a religious leader who will ignite an emotional mass hysteria through what the scripture terms “lying wonders” (2 Thessalonians 2:9), this military-political leader will use deceit to achieve great power. He will lead a revived Holy Roman Empire, called in scripture “Babylon the Great” (Revelation 17; 18).

This so called New World Order is nothing new under thw sun. An image of the original Babylonian religion in Euro Vatican style setting. The union of church and state will promise universal prosperity and will exercise worldwide economic dominance for a short while. Ezekiel 27, using the figure of the ancient commercial city of Tyre, speaks of this global economic combine which will include nations of Europe, Africa, Latin America, and Asia along with Israel and Judah (v. 17). Portions of Ezekiel 27 are paraphrased or quoted in Revelation 18 where the end-time system, called Babylon the Great, is described.

The English-speaking nations will not prosper for long in connection with this system, however. In fact, they will ultimately be overpowered by invoking martial law and come under control of it willingly, but the be destroyed by it militarily. As its motto will be Peace peace, the comes sudden destruction. Pax Romana. Prior to military attack and occupation, devastating weather problems, combined with internal civil strife (“tumults in the midst” cf. Amos 3:9) will bring our nations to the point of internal collapse.

“My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge,” God inspired the prophet Hosea to write (Hosea 4:6). We have rejected the knowledge of God and His ways. The more we have prospered materially, the more our sins have increased (vv. 7–8). It appears that immorality and substance abuse have sapped and destroyed our national spirit (v. 11).

God inspired Amos to prophesy of this time of serious drought and water rationing, coupled with massive crop failures and disease epidemics (Amos 4:7–10). “Therefore this will I do to you O Israel; and because I will do this to you, Prepare to meet your God, O Israel! For behold, He who forms mountains and creates the wind, who declares to man what his thought is, and makes the morning darkness, who treads the high places of the earth the Lord God of hosts is His name” (vv. 12–13).

Jeremiah the prophet calls this coming time of national calamity “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jeremiah 30:7). He states that it will be a time worse than any other time in human history. Jesus Christ spoke of this very same period of time in Matthew 24:21: “For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be.” There surely cannot be two times of trouble worse than any other, so clearly the Great Tribulation is a time of trouble and punishment for Israel. Punishment is not the end of the story, however!

Future Deliverance and Restoration –
The prophet Ezekiel speaks of a future time when Israel will be regathered after the return of the Messiah in power and glory. “‘The Gentiles shall know that the house of Israel went into captivity for their iniquity, because they were unfaithful to Me… According to their uncleanness and according to their transgressions I have dealt with them, and hidden My face from them.’ Therefore thus says the Lord God, ‘Now I will bring back the captives of Jacob, and have mercy on the whole house of Israel…then they shall know that I am the Lord their God, who sent them into captivity among the nations, but also brought them back to their own land, and left none of them captive any longer'” (Ezekiel 39:23–28).

Isaiah also looked forward to that time when God would again choose Israel and restore them to their own land (Isaiah 14:1). God would give them rest from their sorrows, their fears, and the hard bondage they had experienced (v. 3). Israel would be regathered from captivity and would “blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit” (27:6). They would begin to rebuild the old ruined cities which had lain desolate and deserted for a period of years (61:4). Our people, after the coming punishment of the Tribulation has finally brought them to repentance, will be regathered from the nations of their future captivity. God inspired Ezekiel to describe the true national conversion of Israel which will follow. This will be a prelude to the conversion of the whole world. “I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you… I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them” (36:25–27).

Christ will have returned and the saints will have been resurrected to rule and reign with Him (Revelation 20:6). Again, we see in a number of places that ancient King David will be among those resurrected.

David –

2 Sam. 7:8Now therefore so shalt thou say unto my servant David, Thus saith the LORD of hosts, I took thee from the sheepcote, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Israel: 9And I was with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off all thine enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like unto the name of the great men that are in the earth. 10Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime, 11And as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also the LORD telleth thee that he will make thee an house. 12And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. 13He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. 14I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: 15But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. 16And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.

Christ born from the bloodline of his house, will actually be the direct ruler over regathered Israel as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. Revelation 19:16, (Ezekiel 37:24).
Isa. 11:1And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:

Isa. 4:2 In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel.

By branch is meant a descendent of David. A man who would sit on the throne of David and whose family tree would go back to Adam. [Adam ðSeth ðShem ð Abraham ð Isaac ð Jacob ð Judah ð David ð Messiah]

Messiah –
Mat. 1:1The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

Root –

Isa. 11:10And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious.

Rev. 5:5And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.

Rev. 22:16I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

By root is meant the origin of David. Something more than just a man, more than a descendent of David – Creator God.

The root of David is seen in the plurality of the Godhead as God the Son. He is also known in the Old Testament as the Angel of the Lord.

Gen. 16:7And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. 8And he said, Hagar, Sarai’s maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai. 9And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. 10And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. 11And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. 12And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren. 13And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me? 14Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

Mal. 3:1 Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.

Other Old Testament declarations of the Messiah as God –

Psa. 110:1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

Isa. 7:14Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. The meaning of the name Immanuel translates as, “God is among us.”

Isa. 9:6For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. 7 Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

Zechariah 3:8

My Servant, the Branch and the Stone

Zechariah chapter three is a vision of “Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of the LORD.” He is standing because he is conducting his priestly duties representing the nation Israel (Deut. 10:8; 2 Chron. 29:11). This not Joshua, the son of Nunn, whom we encounter in the book of Joshua. This Joshua is a type of the high priest of Israel who is to come because he and his priestly companions are said to be “men symbolic of things to come” (v. 8).

Satan defined as “the Accusor,” is seen standing at the right hand of Joshua accusing him before the Angel of the LORD. The presence of Satan changes the scene from a priestly one to judicial. Because of God’s gracious love and choice of Israel the Angel of the LORD acquits Joshua. The basis of the rebuke is God’s choice of Israel. Walvoord and Zuck note that in the figure before us just as “the high priest represented the entire nation on the Day of atonement, so here Joshua the high priest was accused and acquitted on behalf of the nation Israel.” The acquittal took the form of removing the filthy garments (vv. 3-5) and clothing Joshua with a clean garment.

Hengstenberg notes the Messiah “could be represented as the antitype of the priesthood, only so far as he was to effect in the most perfect manner that mediation and expiation which had been but partially effected by the later.”

The Angel of the LORD

The Angel of the LORD is to be identified as the preincarnate Christ. He speaks as LORD and yet distinguishes Himself from the LORD when He addresses Satan. Moreover, He virtually forgives sins. “The LORD said to Satan . . . “The LORD rebuke you, Satan!’” (v. 2). In verse four the Angel of the LORD says, “See, I have taken your iniquity away from you and will clothe you with festal robes.”

“Now listen, Joshua the high priest, you and your friends who are sitting in front of you—indeed they are men who are a symbol, for behold, I am going to bring in My servant the Branch. For behold, the stone that I have set before Joshua; on one stone are seven eyes. Behold, I will engrave an inscription on it,’ declares the Lord of hosts, ‘and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day. In that day,’ declares the Lord of hosts, ‘every one of you will invite his neighbor to sit under his vine and under his fig tree’ ” (vv. 8-10).

Joshua and his companions prefigured the future cleansing of the nation. Of course, this future cleansing is linked to the one who comes in the future with three messianic titles. He is revealed here as My Servant, the Branch and the Stone.
My Servant

As the Servant of Yahweh, we know from the prophet Isaiah that Jesus Christ came to do the Father’s will (Isa. 42:1; 49:3-4; 50:10; 52:13; 53:11; Ezek. 34:23-24). Zechariah probably has in mind Isaiah 52-53 because he says in verse nine the Messiah will remove the iniquity of the land. He is the Lord’s Servant because of His willing, patient and perfect obedience to His Father (Ps. 40:6-8; Isa. 42:1ff; 49:1-5; 52:13ff; 53:1f). In John 5:30 Jesus said, “I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.”

The Branch

Jesus Christ is the humble descendent of king David who will bring the kingdom out of its fallen state and reign in power and glory (Isa. 4:2; 11:1; Jer. 23:5; 33:15; Zech. 6:12-13).

“I am going to bring My Servant the Branch,” Zemach, or literally “the Sprout.” Zechariah uses the word simply as a proper name for the Messiah. “My servant Branch” is exactly the same as Ezekiel’s “My Servant David” (Ezek. 34:23-24; 27:24). The idea comes from Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15, where the promise is given that a righteous Sprout or a Sprout of righteousness shall be raised up to Jacob. Jeremiah used the figure of the descendent of David who would create righteousness upon the earth and the Branch of Yahweh (cf. Isa. 11:1-2). The Messiah is to spring up as a rod out of the stem of Jesse that has been hewn down, or as a root-shoot out of dry ground. The Branch denotes the Messiah in His origin from the family of David that has fallen into humiliation. The sprout will grow up from its original state of humiliation to exaltation and glory. In Zechariah the deeply humiliated priesthood is exalted by the grace of God into a type of the Messiah. The removal of iniquity is the exclusive work of the Messiah. The early Jews admitted that “the servant of the Lord, Zemach” meant the Messaiah. For it is testified, you are a priest in the order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 7:17)

This is where the Diciples of Jesus Christ and Jews of their day assumed that his kingdom would be established in the world as they knew it in their day and why they were so concerned which one of them would sit on his right hand of his throne.
This is also where the idea that each of the 12 Apostles will be directly ruling over one of the 12 tribes (Luke 22:29–30).
Cross References
Matthew 5:3
Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Matthew 5:10
Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Matthew 25:21
His lord said to him, Well done, you good and faithful servant: you have been faithful over a few things, I will make you ruler over many things: enter you into the joy of your lord. This text is also understood to have to do with earth’s stewardship which would then become universal garden to be in charge of.

2 Timothy 2:12
If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:

At this glorious time, when God’s Kingdom will rule over all nations with Christ governing directly from Jerusalem, “‘The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, the lion shall eat straw like the ox, and dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain,’ says the Lord” (Isaiah 65:25).

Revelation 21:5 He who was seated on the throne said, “I am making everything new!” Then he said, “Write this down, for these words are trustworthy and true.”

6 He said to me: “It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To the thirsty I will give water without cost from the spring of the water of life. 7 Those who are victorious will inherit all this, and I will be their God and they will be my children. 8 But the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters and all liars—they will be consigned to the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death.”

Yet before this prophesied time of peace, the peoples of the United States and Great Britain will have endured a time of great trial. God’s punishment on these nations will come swiftly and amaze the whole world. Only those who have turned fully to God will be spared. The nations will be shaken (Ezekiel 36:24–32).

Like Phaoroah who hardened his heart and refused Moses, to let the people go and then consequently, suffered all the plagues of Egypt, so it is that if people do not come out of the metaphoric (spiritual) Babylon, they will share in her plagues. As the old testament symbology was a shadow of things yet to come. Collisions 2:17 These are a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in Christ. Christ literally. Christ meaning the “Messiah” in the Greek.

Babylon Is Fallen –

…3For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies. 4And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that you be not partakers of her sins, and that you receive not of her plagues. 5For her sins have reached to heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities. … Harking all the way back throughout the scriptures to even Genesis mention of the Tower of Babel which displeased God so that he destroyed it and confounded the people’s language and splitting up the earth into separate continents and islands that the people would be dispersed. The tower of Babel was built of 7 tiers winding to a temple on top to the reaches of what the builders of ziggurats termed, 7th heaven, that they may be as gods. Nimrod said to be the founder if Babylon. Upon his death, The myth of Nimrod’s wife spawned that on his death, he was reincarnated on the Moon and had his throne on the Sun where Saturn made him a god. Nimrod has been credited as founder of the first city of Babylon. His wife spun a story to deified herself upon his death, presumptively declaring herself a goddess. The false religion spawned are the roots of pagan Babylon and Sun worship and Moon and female goddess of fertility worship was embedded in that ancient center. Rehashing the deception the Serpent had fed to Eve, that they would be as gods. The serpentine architecture, winding to the top of the tower, where it’s temple was located with alters to vegetation and fertility. Which harks back to the sacrificial alter of vegetation of Cain’s, which displeased God who had required the sacrificial death of an unblemished lamb. The children of Cain were the daughters of this corrupted worship and murderous lot that filled the earth with wickedness which God destroyed the world with the great Flood in the time of Noah. For a hundred years everyone was warned to repent and then get in the ark to escape the great deluge, but only Noah and his family listened and were saved. This would explain the bottleneck that geneticists found occurred deep in human history. They found the earths human population of our ancestors sprang from one male and female, which it multiplied from exponentially until it suddenly dwindled to just several at one critical point. It then multiplied exponentially from there throughout the following millennia to present time.

Genesis 19:14 So Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law, who were pledged to marry his daughters. He said, “Hurry and get out of this place, because the LORD is about to destroy the city!” But his sons-in-law thought he was joking.
Isaiah 48:20 Leave Babylon, flee from the Babylonians! Announce this with shouts of joy and proclaim it. Send it out to the ends of the earth; say, “The LORD has redeemed his servant Jacob.”
Isaiah 52:11 Depart, depart, go out from there! Touch no unclean thing! Come out from it and be pure, you who carry the articles of the LORD’s house.
Jeremiah 50:8 “Flee out of Babylon; leave the land of the Babylonians, and be like the goats that lead the flock.
Jeremiah 51:6 “Flee from Babylon! Run for your lives! Do not be destroyed because of her sins. It is time for the LORD’s vengeance; he will repay her what she deserves.
Jeremiah 51:9 “‘We would have healed Babylon, but she cannot be healed; let us leave her and each go to our own land, for her judgment reaches to the skies, it rises as high as the heavens.’
Jeremiah 51:45 “Come out of her, my people! Run for your lives! Run from the fierce anger of the LORD.
2 Corinthians 6:17 Therefore, “Come out from them and be separate, says the Lord. Touch no unclean thing, and I will receive you.”

There are two ways to learn our lessons in this life, the easy way or the hard way. Our nations as a whole appear destined to learn their lessons the hard way.

What about you, personally? Will you heed the warnings which come directly from God’s word?

We can show you the way to escape this coming holocaust before it is too late. You must be willing not merely to live and believe in God, but also accept in his plan, through which in his will he sent Jesus Christ, the Messaiah as the sacrificial lamb who he calls His only begotten Son in whom he is well pleased, of Jesus Christ, Matthew 3:17 And a voice from heaven said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Psalm 2:7 I will proclaim the LORD’s decree: He said to me, “You are my son; today I have become your father.
Isaiah 42:1 “Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will bring justice to the nations.
Matthew 12:18 “Here is my servant whom I have chosen, the one I love, in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations.
Matthew 17:5 While he was still speaking, a bright cloud covered them, and a voice from the cloud said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!”
Mark 1:11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”
Mark 9:7 Then a cloud appeared and covered them, and a voice came from the cloud: “This is my Son, whom I love. Listen to him!”
Luke 3:22 and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”
Luke 9:35 A voice came from the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, whom I have chosen; listen to him.”
John 5:20 For the Father loves the Son and shows him all he does. Yes, and he will show him even greater works than these, so that you will be amazed.
John 5:37 And the Father who sent me has himself testified concerning me. You have never heard his voice nor seen his form,
John 12:28 Father, glorify your name!” Then a voice came from heaven, “I have glorified it, and will glorify it again.”
Ephesians 1:6 to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.
To do what God commands out of love.

A Declaration of the words of the living God, this extraordinary voice from heaven, which was formed of articulate sounds for the sake of John; and, according to the other Evangelists, was directed to Christ, Mark 1:11 expressed the following words, “this is my beloved Son”. “This” person, who had been baptized in water, which represents being born, on whom the holy Spirit now rested, is no other than the Son of God in human nature; which he assumed, in order to be obedient to this, and the whole of his Father’s will: he is his own proper “son”, not by creation, as angels, and men; nor by adoption, as saints; nor by office, as magistrates; but in such a way of filiation as no other is: he is the natural, essential, and only begotten Son of God; his beloved Son, whom the Father loved from everlasting, as his own Son; the image of himself, of the same nature with him, and possessed of the same perfections; whom he loved, and continued to love in time, though clothed with human nature, and the infirmities of it; appearing in the likeness of sinful flesh; being in his state of humiliation, he loved him through it, and all sorrows and sufferings that attended it. Christ always was, and ever will be considered, both in his person as the Son of God, and in his office as mediator, the object of his love and delight; wherefore he adds,

in whom I am well pleased. Jehovah the Father took infinite delight and pleasure in him as his own Son, who lay in his bosom before all worlds; and was well pleased with him in his office relation, and capacity: he was both well pleased in him as his Son, and delighted in him as his servant, Isaiah 42:1 he was pleased with his assumption of human nature; with his whole obedience to the law; and with his bearing the penalty and curse of it, in the room and stead of his people: he was well pleased with and for his righteousness, sacrifice and atonement; whereby his law was fulfilled, and his justice satisfied. God is not only well pleased in, and with his Son, but with all his people, as considered in him; in him he loves them, takes delight in them, is pacified towards them, and graciously accepts of them. A voice was heard from the “father” in heaven, bearing witness to “the Son” in human nature on earth, on whom “the Spirit” had descended and now abode. Add to all this, that since this declaration was immediately upon the baptism of Christ, it shows that his Father highly approved of, and was well pleased with his submission to that ordinance; and which should be an encouraging motive to all believers to follow him in it. The blood of Christ covers those who love and obey God and believe in his plan of redemption from his word. His Grace is sufficient to cover all their sins.

You would have to be willing to seek to know the true God in a way you have never done before and accept him with love in your heart! You must be willing to “come out” of this modern Babylon, its ideas and practices, its false religions, idolizing and philosophies and devote yourself to earnestly study and to “live by every word of God” (Luke 4:4).

The choice is yours to make! May God help you to choose rightly.

That you be God’s people and he be your God, even on a most personal level. A sign of God’s people is their true love for him and fellow men. The sign of Gods people is their willing obedience to his command to remember the Sabbath of the Lord thy God, the number 7 day of the week. A rhythm that is found to be written in the cells of the human body as a law of nature. The 7th day made holy by God the creator. As in music which some interpret as the way God spoke creation into existence, there are notes for sounds and what are called rest notes which nothing is played or sounded, but is counted in the measure as part of what makes up the rhythm. Rests create a dramatic pause. Rests of God are without stress or force. There is no unrest there, which is where the devil operates. That is the divinely instilled order of God which he blessed and made holy to commemorate his creation masterpiece.. Who is on key with God and follows his order as an orchestra is conducted by a Meistro, conducts himself in the key signature it is written in. The word of God. The 7th Day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. This is the dividing line commandment of the commandments of God that were were written in stone by the finger if God and handed to Moses to be placed in the Ark of the covenant which was a copy of the one that is in heaven. The first 4 commandments define the duty of man to God. The 5th through the 10th define mans duty to fellow man. But the 4th commandment seals the soul with Gods name on their forehead when the worship of God is honored according to his explicit will on this Day. It commemorates God as their creator. To know and understand this choice is the pivotal point where the axis of good and evil shift. Everyone on the face of the earth will be told of this and will be put in a position to choose which they shall serve. To serve by humbly submitting their will to the true God who created them out of love in their (Elohim) image to the glory of God, for that stated purpose. Or, to serve the imposter to the throne, the Dragon, the Accusor, the serpant, the ant-christ in his various forms, the devil Satan and his demonic hordes by default. The false deification and worship involving the Sun which is rooted in the imposter’s religion or church, the woman, whore and her daughters the whires of Babylon. Choose before the curtain in heaven is closed and he who is declared rightiousness at that moment remains rightiousness forever in eternity, and he who is unrighteousness is doomed with the wicked to be cut off from inheriting the kingdom of heaven. That deadly contaminated branch will be thrown in the fire that will destroy and cleanse the world and universe from the contamination to make way for a new heaven and earth to bring the holy city down upon. Where the Sabbath and new Moons will be celebrated for eternity with God who will reside his presence among his people as their loving king, where they are invited in to the joy of his rest.


Role Reversal Refuted!


Robert Phillips

“And Jacob said unto Joseph. .. thy two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine… And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near unto him. And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the firstborn. And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth. And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his father’s hand, to remove it from Ephraim’s head unto Manasseh’s head And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father:for this is the firstbom; put thy right hand upon his head. And his father refused, and said, I know it,my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great:but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations.And he blessed them thatday, saying, In thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh: and he set Ephraim before Manasseh.” – (GENESIS 48:3-20)

To fully appreciate the significance of the blessing of Joseph’s two sons, we need to understand some background with regard to both history and prophecy in relation to Israel. The promises to the tribes of Israel were specifically reserved for the “LAST DAYS”, or “CHRISTIAN ERA” – Genesis 49:1, Hebrews 1:1,2. The rebellion of the ten tribes in the North, against the Throne of David, in the time of Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, is foretold in 1 Kings 11:9-13, and 29-32. This northern ten-tribe division retained the name ISRAEL.The tribe of Judah, in the South, were granted the loyal support of the tribe of Benjamin, and were collectively known as JUDAH. Understanding this division of ISRAEL and JUDAH is essential, in order to rightly apply prophecy. 2 Kings 17 gives a summary of how, because of sin, God took ten-tribe ISRAEL away from the throne of Judah, and eventually caused them to go into exile in Assyria. They did not return! The fact is,both Ezra and Nehemiah record that only 42,360 of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, returned to Judea from exile in Babylon, together with a “mixed multitude” see Ezra 2:64, Nehemiah 7:66, 13:3. From these, the Jews of Jesus’ day descended. It is clear therefore, that to identify ISRAEL in both history and prophecy we have to distinguish Israel from the Jews. It was prophesied that ISRAEL would lose their identity, God referring to them as “not my people”, in other words, a people who would not be identified as Israel (Hosea 1:10, 2:23), yet we may identify Israel by the destiny they were to fulfil! I Chronicles 5:1 tells us the “BIRTHRIGHT was given unto the SONS OF JOSEPH”. This means that, through the descendants of the SONS OF JOSEPH, God would fulfil the great promises of Israel’s greatness! That greatness included the promise given to Jacob in Genesis 35:11:

“I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply: a NATION and a COMPANY OF NATIONS shall be of thee, and Kings shall come out of thy loins… ”

Clearly ISRAEL was to be a NATION with a MONARCHY, which would expand to become a “COMPANY OF NATIONS”!

The account of the blessing of Joseph’s sons, EPHRAIM and MANASSEH, is recorded in Genesis Chapter 48. It is staggering that Jacob chose his grandsons, the sons of Joseph to be bearers of the BIRTHRIGHT. That birthright was the passing on of the promises given to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob himself! This included the promise given to Jacob, that his seed would become a “NATION AND COMPANY OF NATIONS”! The reason was that, though they were actually his grandsons, Jacob adopted the sons of Joseph as his own sons. It was, in fact, the highest honour he could give to Joseph, that his sons would not only be equal with the other sons of Jacob, but would have the birthright. Yet Jacob went further than this. Although Manasseh was the elder of the two lads, whilst giving both EPHRAIM and MANASSEH a share of the birthright, Jacob gave the firstborn-portion to EPHRAIM! In fact, Ephraim is God’s firstborn! (Jeremiah 31:9)

To identify modern ISRAEL,we are clearly looking for a people who, though not recognised as Israel, have the hallmarks of Israel-identity. God had told Abraham his seed would be GREAT and their name “GREAT”! Jacob’s descendants were to become a “NATION AND COMPANY OF NATIONS”, a prophecy entailed in the birthright given to the sons of Joseph.

The indisputable fact that no other Nation is named “GREAT”,or has become a Company or Commonwealth of Nations in precisely this way, is in itself irrefutable proof that GREAT BRITAIN is EPHRAIM, and that the prophecy had firstborn fulfilment in the Nation of Great Britain and its Commonwealth of Nations, the “Multitude of Nations” prophesied by Jacob. The Roman Empire, at its height, tyrannically ruled approximately a quarter of the then known world. At its height, the benign British Empire ruled over a third of the earth’s surface, becoming the greatest Empire of all time, its “branches ran over the wall!”(Genesis 49:22.) Many of these nations now have independence, yet Queen Elizabeth II remains “Head of the Commonwealth”, representing over 30% of the world’s population.

The portion of the birthright given to MANASSEH is unquestionably fulfilled in the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Joseph represented the greatest, richest power on earth in his day, and that blessing was passed on to both his sons, first Ephraim and second Manasseh. Ephraim’s position has diminished, at this time, partly for reasons of judgment, and partly to allow Manasseh to enjoy, in turn, Joseph’s pre-eminence in wealth and power. But this does not alter history, or reverse Ephraim’s prophetic mandate.

Recently, there have been attempts by some Anglo-Israel believers, mainly in America, to reverse the identities of Ephraim and Manasseh. Those who take the position that America is Ephraim, argue that the “STATES” fulfil the criteria of a “COMPANY OF NATIONS”.

Now, I love America, and have many wonderful Christian friends there, some of whom may differ from me on this. I certainly have no wish to give offence, but I believe truth is paramount. Iwould prefer it if an American had written this article, however I am glad that there are also many American Anglo-Israel believers who agree with me on this issue. The U.S.A. declares itself to be “one Nation under God”, a single NATION or REPUBLIC, constituting a FEDERATION OF STATES, NOT a “COMPANY OF NATIONS”! It is, in fact, a dangerous position to take, to attempt to uncross Jacob’s hands and usurp Ephraim’s mandate. AMERICA precisely fulfils MANASSEH’S role. Indeed, the amazing accuracy of this prophecy is awesome! Even the use of words is significant. MANASSEH was to become a GREAT PEOPLE! The word “people” (in contrast to a “company of nations”) is significant, suggesting Manasseh would become a REPUBLIC, as distinct from a MONARCHY! The word “people” means a “multitude gathered as a unit”, which is exactly what the UNITED STATES OFAMERICA is. Undoubtedly, a broad representation of Israel tribes is gathered in AMERICA under the leadership of the MANASSEH branch of the BIRTHRIGHT PEOPLE!

Those who contend for the ‘America-Ephraim’ theory use arguments including the following:

(1) It has been said that since America is younger than Britain, then America must be Ephraim, because he was the younger of the two sons. We will show that in fact, the opposite is true.

(2) Some quote the verse: “The elder shall serve the younger”, as though it implies that America (the ‘younger’) will be greater than Britain, the ‘elder’ (Genesis 25:23). In fact, this verse refers to the relationship of Jacob and Esau, and has nothing whatsoever to do with Ephraim and Manasseh. Both America and Britain have supported each other, especially in international military conflict, as prophesied, but neither is subservient to the other.

(3) Some have sought proof of ‘Ephraimite’ identity from the fact that America has some of the world’s most verdant resources (Isaiah 28:1). However, often prophecies addressed to “EPHRAIM” as the leading tribe, apply to Israel in general. In fact, all territories possessed by both Ephraim and Manasseh are areas of great abundance, blessing and natural resources.

(4) Some claim the reference in Isaiah 28:1 to “Ephraim” being “drunk with wine” identifies the U.S.A. rather than Britain, since Britain’s national drink is beer. Again this verse applies to the Israel nations as a whole, which all have a major alcohol problem. The Hebrew word for “wine” is “yayin” which is applicable to light alcohol in general. Although many men still prefer ale, beer or lager, not only is wine made in Britain, but also it is becoming a major wine consuming nation. In fact alcohol consumption is equally varied in both Britain and America. However, reference to being “drunk with wine” can also be symbolic in prophecy.

(5) One writer states that the “wild ox”, which characterises America, is a symbol of Ephraim. He has it the wrong way round! The “wild ox” does represent America, but is the symbol of Manasseh! The “bull”, a symbol of Britain (“John Bull”), is Ephraim (Deuteronomy 33:17).

In fact, the attempts of some American-Israel believers to reverse the identities of Ephraim and Manasseh ironically add weight to American-Manasseh identity, as one of the meanings of “manasseh” is “forgetting”, and in order to make their case, they have to FORGET 300 YEARS OF HISTORY! With the greatest admiration for the U.S.A. – a truly GREAT PEOPLE – frankly, it has to be said that the case for claiming the U.S.A. is Ephraim cannot be made, as from the standpoint of history, there never has been a greater power than Great Britain, which ruled, and through the Commonwealth still influences a third of the world’s population!

The following are 12 Reasons why Ephraim is Britain and Manasseh is America and why the Roles cannot be Reversed:

(1) Jacob placed Ephraim BEFORE Manasseh, and he was called the FIRSTBORN:

Those who take the ‘Ephraim-U.S.A.’ position do so precisely on the grounds that America is the younger, as was Ephraim.Yet this undermines the whole point of the ‘Ephraim Blessing’, which was to set him before Manasseh. The term “firstborn” in both Hebrew and Greek Scriptures consistently means literally first-born!

As the younger son, for Ephraim to become the firstborn would mean his offspring would be literally first-born into their prophetic identity, fulfilling their destiny first! Since America is the younger of the two peoples, those who argue the ‘America-Ephraim’ theory must explain how the U.S.A. can be called the ‘firstbom’ when, in relation to Great Britain, America is NOT in any sense the first-born! If Ephraim is America, then his role as ‘firstborn’ is meaningless, and he has reverted to his original position as the younger son. Though Ephraim was originally the younger son of Joseph, the order was to be reversed in prophetic destiny. This means Ephraim’s destiny was to be fulfilled before that of Manasseh, and he would fulfil the role of the FIRSTBORN of the BIRTHRIGHT of Israel. So it was that EPHRAIM- originally the younger of the two sons – became the leading tribe of Israel, and the firstborn – i.e. GREAT BRITAIN – in prophetic destiny (Genesis 48:14-19, Jeremiah 31:9).

(2) Ephraim SET BEFORE Manasseh means he would be FIRST in both time and greatness:

The terms “set” and “before” both relate to order in terms of position and time. It is significant that of several Hebrew words of similar meaning, the words employed have to do with “setting in order” both in the sense of occurrence and importance. Since Great Britain came into being before the U.S.A. and at its height was greater in power and influence than any other nation before or since, where are the grounds for saying the U.S.A. is Ephraim, when quite clearly the opposite is true? The ‘American-Ephraim’ argument is, of course, based on the unquestioned fact that America is, today, the largest economy and greatest military power. This, however, far from proving the theory, actually supports the U.S.A. – Manasseh identity.

Since both sons shared the birthright, including Joseph’s legacy of pre-eminence, then each would have to take that position in his order – first EPHRAIM – Great Britain, second – MANASSEH- U.S.A. The fact that Britain entered into the height of its power in the 19th Century and America in the mid-20th Century bears this out. However, since the birthright is shared, neither can be completely independent of the other, so America and Britain have supported each other in World Conflicts in the prophesied Anglo-American Alliance (Deuteronomy 33:17). However, it is true to say both America and Great Britain are experiencing judgment and diminished influence in many respects, at this time, and there is every Biblical reason to believe both will ultimately be restored to their full greatness as part of God’s restoration of all Israel

(3) Manasseh would become a “GREAT PEOPLE”- AFTER Ephraim:

Though Manasseh was originally the elder son of Joseph, the order would be reversed in prophetic destiny. Jacob placed Ephraim before Manasseh. Yet, although Ephraim’s destiny was to be fulfilled first, Manasseh would also become a “GREAT PEOPLE”.The word “also” means “additionally” or “subsequently”, affirming that EPHRAIM would be before MANASSEH in coming to greatness and that MANASSEH – originally the first – would be the second of the two sons to come to greatness- i.e.U.S.A. – in prophetic fulfilment (Genesis 48:14-19.)

As MANASSEH historically occupied territory divided by water (River Jordan), so MANASSEH-U.S.A. today, is also divided by water from its families who remained in the British Isles. Those who hold to the ‘America-Ephraim’ theory, also contend that Britain is predominantly ‘Manasseh’. To take this position, they have to explain why, if America is Ephraim, it was Britain, not America, that was the firstborn in prophetic fulfilment, since the Ephraim “multitude of nations” – not Manasseh, the “great people” – were to be the firstborn! They must explain why, if Britain is ‘Manasseh’, Jacob’s prophecy specified that Manasseh was to become a “great people” after Ephraim! Obviously, all of these facts identify MANASSEH, not Ephraim, as AMERICA!

(4) Manasseh would be a REPUBLIC with a REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT, not a MONARCHY!

MANASSEH was to become a GREAT PEOPLE! The use of the word “people” in contrast to “company of nations” is significant, and implies a REPUBLIC, as distinct from a MONARCHY! The term “people” is very distinctive, meaning a “multitude gathered as a unit”, which is precisely what the United States of America is! It also implies diversity, suggesting Manasseh would become a Federation of States, yet “One Nation Under God”. Significantly, one of the meanings of the name “Manasseh” itself is RESPONSIBLE REPRESENTATION – NOT MONARCHY!

(5) America is Manasseh and Britain is Ephraim – confirmed by Prophetic Time Calculation:

The subjugation of the tribe of Manasseh to Assyria actually began in 745 B.C. If we calculate from this date the prophesied chastisement of 2520 years (i.e. the prophetic “seven times” Leviticus 26:24, 28) we arrive at A.D.1775-6, precisely when the 13 States signed their Declaration, and obtained Independence from Great Britain.

Ephraim was exiled to Assyria in 720 B.C. Calculating “7 Times” from that date we arrive at 1801 A.D. That very year, Great Britain became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

(6) America is Manasseh because Manasseh is the 13th Tribe:

When Jacob blessed Joseph’s sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, he adopted them as his sons, which placed them on a par with the other tribes. This meant Joseph was now represented by two tribes, making an overall total of thirteen tribes. Since Jacob “set Ephraim before Manasseh”, this meant MANASSEH was the THIRTEENTH tribe of Israel.

The prominence of the number 13 identifies AMERICA with MANASSEH the 13th Tribe:

1. 13 States signed The Declaration of Independence.

2. 13 Stars are above the Eagle on the American Seal.

3. 13 Letters form the motto ‘E Pluribus Unum’ – ‘one of many’.

4. 13 Leaves are on the Olive Branch, on the left talon

5. 13 Olives also, are on the left talon of the U.S. Seal

6. 13 Arrows are on the right talon of the Shield

7. 13 Stripes are featured on the Shield

8. 13 Stars were on the original U.S. Flag – ‘Old Glory’

9.13 Stripes also, were on ‘Old Glory’

10. 13 Stripes still feature on the current Flag of the U.S.A.

(7) America is Manasseh because of the meaning of the name:

1. ‘Forgetting’- this primary meaning characterises America’s pioneer spirit “Forgetting what lies behind and reaching forward to what lies ahead” (Philippians 3:13- N.A.S.).

2. ‘Responsible Representation’- this is prophetic of America’s Republican Constitution and affirms Manasseh would be a Republic, not a Monarchy!

3. ‘HaMachir’ – It is said that America was named after Americo Vespucci. Apparently, this same man was referred to in Hebrew manuscripts under the name ‘HaMachir’, from which the name ‘Americo’ derives. ‘HaMachir’ means ‘from Machir’. Machir was the firstborn son of Manasseh (Genesis 50: 23). Therefore the very name ‘America’ identifies the offspring of Manasseh. Of significance also is the fact that the word ‘machir’ denotes the principle of Salesmanship or Capitalism – doesn’t that sound like America?

(8) Britain is Ephraim and America is Manasseh because of the population differential:

One of the marks of Israel would be that Ephraim and Manasseh “..shall push the people together to the ends of the earth [a clear reference to the Anglo-American alliance] and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim and they are the thousands of Manasseh” (Deuteronomy 33:17).

Now whilst this was not intended as a precise population ratio, it does indicate that EPHRAIM would in some way have a considerably larger representation than MANASSEH. However, there is only one way a distinction of this magnitude between AMERICA and GREAT BRITAIN can apply.

Please consider the following facts:

1 This distinction does not apply on a tribal basis, as descendants of both the tribes of EPHRAIM and MANASSEH are to be found in differing proportions in both BRITAIN and AMERICA, as well as other related lands. And there is no evidence of a proportionate difference on this scale between tribal EPHRAIM and MANASSEH in BRITAIN and AMERICA respectively or globally.

2 This distinction does not apply on a racial basis, if the populations of EPHRAIM and MANASSEH are calculated strictly to include only those who are truly of Israel (i.e. Anglo-Saxon-Celtic) lineage, which does not include all Caucasian peoples. America does not have ten times more than Britain and the Commonwealth. In fact the proportion is substantially higher in the British Isles, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In overall terms, however, it has been estimated that the combined Anglo-Saxon-Celtic population of Great Britain and the Commonwealth Nations, on the one hand, and that of the U.S.A.on the other, is probably about equal, in both cases.

3 It does not apply, as some have suggested, in military terms, as forces deployed in wars have varied proportionately, and at no stage on a ten-to-one ratio.

4 This verse clearly applies, not just to EPHRAIM and MANASSEH as tribes, but as global powers, and to the “TEN THOUSANDS” and “THOUSANDS” in their respective spheres of influence. Remember, God has given Israel an inheritance amongst other races, who are citizens, or give allegiance to them respectively, or may be counted as allies in times of conflict! (Psalms 2:8.) Although by no means all AMERICAN, and BRITISH and COMMONWEALTH peoples are of Israelite stock, in terms of overall population, the U.S.A. has approx. 280 MILLION people, and GREAT BRITAIN and the COMMONWEALTH represents combined populations of 2 BILLION – approx. 30% of the world’s population give allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II, as Head of the Commonwealth.

So, in terms of overall populations and allegiance, the “THOUSANDS OF MANASSEH” and “TEN THOUSANDS OF EPHRAIM” have become the MILLIONS OF AMERICA and the combined BILLIONS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND THE COMMONWEALTH!

(9) Britain is Ephraim because Ephraim is the Leading Tribe:

The ‘American-Ephraim’ theorists have totally overlooked the fact that in order for Britain to be Manasseh, as they claim, this would have meant a complete role-reversal! It would have meant that, at the point of being re-gathered in the British Isles, ‘Manasseh’ took the leading role, whilst ‘Ephraim’ took a subordinate role until the colonisation of America. In fact, the reverse is true! This distinction does not apply on a tribal basis, as Jacob’s youngest grandson, Ephraim, was made the firstborn – the leading tribe of all Israel! Israel was divided into 4 camps consisting of 3 tribes each, and Ephraim was the leading tribe of the west camp consisting of the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. That is why, when Ephraim, Manasseh and representations of Benjamin and other tribes were gathered in the British Isles, Ephraim was the leading tribe and consequently it was Ephraim’s prerogative to establish Great Britain, the British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations.

Clearly EPHRAIM is the leading tribe of Great Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations. As firstborn of the birthright, EPHRAIM-BRITAIN became the greatest, richest power on earth. For this reason, as well as many others, GREAT BRITAIN is identified as EPHRAIM! The firstborn was known as the “bull” – a symbol of Great Britain (Deuteronomy 33:17).

As long as MANASSEH remained in Britain, he could not fulfil his destiny, because he would always be subordinate to EPHRAIM. The only way for MANASSEH to become the GREAT PEOPLE of Jacob’s prophecy was to be SEPARATED from EPHRAIM.

MANASSEH could not take a leadership role, or fulfil prophetic destiny, until after EPHRAIM – the firstborn and leading tribe – had entered into his inheritance. Not until MANASSEH was SEPARATED from EPHRAIM, could he also obtain his father, Joseph’s legacy, and so, in turn, MANASSEH, as the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, at this moment, occupies the prime position of wealth and power of any single Nation, reinforced by the ANGLO-AMERICAN ALLIANCE.

Let us not forget, however, that BRITAINonce occupied that position in a far greater capacity than ANY other nation, past or present! Also, whilst the riches and power of MANASSEH-U.S.A. are contained within a single republic, EPHRAIM represents the combined population, wealth and influence of GREAT BRITAIN, its MONARCHY, and COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS!

(10) Ephraim would be a “Multitude of Nations” and Manasseh a “Great People”:

The prophecy contained in Genesis 48:19 is a confirmation of Genesis 35:11, that Israel would be a Nation and Company of Nations. The major fulfilment of this prophecy to Israel was entailed in the birthright given to Ephraim and Manasseh, and it was Ephraim, the designated firstborn, who was to fulfil the greater part, becoming a Company of Nations!

One ‘Ephraim-America’ argument is that since Manasseh was to be a “great people” they must be ‘Britain’ since it is called ‘Great Britain’, and America must be Ephraim, because it is called ‘United States’, which they say means ‘community of nations’.

Although Manasseh was to be a ‘great’ people, Scripture nowhere states that Manasseh’s ‘name’ would be ‘Great’! That was reserved for the seed of Abraham and passed on to Isaac and Jacob, then to Ephraim, as the ‘firstborn’ of Israel! (Genesis 12:2.) The word ‘great’, with regard to Manasseh in Genesis 48:19, refers not to a ‘name’, but to a ‘great people’. Indeed this very verse states that Ephraim would be GREAT in a manner exceeding Manasseh, so the name “GREAT” rightly belongs, not to Manasseh but to Ephraim, the heir of the firstborn inheritance of ISRAEL!

The claim that the United States is a “company of nations”, is contradicted byAmerica’s claim to be “One Nation Under God”. America is a UNION OF STATES CONSTITUTING A FEDERAL REPUBLIC – it is not A “COMPANYOF NATIONS”. There are many nations consisting of a plurality of States, so America is not unique in that respect. The Russian Federation, for instance, is a Federation of Republics, and Germany a Federation of States. Many other Nations have States or Provinces that have a degree of self-government, but are not Nations in themselves.

“STATE – In such countries as the United States, Australia, Nigeria, Mexico, and Brazil, the term state (or a cognate) also refers to political units not sovereign themselves, but subject to the authority of the larger state or federal union.” Copyright @ 1994-2002 Encyclopcedia Britannica, Inc.

The U.S.A.consists of one, NOT many republics! America is not a ‘company of nations’ but a single nation, and its States are “political units not sovereign themselves, but subject to the authority of the larger State or Federal Union” constituting – by their own definition ONE NATION! It is emphatically not a “multitude of nations”!

The plain statement that Ephraim would be a multitude of nations refers not to a division of ‘States’ within a single Federation, but to many nations with distinctive identity,e.g. Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand etc. Whilst the U.S.A.cannot, in all honesty, be defined as a “multitude of nations”, the definition certainly applies to Great Britain.

The distinction between Ephraim and Manasseh is precisely the fact that Ephraim would become a “multitude of nations”. The ‘America-Ephraim’ theory, vainly attempts to make America what it is NOT, whilst blatantly denying what Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations so clearly IS!

It is, to say the least, intellectual dishonesty, to attempt to say America answers the description of Ephraim as a ‘company of nations’ whilst at the same time denying that status to Great Britain, relegating it to a ‘single nation’!

Whilst the riches and power of MANASSEH-USA are contained within a single republic, EPHRAIM represents the combined population, wealth and influence of GREAT BRITAIN, its MONARCHY, and COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS!

It is true that many of the Commonwealth Nations now have their independence. Yet it is a very interesting fact, especially in view of the claims of ‘abuses’ of British Colonialism, that the same nations that were once part of the British Empire remain Members of the Commonwealth, and honour the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth!

However, there remain many Crown Dependencies and Commonwealth Realms, over whom H.M. Queen Elizabeth II is still Sovereign Head of State – Nations such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many others. In fact, if as our ‘America-is-Ephraim’ friends insist, we are to recognise a ‘state’ constituted similarly to those within the U.S.A., as a ‘nation’, then if we count the Nations, States and Provinces constituting Great Britain, the Crown Dependencies and Realms alone, they total approximately twice as many as the U.S.A. On this basis, Britain and the Commonwealth would represent an even greater ‘multitude of nations’ or, by their definition, many ‘communities of nations’. But we prefer to stay within the precise meaning of the English language!

Great Britain consists of the historic Nations of the United Kingdom of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Offshore Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories. The 54 Nations that constitute the Commonwealth of Nations – including Commonwealth Realms such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and many more who retain the Queen as Head of State, as well as many independent Nation-States – all recognise the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. In fact, including the Offshore and Overseas Territories already mentioned, Britain and the Commonwealth consist of over 70 Countries, with an overall population of almost 2 billion people, representing over 30% of the world’s population. To say this does NOT fulfil the criteria of a “Company of Nations”, is nothing short of ludicrous!

(11) The name “Ephraim” proves Britain – not America- is Ephraim:

The word “ephrayim” means “double fruitfulness” or “abundantly fruitful”. ‘American-Ephraim’ theorists refer tothe fact that America is fruitful, which it unquestionably is, in so many respects. Yet again, they miss the point! In fact, all the tribes of Israel were to share in fruitfulness, but the special fruitfulness of Israel was to be shared particularly by the birthright tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, who would become a great people and a multitude of nations (Genesis 48:4,19). However the greater, double or abundant fruitfulness of Israel, to be fulfilled by Ephraim, was the prerogative to fulfil the primary mandate, to “be fruitful and multiply”, becoming a company or multitude of nations with a monarchy (see Genesis 35:11 with 28:3 and 48:4).

The greater fruitfulness was to be fulfilled in being multiplied into a multitude of nations! This has not been fulfilled by America!

Addressing the ISLES, God said:

“The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other, shall say again in thine ears, The place is too strait for me: give place to me that I may dwell” – (Isaiah 49:20).

This was a very clear reference to the fact that after the ISLES had lost the first offspring-nation (a clear prophecy of the birth and Independence of America), other offspring nations would be formed, in the process of expansion. It was in fact, Great Britain who, after losing its first colony (U.S.A.) went on to multiply into a multitude of nations with world-wide territories. With respect, as great as America is, it has not multiplied itself in this way. It was not America who gave birth to Canada, Australia, New Zealand and about 50 other colonies, eventually making them self-governing nations – but Great Britain! Regardless of what claims may be made, it is frankly, not America, but Britain that has fulfilled the Ephraim-mandate!

(12) As the “Firstborn”, Ephraim would have the primary hallmarks of Israel Identity:

Israel was to be a great nation, actually named “GREAT” (Genesis 12:2).The word “name” here is more than a descriptive term, but is a word commonly used with reference to a NAME! The double use of “great”, coupled with the word “name” indicates that Israel would not only be great but would actually be named “GREAT”!

They were to be relocated in ISLES, in the North-West (Isaiah 41:1, 8, 42:4, 49:1-3,12). They would number many millions, and would possess the “gates of their enemies” (Genesis 22:17, 24:60). They would “dwell in the midst of the earth” (Genesis 48:16) and be a colonising people (Isaiah 49:20). They would be a monarchy whose ‘hand’ or power-base would be “IN THE SEA” [i.e. in ISLES] (Psalm 89:25). Each of these marks of identity has been fulfilled by Great Britain.

Britain’s Ephraim-Mandate is evident in that it was Britain that colonised and built the world’s greatest Empire, and established its Commonwealth of Nations. It was Britain that led the way in Industrial Revolution. Britain was in the forefront of many major technological and engineering developments, including building the first modern computer.

In fact, there have sadly been attempts to re-write history, in order to play-down or ignore the significant role played by Britain, in major technological, scientific and military achievements.

For a number of years America has been enjoying Manasseh’s portion of the birthright. Some believe that, although Jacob appointed his younger brother Ephraim as Israel’s firstborn, this did not prejudice Manasseh’s inheritance as Joseph’s firstborn. In other words, whilst Ephraim would inherit the primary Israel birthright, territorial blessing and monarchy, Manasseh would receive the double-portion of Joseph’s material legacy of wealth and power. As long as Britain remained predominant, America could never enjoy Joseph’s prominence of wealth and power. This may explain why Britain had to diminish, for a time, so America could receive Manasseh’s inheritance, becoming, in his season, prevalent in material blessings.

Now, however,America’s position is also weakened. Manasseh is experiencing its share of Jacob’s Trouble. America has been attacked in its very edifices of wealth and power, the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, symbolic of the way its economic and military resources are being drained by its “War on Terror”! It is Ephraim-Britain that has proved to be the primary ally of his brother Manasseh. America’s economic strength is now being affected by a huge deficit, and the dollar which for years has been the symbol of the strongest economy, is now weak against a strong British pound and other currencies.

It may be true that America has, in recent years, led the way in technology, innovation and living standards. But most Americans believe they are still ‘ahead of the game’, and are oblivious of the fact that they have been slipping backward in recent years, whilst others, especially in Britain and Europe, have been catching up. Whilst it may be true that the average American wage is still higher, there is now a greater parity of living standards in Britain and America. Britain, in recent years, has taken a leading role in telecommunications, interactive television, digital technology, and other ground-breaking technological, scientific, genetic and medical developments. Britain played a significant part in pioneering supersonic aircraft, and now the super jumbo jet, which could revolutionise air-travel. These, and many other factors, perhaps point to a shift in the tilt of the Anglo-American power balance. In any event “the powers that be are ordained of God”!

With the greatest respect and honour to those Americans, who fought or gave their lives in two World Wars, it cannot be denied, as a fact of history, that Great Britain and its Commonwealth allies fought a substantial part of two World Wars prior to U.S. involvement. As one writer states: “The first and second World Wars were won by Britain and her daughters, with the U.S.A. assisting and assuring victory AFTER the trend of the struggle had been decided in both cases”.

The British R.A.F., with Commonwealth support, defending the British Isles against the axis-powers’ air attack, fought and won the Battle of Britain in 1940. There is no parallel in modem history! It was the major turning-pointof World War II (see 1Chronicles 17:9-10).

It is to be noted that when the United States did join the war effort, they did so, not as individual states, but as a SINGLE nation or people (MANASSEH) – joining forces with an alliance of nations – Great Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations (EPHRAIM) (Deuteronomy 33:17).

The initial, decisive role played by the British-Commonwealth Alliance of Nations all giving allegiance to the British Crown – the Throne of David – in the two greatest Wars of human history – as well as all the other facts mentioned – are undeniable proofs of the identity of Great Britain and the Commonwealth as EPHRAIM, the firstborn of birthright Israel!

Great Britain may no longer have its Empire, but the extent of its role in world affairs should not be underestimated! It has been argued that influence is more powerful than economic or military strength. No longer the most ‘powerful’ nation, economically or militarily, Britain’s historic political, commercial and territorial connections ensure that it is powerful in terms of influence. Indeed, it is fair to say that its influence, including its military, intelligence and diplomatic involvement in so many parts of the world, stretches far beyond Europe, the Commonwealth, and the Anglo-American alliance, and is in some respects, perhaps second to none.

The FACTS of history cannot be rewritten, neither can the roles of its two main players be reversed, but rather they serve to demonstrate how GOD has, so faithfully and precisely, honoured His Word!

There are numerous other reasons that could be given, in support of the position that Britain is Ephraim and America is Manasseh, but I believe an honest assimilation of the points made, will verify the position beyond dispute.

It is not without significance that it is the British Flag, the Union Jack – signifying the Union of Jacob – that has the diagonal cross at its centre, symbolic of Jacob’s crossed hands, which affirmed the role to be fulfilled by Ephraim! The British Flag is the symbol of Ephraim’s Blessing – it’s Ephraim’s Flag! Would God have given Ephraim’s Flag to Manasseh? If America is Ephraim, why doesn’t it have Ephraim’s Flag?

Even the name ‘BRIT-ISH’ derives from the Hebrew meaning ‘Covenant-Man’!

Reference could also be made to the location of the Throne of David in Great Britain, which is, in itself, essential to the distinctive role of EPHRAIM-BRITAIN as the heartland of the Birthright COMPANY OF NATIONS! According to Hebrew scholarship, the name “Ephraim” denotes ‘aristocracy’. It is GREAT BRITAIN that has an aristocracy – not America!

Without doubt, that which above all, gives Ephraim- Britain precedence is its THRONE! Its cohesive influence, and the respect and loyalty it commands both within and beyond the Commonwealth, represents perhaps the greatest influence and stabilising factor in the modern world. Concerning that Throne, God said there would always be a descendant of David to occupy the throne of the house of Israel (Jeremiah 33:17).The British Throne is the Throne of the house of Israel. Some concede the Throne is in Britain, yet seemingly believe the chief tribe and nucleus of the house of Israel is across the ocean on another Continent! Without doubt, there is a significant representation of Israel in America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, Northwest Europe and other lands. But equally without doubt, the nucleus of the designated firstborn of Israel is located where the throne is, reigning not only over Israel in the Isles, but over all the other branches of the house of Israel, who still give allegiance to that Throne!

I should add, allegiance is to the Throne, and what it represents. The Royal Family is fallible, like the rest of us. But what that Throne represents is a Covenant that cannot be broken, and a Kingdom that cannot be shaken, and He shall come whose right it is, to take His Throne, as great David’s greater Son, the Messiah, Lord Jesus Christ!

In summary, to substantiate the reverse position necessitates defining the world’s greatest federal republic (U.S.A.) as a company of individual nations, whilst simultaneously denying the status of Great Britain, and the territories and realms associated with it, and with its monarchy, as a commonwealth of nations. It makes nonsense of Jacob’s placing Ephraim before Manasseh, and totally confuses their distinctive roles. It robs Ephraim of his firstborn-status, and is effectively, a blatant attempt to ‘uncross’ the hands of Jacob. Frankly, Ido not believe God will bless and anoint our preaching of the Gospel of the Kingdom, if we misrepresent it in this way!

The case for denying the role of Great Britain as Ephraim, and reversing his role with that of Manasseh cannot be made, in honesty, as from the standpoint of history, there never has been a greater power than Great Britain, which ruled, and through the Commonwealth still influences a third of the world’s population! Israel was to “spread abroad to the West, East, North and South”, a promise clearly fulfilled by Great Britain’s world-wide Commonwealth of Nations. No other Nation has fulfilled, or exceeded, the greatness of Great Britain!

Close to 100 nations joined in the celebrations of the Queen’s Jubilee on June 2nd-3rd 2002. This event has helped to awaken us to the amazing significance of the British Monarchy, as the Throne of David, a significance rooted in Israel’s history and Biblical prophecy. It was significant also – that in the 50th Year of Queen Elizabeth II – Britain hosted the Commonwealth Games, with entrants from 72 countries, all giving allegiance to the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth of Nations! We ask, what other Monarch, President or Head of State commands such an allegiance?

Is this not proof that BRITAIN-EPHRAIM, even in its present spiritual blindness, is still fulfilling a role of far greater significance than most people recognise?

It is a sad day when Anglo-Israel believers are vying like the disciples, as to “who is greatest in the Kingdom of God”.

One of the beautiful factors about a right understanding of Ephraim-Manasseh Truth is that whilst Manasseh would become a great people in his own right, Ephraim’s greatness should not give undue cause for pride, because it is a greatness vested, not in one nation as such, but in a company of nations. In this way, no single nation can say, “I am the greatest”, but God alone gets all the glory!

Essentially, we are all one people, and there are representations of both tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh on both sides of the Atlantic, though in differing proportions. All the tribes of Israel are undoubtedly represented, in varying degrees, in all the Israel nations, and therefore we all have an equally significant role to play regardless of what tribe we represent.

At the end of the day, the primary issue is that we recognise our collective Israel identity. Tribalism and narrow nationalism really has no place in God’s economy. Regardless of what part of Israel we live in, we should rejoice in the fulfilling of the plan and purpose of God, and we should glory, not in our nationhood, or even our Israelitish identity, but in the GOD of Israel- “He that glories, let him glory in the Lord”.

Hasten the day, when the Lord Jesus Christ Himself will reign, as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and all the Kingdoms of this World become the Kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ever and ever!

Definitions – Encyclopedia Britannica:

U.S.A. – a federal republic of 50 states

STATE – In such countries as the United States, Australia, Nigeria, Mexico, and Brazil, the term state (or a cognate) also refers to political units not sovereign themselves, but subject to the authority of the larger state or federal union.

U.S.STATE – defined as “constituent state of the United States of America”.

CONSTITUENT – an essential part, component, element

Copyright @1994-2002 Encyclopredia Britannica, Inc.

The above definitions clarify that each State in the U.S.A. is a component part of One Federal Republic, and as such, a State cannot be defined as a “nation”. U.S. States are designated as “sub-national entities”.



“And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.”

America is the “Lamb with two horns”. “Two horns” symbolize “civil” and “ecclessiastical” powers, also known as the “separation of church and state”. That’s what these two horns mean. America started as a nation like a Lamb, meek and gentle; but now America acts as an authoritarian figure with a dictatorial rulership (speaks as a Dragon), and is able to devour any nation that will go against her policies and will. Not even the United Nations, can thwart her plans and decisions.
America started as a Christian nation founded on Biblical principles under Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. Now, America forbids even the reading of the Bible in schools and saying prayers to Jesus in public. It has began to remove icons of the ten commandments from every government insitution, and is now catering to the dictates of a lot of paganistic and atheistic religion. It has compromised with God’s Word, and she’s reaping a lot of recompense from God, such as the New York tragedy, the Katrina Hurricanes, and more. One day it will remove its “one nation under God” from their coins and money systems.

America started with a constitution that was founded on the Holy Scriptures. America’s Bill of Rights was pro-people and pro-God. Their bill of rights include the following rights and privileges:
Freedom of religion | Freedom of speech | Freedom of the press | Freedom to assemble | Freedom to petition the government | Freedom to bear arms | Protection from quartering soldiers | Protection from unreasonable search and seizure | Freedom from double jeopardy | Right to a speedy trial | Right to face an accuser | Protection against self incrimination | Right to trial by jury | Protection from excessive bails and fines | Protection from cruel and unusual punishment.
Yet how many of these rights are still in effect today?

It seems that prayer upsets some people in America. When Minister Joe Wright was asked to open the new session of the Kansas Senate years ago, everyone was expecting the usual generalities, but this is what they heard instead:

” Heavenly Father, we come before you today to ask your forgiveness and to seek your direction and guidance. We know Your Word says, “Woe to those who call evil good”, but that is exactly what we have done. We have lost our spiritual equilibrium and reversed our values. We confess that. We have ridiculed the absolute truth of Your Word and called it Pluralism. We have exploited the poor and called it the lottery. We have rewarded laziness and called it welfare.
We have killed our unborn and called it choice. We have shot abortionists and called it justifiable. We have neglected to discipline our children and called it building self-esteem. We have abused power and called it politics.
We have coveted our neighbor’s possessions and called it ambition.
We have polluted the air with profanity and pornography and called it freedom of expression. We have ridiculed the time-honored values of our forefathers and called it enlightenment. Search us, Oh, God, and know our hearts today; cleanse us from every sin and set us free. Guide and bless these men and women who have been sent to direct us to the center of Your will and to openly ask these things in the name of Your Son, the living Savior, Jesus Christ. Amen!”

The response was immediate. A number of legislators walked out during the prayer in protest.


A most interesting presentation concerning the critical time we are living through in earths history.


The Ancient Mystery That Lies Behind America’s Future, Delineation Now Presented in Book Form!

The Message, Neither You Nor Your Friends Can Afford Not To Know!

Is it possible…
That there exists an ancient mystery that holds the secret of America’s future?
That this mystery lies behind everything from 9/11 to the collapse of the global economy?
That ancient harbingers of judgment are now manifesting in America?
That God is sending America a prophetic message of what is yet to come?
BEFORE ITS DESTRUCTION as a nation, ancient Israel received nine harbingers, prophetic omens of warning. The same nine harbingers are now manifesting in America—with immediate ramifications for end-time prophecy.

HIDDEN IN AN ANCIENT BIBLICAL PROPHECY from Isaiah, the mysteries revealed in The Harbinger are so precise that they foretold recent American events down to the exact days. The revelations are so specific that even the most hardened skeptics will find hard to dismiss. It sounds like the plot of a Hollywood thriller – with one difference… IT’S REAL.

THE PROPHETIC MYSTERIES ARE REVEALED THROUGH an intriguing and engaging narrative that would be hard to put down. The Harbinger opens with the appearance of a man burdened with a message he has received from a mysterious figure called The Prophet. The Prophet has given him nine seals, each containing a message about America’s future. As he tells of his encounters with The Prophet, from a skyscraper in New York City, to a rural mountaintop, to Capitol Hill, to Ground Zero, the mystery behind each seal is revealed. As the story unfolds, each revelation becomes a piece in a greater puzzle – the ramifications of which will even alter the course of the worlds history.

The mysteries of The Nine Harbingers of Judgment, the Mystery of the Shemitah, the Third Witness, & More!

The author of The Harbinger, Jonathan Cahn, introduces the mysteries of The Harbinger,

The Harbinger: the Ancient Mystery that holds the secret of America’s Future
THE STONE OF JUDGEMENT that was placed on Ground Zero by American leaders and the ancient drama they re-enacted.
THE ANCIENT MYSTERY THAT AFFECTED your savings, your bank account, your financial future, and the American and global economy

THE SIGN OF THE SYCAMORE and the prophetic revelation it contains concerning Wall Street and the future of America as a superpower

THE MYSTERY OF THE EREZ TREE that was lowered at the corner of Ground Zero in fulfillment of a Biblical prophecy

THE DAY A VICE-PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE UTTERED the ancient proclamation of judgment… on America

THE MYSTERY HIDDEN AT THE GROUND OF AMERICA’S FOUNDING & the prophetic message it contains for this hour

HOW THE TWO GREATEST COLLAPSES IN FINANCIAL HISTORY each took place on the exact same day and hour, on the precise year and day ordained from ancient times

The Prophecy That Was Proclaimed To The World Spoken From Capitol Hill the day after 9/11 – and then came to fulfillment



The Ancient Mystery That Lies Behind America’s Future in the Message!

Is it possible…
That there exists an ancient mystery that holds the secret of America’s future?
That this mystery lies behind everything from 9/11 to the collapse of the global economy?
That ancient harbingers of judgment are now manifesting in America?
That God is sending America a prophetic message of what is yet to come?
BEFORE ITS DESTRUCTION as a nation, ancient Israel received nine harbingers, prophetic omens of warning. The same nine harbingers are now manifesting in America—with immediate ramifications for end-time prophecy.

HIDDEN IN AN ANCIENT BIBLICAL PROPHECY from Isaiah, the mysteries revealed in The Harbinger are so precise that they foretold recent American events down to the exact days. The revelations are so specific that even the most hardened skeptics will find hard to dismiss. It sounds like the plot of a Hollywood thriller – with one difference… IT’S REAL.

THE PROPHETIC MYSTERIES ARE REVEALED THROUGH an intriguing and engaging narrative the reader will find hard to put down. The Harbinger opens with the appearance of a man burdened with a message he has received from a mysterious figure called The Prophet. The Prophet has given him nine seals, each containing a message about America’s future. As he tells of his encounters with The Prophet, from a skyscraper in New York City, to a rural mountaintop, to Capitol Hill, to Ground Zero, the mystery behind each seal is revealed. As the story unfolds, each revelation becomes a piece in a greater puzzle – the ramifications of which will even alter the course of world history.

For all who need to head the message of The Harbinger,

Now for the first time, the mysteries of The Harbinger available on one DVD disk, featuring the author, Jonathan Cahn, presenting the Nine Harbingers of Judgment, the Mystery of the Shemitah, the Third Witness, & More!

An Audio-Visual presentation complete with images and perfect for sharing with and introducing to others. From the author of The Harbinger, Jonathan Cahn, introduces the mysteries of The Harbinger, a summation and overview, in audio visual form, complete with images – all a single DVD!

Email at: contact
© 2011 The Harbinger – all rights reserved. You Can Also Order Any of These Things By Writing To:
Hope of the World – Box 1111 – Lodi, NJ 07644

An obscure passage in the Book of Isaiah describing the fall of ancient Israel has, since September 11, 2001, been eerily re-enacted in the United States exactly as it originally occurred in the time of the great prophet of Israel leading to the nation’s demise.

Jonathan Cahn, the author of The Harbinger, has been shocking audiences by revealing the astonishing parallels between the fall of ancient Israel and current events unfolding in the US, what he calls “an ancient mystery that holds the secret of America’s future and the collapse of the global economy.”

In this stunning new documentary The Isaiah 9:10 Judgment, Rabbi Cahn unravels the mystery behind this seemingly innocuous Biblical verse, and shows that ancient harbingers of judgment are now manifesting in America, just as they once did in Israel. This fascinating question asks, “Is God sending America a prophetic message of what will soon be?” and Rabbi Cahn provides the answers through mounting evidence that the answer is ‘yes.’

Cahn, Messianic rabbi and pastor of the Jerusalem Center/Beth Israel in Wayne, N.J., and the author of the “New York TImes” best-seller “The Harbinger”.

Jonathan Cahn Issues National Wake-Up Call,

What could an ancient mystery more than 2,500 years old mean to the future of your ministry? To understand its relevance for today, let me set the stage and go back to the last days of ancient Israel.

Before Israel’s destruction as a nation, nine harbingers appeared—nine warnings of destruction in a biblical template of national judgment. These same nine harbingers of judgment are now reappearing in modern America in specific detail. Some have appeared in New York City, some in Washington D.C., some have involved the highest leaders of the land, even the president of the United States. The manifestations of the harbingers involve such things as the Stone of Judgment, the Sign of the Sycamore, the Tower, the Utterance, the Prophecy and more.

The pattern begins with a national wake-up call: The nation’s hedge of protection is breached in some way. Years before the judgment, an enemy is allowed to strike the land. In the case of ancient Israel, that assault took place in 732 B.C. with the Assyrian invasion. In America, it happened on Sept. 11, 2001. After Assyria’s attack, Israel did not repent or turn back to the Lord. Neither has America. In fact, both nations descended deeper into apostasy. And in both cases, the first strike led to further shakings. In America, we saw the second strike as the U.S. economy collapsed. Behind this modern-day collapse was a stream of ancient mysteries, some of which actually identified and ordained the very dates, days and hours of the greatest economic crashes in American history.

A Nation at War
To understand what these harbingers mean for your ministry, we have to understand the biblical context. The backdrop is that of an ancient nation, founded on the Word of God and dedicated to His purposes. Yet over time Israel begins to drift away, departing from His ways more and more rapidly. It becomes a civilization at war against its own foundations, a culture turned in against itself, a nation in spiritual schizophrenia. Even in the wake of God’s warnings and shakings, Israel hardens itself against Him, a defiance that ultimately leads to its destruction.

We’re witnessing the same scenario happening to America. This nation, too, was founded upon and dedicated for God’s purposes. But like Israel, America has departed and is departing from God and His ways. It has become a nation at war against its own foundations, a culture turned in against itself, a civilization in spiritual schizophrenia. What this means is that as God’s ministers, we now find ourselves in the same position as the righteous who lived in the days of Israel’s apostasy. We are living and ministering in a culture increasingly set against our witness and ministry. As I write this article, America’s departure from God and His Word continues unabated and ever more rapidly.

When I began to write The Harbinger, the words flowed out like a stream, as if the book had already been written before I wrote it. The book released in the very first days of 2012. I believe there was a reason for that. In The Harbinger I wanted to voice a prophetic warning, sound an alarm, offer a wake-up call.

National Tipping Points
Last year (2012) was critical in America’s trajectory away from God. He warns before judgment. The year marked the first time in U.S. history when a sitting president publicly spoke against the biblical definition of marriage. It was the year that America re-elected the first president to take such a stand, not to mention a radically activist stand on abortion.

Many believers sensed that these political moves represented a tipping point. They did. The year wasn’t just about the presidency, as 2012 marked the first time that three states voted to end the biblical definition of marriage by popular vote. In each of these elections, the number of people seeking to protect the biblical definition of marriage was just under 50 percent, while the number seeking to end it was just over 50 percent—a tipping point. Among those voters aged 18 to 35, the percentage opposed to the biblical definition of marriage is now a stunning 70 percent. By the next presidential election, these statistics will represent virtually everyone up to 40 years old.

Moreover, these statistics parallel another sobering finding: Of those Americans under age 30, one-third of them do not consider themselves Christians—not even nominal ones. Other polls have revealed this to be more like 40 percent. Last year America witnessed an event that shocked many who witnessed it: At the 2012 Democratic Convention, a good half of the delegates vehemently booed when God and Jerusalem were mentioned. And this was the convention that won the presidential election.

Tipping points are, by nature, critical. Whether they happen in the physical or spiritual realm, a tipping point represents the moment of critical mass—when momentum dramatically increases and motion dramatically accelerates. It also represents the moment when movement and direction become dramatically clear and manifest. So it was that shortly after the election, the issue of redefining marriage reached the Supreme Court.

This past year was also a milestone of a different kind. Though the media strangely avoided the story altogether, 2012 marked the 50th anniversary of the year that America made a critical decision, its first dramatic step in removing God from its national life—the removal of prayer and then of the Bible from schools. That, too, was a landmark. It resulted in the transformation of American civilization.

This transformation has been so radical and complete that the America where virtually every major TV/radio station once closed its broadcasting day with Bible-based sermons now seems light years away. Can you imagine if someone from 1962—expecting to find TV shows such as Leave It to Beaver and Father Knows Best—turned on the television in 2013? How would today’s popular culture strike him? As nothing short of apocalyptic—much the same as the apostasy of ancient Israel would have struck the righteous of that day.

This is exactly what has happened. And if we are not as shocked as a viewer from 1962, it is only because we have become desensitized, step by step, by a civilization’s moral decay.

Yet all these things, as critical as they are, are merely symptoms, consequences of a larger phenomenon. It was the same in ancient times. Israel had also removed God from its public life, redefined morality and killed its own children. These were all visible symptoms of an ancient nation descending away from God and His truth, and rejecting the faith of its foundation.

The Nation You Once Knew
Imagine you were living in ancient Israel in the time of apostasy, harbingers and judgment, and had a ministry there. What would you do? The first thing you’d have to do is face the truth that the Israel you once knew—the Israel that once knew God—no longer existed. You are now living in a post-biblical nation in opposition to God and His ways. In the same way, we must now realize what we are facing. The America we once knew is gone. Our ministries now exist in the context of a nation in deep apostasy and a mainstream culture increasingly and ever more brazenly at war with the ways of God.

Imagine that as you sought to minister in ancient Israel you were told that if you wanted to reach youth, you needed to tone down your preaching of the Word of God, avoid the hard passages, be more culturally friendly, lighten it up, just encourage your hearers, and tell your country how to succeed and how to unleash the divine champion that resides within all of them. And while you were at it, since many of the youth were increasingly turning to the idol Baal, if you could just add some elements of Baal worship, you’d really win them over.

What Would Your Answer Be?
Here’s the bottom line: You are a minister, and ministers must minister what is needed. The need of a nation in apostasy is to hear the truth and to hear it loud and clear. Woe to us if we should compromise or remain silent. Woe to us if we should put the success of our ministries ahead of God’s will. Woe to us if we should put self-interest or the acceptance of man over what is right. Woe to us if we should tone down or compromise our preaching and teaching of the Word because of the pressure of the current times. And woe to us if we should fail to stand strong and faithful in an hour that requires nothing less.

Imagine you lived in such a time. The reality is that you don’t have to imagine it because you already do. In such a time, it is crucial that we not become weaker or softer in our witness, but bolder and stronger. We must now speak with a prophetic voice. We must take up the mantle of the watchman. And for the watchman to fulfill his charge, he must stay separate from the city. Thus, we must all the more be separate from the sins of our nation. We must all the more live all out and holy to fulfill God’s calling. Only those willing to be different can make a difference. The watchman must attend his post in his watchtower and dwell more deeply in the presence of God. Finally, we must lift up our trumpets, set them to our mouths and blow with all our might that the city might be saved.

We are called to be the light of the world. Had we truly been that light, America could never have gotten as dark as it now is. We are called to be the salt of the earth. Had we truly been that salt, the culture surrounding us could never have decayed so much. If this is true for God’s people, it is all the more true of God’s ministers. We have been given a charge. And to whom much is given, much is required.

Is There Hope?
I believe there is. These harbingers are warnings. If there were no hope, there would be no harbingers. I’m often asked what the future holds for America: judgment or revival? My answer is that there can be both. One of the key dynamics of the end times is polarization. As the dark gets darker, the light must get brighter. As the bad and corrupt gets worse, the good and the upright must become great. As the grays disappear from the darkness, they must equally disappear from the light. The light must become more pure, more radically light.

I wrote The Harbinger as a book of hope—a call to salvation, repentance and revival. And that hope is linked to another dynamic of the last days—the dynamic of return. In other words, the age comes full circle. What was in the beginning must return in the end. The fact that this article is being written by a Jewish believer in Messiah is part of that dynamic. The first believers ministered to an un-Christian, anti-Christian, pagan civilization. And so now we do, as well.

But those first believers didn’t let the darkness weaken their witness—just the opposite. They became even stronger. They made their choice, they drew their line in the sand, and they ministered all out, uncompromisingly, on fire, unstoppable for God.

The result was the book of Acts, where the disciples put into action all they’ve learned about and Jesus over the last three years walking and serving with Him. And God anointed it. We must do the same. And I fervently believe God will anoint it.

Time to Stand
No matter what happens in America or in the world, we must never minister on the defense or live in reaction to the darkness. We must, instead, still advance and act upon it. In the end there is only one winning side, and it belongs to those who walk in the will and purposes of God. Evil cannot stop those purposes. Last year was filled with key tipping points in the American apostasy. But it was also the year in which the The Harbinger’s warning and call to repentance began to spread across the nation. That message continues to spread through pulpits, church classrooms, Bible studies and word-of-mouth, with reports of repentance, salvation and revival.

In recent days, reports have come back that The Harbinger is now reaching Capitol Hill. Members of Congress are reading the book and taking it to heart. One leader called us to come to Washington to pray. There, inside the U.S. Capitol building, we were taken to a room in which a number of senators and representatives gather to pray. We were told they are praying for you—the pastor, the church leader—that you would proclaim and spread the Word of God uncompromisingly. More critical in the course of history than governments, emperors and kings is the ministry of God’s people. How much more must we take it to heart as His ministers. We are called to prepare our people.

The time is late. If there was ever a time to fulfill your calling, it’s now. It’s time to put away anything that would hinder you in any way from fulfilling your calling—any sin, any fear, any distraction, any entanglement. It’s time to take up the mantle of greatness and to become all that God is calling you to become. It’s time to take your stand. Time to rise. Time to shine. For God has appointed you for such a time as this.

Q&A with Jonathan Cahn

In January 2012, Jonathan Cahn’s New York Times bestseller, The Harbinger, released to the public and quickly garnered widespread media attention and popular appeal. The book, a narrative revealing ancient mysteries 2,500 years old pointing to 21st century America’s future, sounded a wakeup call and promptly triggered a gamut of questions from readers who realized the spiritual significance of the story. Now, a year later Cahn is releasing The Harbinger Companion: With Study Guide. Filled with photos, drawings, photographs, charts and a section answering the most often asked questions surrounding The Harbinger, the book is non-fiction. Cahn explores each mystery he revealed in The Harbinger, piece by piece, with background information. The Companion also features a 13-week study guide that individuals, small groups and churches can use to go deeper into The Harbinger.

Here in this interview, Cahn talks the nation’s response to his 2012 book, this new work and why it’s vital that church leaders preach prophetically on the end times.

Jonathan, did the overwhelming response to The Harbinger surprise you at all? Why do you think it caused such a stir throughout the nation?

From the way The Harbinger came to me and the way it became a book, I had no doubt it was from the Lord. So I had an assurance that it would go forth to the nation. What surprised me was how fast it all happened. The week of its release, it became the No. 1 new book on Amazon and made The New York Times best-sellers list. That definitely surprised me. I still don’t understand the dynamics of how it happened.

I believe the reason The Harbinger is causing a stir through America is due to that same reason; it’s a prophetic word; an alarm, a wake-up call. So by its very nature, if it is to make a difference, it must be different. A wake-up call, an alarm, has to cause a stir. There has to be some controversy, or it’s not doing its job. In fact, if you look at the end of the book, you’ll see it’s foretold that it would have to be that way.

What does that response tell church leaders about where people are today, what they’re thinking, what they’re wrestling with, etc.?

It tells us there’s a deep sense among believers and not just believers that America is in trouble, heading down the wrong path. I believe that most believers have that sense, and a sense of danger concerning judgment. What The Harbinger did was to reveal that it’s not just a sense. It’s real, it’s happening. America is following a precise and exact progression of biblical judgment with exact and precise signs and manifestations (harbingers) appearing in the land.

What compelled or inspired you to follow up The Harbinger with The Harbinger Companion? Was it in the back of your mind when you wrote The Harbinger?

Ever since The Harbinger released, people have wanted to know more, to go deeper into the mysteries. Before we knew it, the message was being preached in pulpits, taught in Church classes, shared in Bible studies. Churches devoted weeks of preaching, classes and studies on it. It was already happening long before The Harbinger Companion began. People were writing to us from all over the country asking for more and wanting to start up Bible studies. I was also deluged with people asking me about the story behind the story: Who was the prophet? Was I Nouriel? How did the revelations come? Beyond that, people were coming from all over the country to the Jerusalem Center/Beth Israel, the congregation I lead, and then going to New York City to search for the actual harbingers and the places in the book. So there was a very intense demand for more. The Harbinger Companion answers all of those questions and provides a study guide for individual readers, Bible studies and churches to go deeper into the mysteries.

Tell us a little about how the content of the Companion came together. In what ways is this new work Spirit-led? How did He lead you as you worked on it?

The original idea was to do a study guide that could be used by individuals and churches. And The Harbinger Companiondefinitely has that. But it quickly became much more. I don’t know if I woke up with the idea, but I know the idea of it becoming more came to me very suddenly. I shared the idea with the publisher [Creation House, the book publishing arm of Charisma Media, which publishes Ministry Today], and they believed it was the Lord. From there, it just snowballed.

What are some of the features in the Companion that you knew had to be included when you started on this project? What are some of the “surprises” that you didn’t set out to include but that made their way into the pages?

The book begins with a 13-week course and exploration into the mysteries, the issues, the background, the spiritual principles and taking the truths into action and practical application. It was one of the most frequently asked questions: “After reading The Harbinger, what do we do?” The Companion answers that question, giving practical application that any individual can apply, as well as a larger call to action, to impact the nation and world.

I also believed that that the Companion should be filled with images. For many readers, for the first time, they will see images of the nine harbingers and the mysteries written about in The Harbinger. For example, one of the photographs we included is one of the Nine Seals mentioned in the book.

There’s a section on end-time prophecy, detailing what has been fulfilled and what is yet to come. There’s a feature on where America fits in or doesn’t fit into the prophecies of the last days. There’s a chapter that gives the background into every major biblical character mentioned in the book, and one which outlines the prophecies of Messiah—and of course a piece on salvation.

And one of the most dramatic is the story of how The Harbinger became a book in the first place. It involves what happened to me at Charlotte Airport, a scene every bit as dramatic and ‘supernatural’ as any scene in the book. In fact, as in the book, it involved the appearance of a mysterious stranger. In fact, it was as if God reproduced one of the scenes in The Harbinger to cause the book to be published. Another story involves a man who showed up at the congregation, as a true, flesh and blood, real-life Nouriel.

What are some of your personal favorite features in the Companion?

It’s hard to say, but one of the most unique is the “Guided Tour of The Harbingers.” This section has maps, photographs, and background information that guide readers as they find and discover the actual harbingers for themselves.

Why did you want to include a guide? Do you have any tips or ideas for how it can be of use as we begin 2013?

The study guide of the Harbinger is of interest to anyone who lives in America. The study guide has In addition, DVD teachings accompanying many of the chapters that are also available. At the end of every teaching, is included a section on applying the revelations to life. So everyone leaves with a mission to go forward within the coming week. The last session is geared for prayer and revival.

Why is it vital to study prophecy on the end times?

If one is living in the end times, it is vital to learn to have discernment about it. If one is living in a nation under judgment, then as God’s ministers we must alert those around us to that fact and do everything we can to warn those around us and to prepare our people. Beyond this, such messages lead to personal and congregational revival. It is a message to America, but it is also a message to the believer. Judgment begins with the house of God—and so does revival. One of the amazing things that’s happened since The Harbinger came out is that what’s spoken in the book is coming true. The harbingers are continuing. The mysteries are continuing to manifest.

The Harbinger Companion With Study Guide. To get the full teachings behind The Harbinger, go to for the DVD set The Harbinger: The Full Revelation. You can also read the full, uncut version of this interview with Jonathan Cahn at


0 #1 Sharon Livella 2013-03-09 14:05
You are truly a blessing to me. Your way of teaching us is wonderful. I’m able to understand and am hungry for more of your teaching to this gentil women. Thank you for what you gave us. I love how the H.S. guides you to give us understanding. I have a major trial knowing that I’m accountable for every word out of my mouth. Thank you for being that vessel that pours in to those of us who want to receive what the Lord is sharing. Thank you, Rabbi, Sharon Livella

Message Summaries:

1839 2013-08-04 BRIT PELEH: THE COVENANT OF THE IMPOSSIBLE From a wonderful Hebrew word about the impossible – the wonderful revelation about the covenant of the impossible.

1838 2013-08-02 THE HALL OF SUPER VILLIANS There is an enemy and, by default, he unwittingly bears witness of God – so also his children – Learn the revelations of God and victory by walking the hall of super villains.

1837 2013-01-21 MESSAGE TO AMERICA A powerful prophetic word given in the nation’s capitol on the morning of Obama’s inauguration – Causing an explosion and going viral on the web – Listeners have called it the most important address they ever heard.

1836 2013-07-21 THE POWER OF JOY & THE VICTORIOUS LIFE One of the most overlooked keys of living victoriously in God is the powers that come from joy – Learn not only to rejoice but how to use joy for breaking throught and victory.

1835 2013-07-19 THE LAMB MYSTERIES II: THE LAMB & THE ALTAR One of the most stunning and majestic underlying mysteries of the Bible – the mysteries of the Lamb.

1834 2013-07-14 HOW TO GET RICH USING PLAY MONEY The world is filled with financial seminars on how you can get rich – But here’s a key that’s better than all of them, guaranteed, and requires no money down!

1833 2013-07-12 THE BOOK OF YOU – You know of the Book of Isaiah and Daniel and Mark and John – But did you know about another book that is crucial for your future – Learn the Book of You!

1832 2013-06-30 A SUPREME APOSTASY The dark moral and spiritual transformation that overtook ancient Israel is which is now overtaking America – How does it happen? What are the ramifications and the stakes? What are the hidden ramifications and stakes for believers? And how to stand

1831 2013-06-28 THE COSMIC SHEPHERD & THE COSMIC WOLF Discover the cosmic battle that lies behind everything from the history of Israel to the Church, from Hitler, to what’s happening right now in America & the end-times.

1830 2013-06-16 THE ABBA DOCTRINE Some of the most profound and liberating revelations about God and you are found in the simplest & most natural realm of life – From Jonathan’s own experiences of fatherhood come beautiful revelations of the love and joy of God.

1829 2013-06-14 THE SCIENTIFIC SECRETS OF JOY I How do you live a life of true joy? Modern science has set out to find the answers and the discovery brings it in line with the Word of God.

1828 2013-06-07 THE JERUSALEM PLURALITIES Hidden in the name Jerusalem is a mysteries that goes back to the very beginning of the Bible and that has to do with everything from Messiah’s death and resurrection to your life!

1827 2013-06-02 THE MYSTERY OF THE RAINS The secret of the age, the two rains of Israel, the return of the Jewish people to Zion, a recent scientific discovery, and the latter rains.

1826 2013-05-26 THE CHALDEAN SECRET TO WORLD HISTORY II: FROM 70 A.D. TO 1492 A stunning ancient key that lies behind world history from Egypt to America and what’s happening right now. The second part.

1825 2013-05-24 FINDING THE HEAVENLY PATTERN There’s a blueprint, a plan to your life connected to the heavenlies – How to find it.

1824 2012-07-01 THE WORLD-CHANGING CALL-A MESSAGE TO THE MESSIANIC MOVEMENT (RECORDED LIVE Jonathan shares at the Messiah Conference, a message of the greatness, the magnitude, the scope and the potential of the Messianic call for the ages.

1823 2013-05-19 THE KEYS OF THE ANOINTED The Lord has promised the anointing of the Holy Spirit for those who follow Messiah – But there are keys to being anointed and living the truly “Spirit-filled” life – Discover what they are and live an anointed life!

1822 2013-05-17 DUNAMAHEE: THE POWER OF I CAN One of the most surprising mysteries and powers in the Holy Spirit – From the original Greek comes a revelation of what God has given for your life – Learn the power of I CAN!

Table of Nations

From the Biblical Narrative:

Table of Nations

Genesis 9 New International Version (NIV)

God’s Covenant With Noah

9 Then God blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth. 2 The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. 3 Everything that lives and moves about will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.

4 “But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it. 5 And for your lifeblood I will surely demand an accounting. I will demand an accounting from every animal. And from each human being, too, I will demand an accounting for the life of another human being.

6 “Whoever sheds human blood,
by humans shall their blood be shed;
for in the image of God
has God made mankind.
7 As for you, be fruitful and increase in number; multiply on the earth and increase upon it.”

8 Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him: 9 “I now establish my covenant with you and with your descendants after you 10 and with every living creature that was with you—the birds, the livestock and all the wild animals, all those that came out of the ark with you—every living creature on earth. 11 I establish my covenant with you: Never again will all life be destroyed by the waters of a flood; never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth.”

12 And God said, “This is the sign of the covenant I am making between me and you and every living creature with you, a covenant for all generations to come: 13 I have set my rainbow in the clouds, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, 15 I will remember my covenant between me and you and all living creatures of every kind. Never again will the waters become a flood to destroy all life. 16 Whenever the rainbow appears in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and all living creatures of every kind on the earth.”

17 So God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant I have established between me and all life on the earth.”

The Sons of Noah

18 The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) 19 These were the three sons of Noah, and from them came the people who were scattered over the whole earth.

20 Noah, a man of the soil, proceeded[a] to plant a vineyard. 21 When he drank some of its wine, he became drunk and lay uncovered inside his tent. 22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked and told his two brothers outside. 23 But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it across their shoulders; then they walked in backward and covered their father’s naked body. Their faces were turned the other way so that they would not see their father naked.

24 When Noah awoke from his wine and found out what his youngest son had done to him, 25 he said,

“Cursed be Canaan!
The lowest of slaves
will he be to his brothers.”
26 He also said,

“Praise be to the Lord, the God of Shem!
May Canaan be the slave of Shem.
27 May God extend Japheth’s[b] territory;
may Japheth live in the tents of Shem,
and may Canaan be the slave of Japheth.”
28 After the flood Noah lived 350 years. 29 Noah lived a total of 950 years, and then he died.


Genesis 9:20 Or soil, was the first
Genesis 9:27 Japheth sounds like the Hebrew for extend.

New International Version (NIV)
Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

The Table of Nations

Genesis 10:1. This is the account of Shem, Ham and Japheth, Noah’s sons, who themselves had sons after the flood.

The Japhethites

2 The sons[a] of Japheth:

Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshek and Tiras.

3 The sons of Gomer:

Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.

4 The sons of Javan:

Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites and the Rodanites.[b] 5 (From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with its own language.)

The Hamites

6 The sons of Ham:

Cush, Egypt, Put and Canaan.

7 The sons of Cush:

Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteka.

The sons of Raamah:

Sheba and Dedan.

8 Cush was the father[c] of Nimrod, who became a mighty warrior on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; that is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 10 The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Uruk, Akkad and Kalneh, in[d] Shinar.[e] 11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir,[f] Calah 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah—which is the great city.

13 Egypt was the father of

the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 14 Pathrusites, Kasluhites (from whom the Philistines came) and Caphtorites.

15 Canaan was the father of

Sidon his firstborn,[g] and of the Hittites, 16 Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 17 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 18 Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites.

Later the Canaanite clans scattered 19 and the borders of Canaan reached from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim, as far as Lasha.

20 These are the sons of Ham by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.

The Semites

21 Sons were also born to Shem, whose older brother was[h] Japheth; Shem was the ancestor of all the sons of Eber.

22 The sons of Shem:

Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram.

23 The sons of Aram:

Uz, Hul, Gether and Meshek.[i]

24 Arphaxad was the father of[j] Shelah,

and Shelah the father of Eber.

25 Two sons were born to Eber:

One was named Peleg,[k] because in his time the earth was divided; his brother was named Joktan.

26 Joktan was the father of

Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan.

30 The region where they lived stretched from Mesha toward Sephar, in the eastern hill country.

31 These are the sons of Shem by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.

32 These are the clans of Noah’s sons, according to their lines of descent, within their nations. From these the nations spread out over the earth after the flood.


Genesis 10:2 Sons may mean descendants or successors or nations; also in verses 3, 4, 6, 7, 20-23, 29 and 31.
Genesis 10:4 Some manuscripts of the Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch (see also Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:7); most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text Dodanites
Genesis 10:8 Father may mean ancestor or predecessor or founder; also in verses 13, 15, 24 and 26.
Genesis 10:10 Or Uruk and Akkad—all of them in
Genesis 10:10 That is, Babylonia
Genesis 10:11 Or Nineveh with its city squares
Genesis 10:15 Or of the Sidonians, the foremost
Genesis 10:21 Or Shem, the older brother of
Genesis 10:23 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:17; Hebrew Mash.
Genesis 10:24 Hebrew; Septuagint father of Cainan, and Cainan was the father of
Genesis 10:25 Peleg means division.

New International Version (NIV)



1 Chronicles 1
New International Version – UK (NIVUK)

Historical records from Adam to Abraham

To Noah’s sons

1 Adam, Seth, Enosh, 2 Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, 3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah.

4 The sons of Noah:[a]
Shem, Ham and Japheth.
The Japhethites

5 The sons[b] of Japheth:
Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshek and Tiras.
6 The sons of Gomer:
Ashkenaz, Riphath[c] and Togarmah.
7 The sons of Javan:
Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittites and the Rodanites.
The Hamites

8 The sons of Ham:
Cush, Egypt, Put and Canaan.
9 The sons of Cush:
Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raamah and Sabteka.
The sons of Raamah:
Sheba and Dedan.
10 Cush was the father[d] of
Nimrod, who became a mighty warrior on earth.
11 Egypt was the father of
the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 12 Pathrusites, Kasluhites (from whom the Philistines came) and Caphtorites.
13 Canaan was the father of
Sidon his firstborn,[e] and of the Hittites, 14 Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 15 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 16 Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites.
The Semites

17 The sons of Shem:
Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram.
The sons of Aram:[f]
Uz, Hul, Gether and Meshek.
18 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah,
and Shelah the father of Eber.
19 Two sons were born to Eber:
one was named Peleg,[g] because in his time the earth was divided; his brother was named Joktan.
20 Joktan was the father of
Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 21 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 22 Obal,[h] Abimael, Sheba, 23 Ophir, Havilah and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan.
24 Shem, Arphaxad,[i] Shelah,
25 Eber, Peleg, Reu,
26 Serug, Nahor, Terah
27 and Abram (that is, Abraham).
The family of Abraham

28 The sons of Abraham:
Isaac and Ishmael.
Descendants of Hagar

29 These were their descendants:
Nebaioth the firstborn of Ishmael, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, 31 Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael.
Descendants of Keturah

32 The sons born to Keturah, Abraham’s concubine:
Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah.
The sons of Jokshan:
Sheba and Dedan.
33 The sons of Midian:
Ephah, Epher, Hanok, Abida and Eldaah.
All these were descendants of Keturah.
Descendants of Sarah

34 Abraham was the father of Isaac.
The sons of Isaac:
Esau and Israel.
Esau’s sons

35 The sons of Esau:
Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam and Korah.
36 The sons of Eliphaz:
Teman, Omar, Zepho,[j] Gatam and Kenaz;
by Timna: Amalek.[k]
37 The sons of Reuel:
Nahath, Zerah, Shammah and Mizzah.
The people of Seir in Edom

38 The sons of Seir:
Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer and Dishan.
39 The sons of Lotan:
Hori and Homam. Timna was Lotan’s sister.
40 The sons of Shobal:
Alvan,[l] Manahath, Ebal, Shepho and Onam.
The sons of Zibeon:
Aiah and Anah.
41 The son of Anah:
The sons of Dishon:
Hemdan,[m] Eshban, Ithran and Keran.
42 The sons of Ezer:
Bilhan, Zaavan and Akan.[n]
The sons of Dishan:[o]
Uz and Aran.
The rulers of Edom

43 These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned:
Bela son of Beor, whose city was named Dinhabah.
44 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah succeeded him as king.
45 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him as king.
46 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, succeeded him as king. His city was named Avith.
47 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him as king.
48 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the river[p] succeeded him as king.
49 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan son of Akbor succeeded him as king.
50 When Baal-Hanan died, Hadad succeeded him as king. His city was named Pau,[q] and his wife’s name was Mehetabel daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab. 51 Hadad also died.
The chiefs of Edom were:
Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, 52 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 53 Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, 54 Magdiel and Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom.

1 Chronicles 1:4 Septuagint; Hebrew does not have this line.
1 Chronicles 1:5 Sons may mean descendants or successors or nations; also in verses 6-9, 17 and 23.
1 Chronicles 1:6 Many Hebrew manuscripts and Vulgate (see also Septuagint and Gen. 10:3); most Hebrew manuscripts Diphath
1 Chronicles 1:10 Father may mean ancestor or predecessor or founder; also in verses 11, 13, 18 and 20.
1 Chronicles 1:13 Or of the Sidonians, the foremost
1 Chronicles 1:17 One Hebrew manuscript and some Septuagint manuscripts (see also Gen. 10:23); most Hebrew manuscripts do not have this line.
1 Chronicles 1:19 Peleg means division.
1 Chronicles 1:22 Some Hebrew manuscripts and Syriac (see also Gen. 10:28); most Hebrew manuscripts Ebal
1 Chronicles 1:24 Hebrew; some Septuagint manuscripts Arphaxad, Cainan (see also note at Gen. 11:10)
1 Chronicles 1:36 Many Hebrew manuscripts, some Septuagint manuscripts and Syriac (see also Gen. 36:11); most Hebrew manuscripts Zephi
1 Chronicles 1:36 Some Septuagint manuscripts (see also Gen. 36:12); Hebrew Gatam, Kenaz, Timna and Amalek
1 Chronicles 1:40 Many Hebrew manuscripts and some Septuagint manuscripts (see also Gen. 36:23); most Hebrew manuscripts Alian
1 Chronicles 1:41 Many Hebrew manuscripts and some Septuagint manuscripts (see also Gen. 36:26); most Hebrew manuscripts Hamran
1 Chronicles 1:42 Many Hebrew and Septuagint manuscripts (see also Gen. 36:27); most Hebrew manuscripts Zaavan, Jaakan
1 Chronicles 1:42 See Gen. 36:28; Hebrew Dishon, a variant of Dishan
1 Chronicles 1:48 Possibly the Euphrates
1 Chronicles 1:50 Many Hebrew manuscripts, some Septuagint manuscripts, Vulgate and Syriac (see also Gen. 36:39); most Hebrew manuscripts Pai

New International Version – UK (NIVUK)
Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.


– Excerpted From a Discussion on Stewardship –
Earth and Animals Stewardship

The following question was posed with statements and response: “What does the Bible inform us about being good stewards of the earth and animals?

Please include scripture references.

I believe with all my heart that God created man to be good stewards of His creation until the day He calls us home. The earth and everything that breathes the air, drinks the water and every other thing, are that creation.

I feel we should do what we can to preserve and protect God’s creation rather than to wontonly cause harm and destroy. Then we can also be comforted in knowing we did our best to care for and nurture His glorious creation as He would have it done. He left us in charge over it as many of the parable told by Jesus illustrates: Matthew 20:1, “For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire workers for his vineyard… Matthew 25:21 KJV
…His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.

We need to remember Matthew 10:29 – that even the sparrow does not fall to the ground without His notice. Isn’t that awesome? When we stand before God in judgment we do not want Him to ask us why we stood idle and let so many sparrows fall.”



Club of Rome



Summary: The second beast of Revelation 13 has all the power of the first beast before him. How will this authority be used?

More Resources:
Politics and the Papacy
This article is part of a series. We recommend that you first read: The Two Beasts of Revelation 13, The Second Beast of Revelation 13 Introduction.
Library Articles By Subject Spiritual Deceptions Deceptions Today The Antichrist Identified Two Beasts Become Friends The Second Beast of Revelation 13 The Lamb and Dragon
And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed (Revelation 13:11-12).
As we saw in the Identifying the Second Beast, France (the nation that terminated the first beast’s power and influence) made a dominant and significant gesture in recognizing America (the new nation that had avowed to keep church and state apart). The Constitution of the new States gave complete freedom of worship to its citizens:
Congress shall make no laws respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States…i

The USA aptly fits the description given to the lamblike, two-horned beast of Revelation 13:11. It starts off like a lamb and later speaks like a dragon.
Hordes of persecuted Christians fled from the terrors and trials of the European oppression, seeking freedom and a better life in North America. However, the USA has become more militant over recent years. Revelation 13:12 warns us that this beast would exercise all the power of the first beast before him.
The two horns represent church and state, which will unite in the last days to persecute God’s people. Verse 12 continues by warning us that the USA will cause all who dwell on the earth to worship the Papacy (the first beast), which can only be achieved by enforcing papal doctrines.
This means that papal doctrines will be legislated. For this to happen, the US Constitution will have to be ignored or further amended, since it presently forbids the legislation of religious laws. Unless the Constitution is suspended, popular feeling must be swayed in order to permit such laws.
America is rapidly becoming a global policeman, getting involved in all parts of the world in the name of freedom and justice. With the fall of the Soviet Union there is no other power that has the resources to fill this role, and by its own admission, the United States is the only superpower left on Earth.

The Final Confederacy
The Second Beast of Revelation 13

Serpent and Dragon Symbols

i. US Constitution Amendment 1 and Article 6.
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This article is adapted from Truth Matters by Professor Walter J. Veith, an international speaker who has studied Biblical issues in-depth in his quest for truth. His popular series Genesis Conflict brings the debate between Creation and evolution to a new climax as he dissects the arguments with a scientific eye. His highly-acclaimed series Total Onslaught sheds light on the state of the world today as we move to a one-world government and an anticipated apocalypse.
Disclaimer: The contents of this article and website are not intended to accuse individuals. There are many priests and faithful believers in Roman Catholicism who serve God to the best of their ability and are seen by God as His children. The information contained herein is directed only towards the Roman Catholic religio-political system that has reigned in varying degrees of power for nearly two millennia. Under the influence of its successive popes, bishops, and cardinals, this system has established an increasing number of doctrines and statements that clearly go against Scripture.

It is our sincere desire to lay the clear Word of God before you, the truth-seeking reader, so you may decide for yourself what is truth and what is error. If you find herein anything contrary to the Word of God, you need not accept it. But if you desire to seek for Truth as for hidden treasure, and find herein something of that quality, we encourage you to make all haste to accept that Truth which is revealed to you by the Holy Spirit.

Super Power

By: L.C. Thomas

Nostradamus in his Epistle to King Henry the second above is describing the same group of conspirators that L.C. Thomas wrote about in regards to The Eighth Chapter of Daniel. Their plot to take control of the world is also foretold in Revelation 17:10-13. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he comes, he must continue a short space. The king to come at the time the book of Revelation was written is called Gallic Ogmios in the writings of Nostradamus. Gallic Ogmios is an internationally known politician of European descent that Nostradamus also calls the blue leader in quatrain C2 Q2.

And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goes into perdition. Revelation 17:11 is saying two things. First, the Antichrist will will rise from the seventh Empire nation in a sequence of empire nations that began with ancient Assyria. The other empire nations in the sequence are Egypt, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome. The eighth empire nation in this sequence consists of the other seven nations just mentioned, and it is from this political platform that the Antichrist will rise to dominate what is left of the world, after he destroys much of it in the final phase of his rise to power.

More important is reason number two, because verse eleven is identifying nation number seven as a member of the G-7 industrialized nations of the west that recently admitted Russia as an eighth and honorary member of their group. The Antichrist, who was born in a western nation descended from this sequence is then of the seven by birthright, because he came up among the ten horns of Daniel 7:8 as another, which means he is a descended of them.

The ten horns were also referred to by Daniel as the realm of Greece, because it keeps on evolving, first into the Roman Empire, and then into Mystery Babylon The Great, which is nation number seven of Revelation’s sequence. Greece and Rome were both democratic republics rather than monarchies so I believe that Mystery Babylon will use the same form of government, as will the eighth kingdom built by the Antichrist “in the image of them.” This was foretold by the feet of the image in Daniel 2:33, which I will explain further in a minute, but first I want to make this point. The realm of Greece extends into Russia too, because the Russian Czars were descended from the same royal bloodline that ruled in Europe. The nations of eastern Europe were all annexed by the Soviet Union after World War II, which further mingled the realm of Greece with eastern countries like Russia.

And the ten horns which you saw are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. The Antichrist uses his political arm, who plots with the ten horns of Revelation and Daniel to take control of the world. One hour is equal to a twenty-eight year span of time in which World War III will begin and then end on that great day of God Almighty in Revelation 16:16. The ten horns are political power brokers that have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.

They do that by conspiring with the Antichrist to overthrow the governments of the Western world. They will elect him leader of the United Nations after using a little known legal tactic called Martial Law. Martial Law was designed to be used by the elected leaders of NATO during such emergencies as nuclear war. Nuclear war or some other form of chaos will be achieved by stirring up the nations of Islam. The military might of NATO could then be used to defend the world against Islamic terrorists, which is why Nostradamus refers to the ten horns of the Bible as the recently elevated guilty ones.

The one thing L.C. Thomas has tried to reveal, above all else, on the website,
is that what is taking place right now in front of the eyes of the whole world, is the single greatest deception in history. If for no other reason, because of the sheer number of people that are being duped all at once. The most disheartening thing about this is, that most have yet to read or hear anything that would lead me to believe that anyone on the planet has a clue as to what is taking place. For instance, I’ve heard many Bible scholars say that there is nothing said about the United States in the prophecies concerning the end times. They are all of the opinion that Russia, after forming an alliance with Islam, will march against Israel to be turned back by a Western alliance and then return allied with the Chinese to fight the Battle of Armageddon.

That just isn’t so because World War III and the Battle of Armageddon are two different wars. Something else the world doesn’t realize is that Vladimir Putin is one of the ten horns mentioned in the book of Revelation, which is why Russia recently allied itself with the seven industrialized nations of the West to form what is known as The Eight. This means that Russia’s purpose is the same as that of the Antichrist. He wants to gain control of the world’s oil supply and thus power, but chances are that China isn’t going to let that happen unless they are in on the deal.

If you are among the many who think that Russia is the land of Magog in Ezekiel 39:6, you’re probably wrong as well. Europe is more likely the land of Magog. What should really be of worry is what Ezekiel 28:3 says about the leader of the ten horns. Behold, you are wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide from you. If this verse doesn’t alarm when read, it should. Because God is describing an intellect in this verse that mankind, in all its arrogant wisdom, doesn’t comprehend. Ezekiel is saying that the Antichrist is Satan in the flesh and that he is wise even beyond the abilities of Daniel the prophet. Satan had not yet been so clearly delineated in black and white terms, back in the day. Referred to as the wily Serpant or Accusor, his maleficense had not been completely revealed or recognizeably identified yet for what it was and is to the Hebrews, Isrealites and Jews of old testament and Torah. Many contemporary decendance of whom do not believe in the existence of such a being.

With that said, Daniel 7:5 describes the same sequence of nations that John describes in Revelation seventeen. And behold another beast, a second, like unto a bear, and it raised itself up on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said this to it, Arise, devour much flesh. The three ribs between the teeth of the bear in this verse are from the Middle East. Daniel 7:8 describes them as three horns. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

The first thing to take note of in verse five is that the bear is beast number two. The first beast is a lion with eagle’s wings described in verse four. All predetors. Many Bible scholars consider the winged lion to be ancient Babylon, but it is likely not. The lion is from ancient Egypt and the great Sphinx is a monument to it. The man who becomes the Antichrist is just a continuation of this lion, because after the wings are removed from it, it transforms into Satan pretending to be a man. The wings represent the Antichrist’s allegiance to the land of his birth, which he will discard before taking over the world. Babylon is his religion. Daniel 7:4 is specifically telling us that the wings never belonged to the lion. They belong to an eagle because they are eagle’s wings. After taking off those wings the Antichrist and the European leopard will tell the Russian bear to Arise and devour much flesh.

It is after the bear rises up to do what it was told in verse five that the kingdom of the Antichrist forms in verse six. His kingdom is described as a leopard with four wings of a fowl. This leopard is then described as having four heads; and dominion was given to it. The four heads on the leopard are all that remains at this point in time of the seven nations described in Revelation 17:11. The first three nations of this sequence are the ribs between the teeth of the bear that was told, Arise, devour much flesh. They of Daniel 7:5 are from the European Union and Russia. The ribs between the teeth of the bear are the people of Islam who made up the first three horns or empires in the sequence of nations given in Revelation chapter seventeen. They are Assyria, Persia and Babylon. Today we know them as Syria, Iran and Iraq, there abouts. They will be plucked up by the roots in Daniel 7:8, or brought to the point of extinction, uprooted.

Daniel 7:7 tells us how what some interpretors surmise might possibly be the Muslim people, the Ottoman Empire establushed by Mustafa Kemal AtaTurk, who would be destroyed. “After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and break in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. The fourth beast is an alliance of nations within the United Nations and the Vatican that may or may not include America. America matching the description of coming in like a lamb. If it does, it will be in a weakened state because you were the eagle’s wings removed by the Antichrist as his kingdom began to form. Unknown to you he is secretly allied with the conspirators of Revelation chapter seventeen and he is descended from a bloodline rooted in the Merovingian dynasty of ancient Europe. Europe is described as a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it. Leopards represent heraldry or the science of genealogies and the four wings of a fowl on the leopard’s back is referring to Daniel 2:33, which I will now expand on.

The trail of clues that solve the Mystery of the images described by Daniel in chapter seven are as follows. The leopard alludes to the royal bloodline that once ruled over Europe and Russia. In 1914 at the beginning of World War I there were only four countries in Europe that were not ruled by a monarch. France still had a living sovereign but made the transition to a democratic republic shortly after the United States broke away from England. By the end of World War I all of these monarchies except England collapsed in an incident that came to be called, The Fall of the Eagles. It began in 1917 with the fall of the Romanov’s in Russia, and by 1918 the ancient monarchies of Central Europe, the home of the Merovingian dynasty had been eliminated.

In my opinion, the four wings of a fowl on the leopard’s back are the democracies of Europe that once used an eagle to symbolize their monarchies. The changing of these nations from monarchy to democratic republic is what the feet of the image in Daniel 2:33 represent. The feet of the image is a mixture of iron and clay. This mixture represents a democratic government of the people, who have been fooled into thinking that they rule themselves. The reality is, the same royal families that ruled the world in ancient times still rule it today. They just hire political leaders to use as front men now, and they call the shots through them from behind the scenes. These former monarchies will reunite one last time in the form of the European Union, and with the help of Russia, they will attempt to bring down the greatest eagle to ever exist on the planet, the United States of America. Below are just a few examples of the common symbols used by the former monarchies of Europe and Russia.

England France Germany Russia

The conspirators revealed by Revelation chapter seventeen know that they can’t take control of the world as long as the United States remains the only superpower in it. That’s why they are secretly allied with the Russian bear. They will use Russian nuclear bombs to knock the United States off its throne by destroying our money markets along with New York City in Revelation 17:16-18. And the ten horns which you saw upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, (which is the home of the Statue of Liberty) and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall burn her with fire. For God has put in their hearts to fulfill his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. And the woman which you saw is that great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth. New York City is the current headquarters of the United Nations making it that great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth.

In Revelation 18:4, New York City is identified again when a voice says, Come out of her, my people, that you be not partakers of her sins, and that you receive not of her plagues. The highest concentration of Jews in the world is not in Israel, but rather here in the United States. The highest concentration of Jews living here in the United States is you guessed it, in New York City. So if God is calling for His chosen people to come out of Mystery Babylon The Great, then this verse is strongly suggesting that the whore of Revelation 17:16 is New York City.

Revelation 18:15-19 suggests New York as well, because the merchants of world were made rich by this great city. Every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea. This verse suggests that Mystery Babylon The Great is a city by the ocean, which is verified by the French seer Nostradamus in C9 Q48. The great city on the maritime ocean, Surrounded by a crystalline swamp: In the winter solstice and the spring, It will be tried by a frightful wind. If you have ever watched movie footage of a nuclear blast it gives a whole new meaning to frightful wind. The skyscrapers of New York City resemble a crystalline or glass swamp around the harbor of New York City.

The sky will burn at forty-five degrees latitude, Fire approaches the great new city: Immediately a huge scattered flame leaps up, When they want to have verification from the Normans, Nostradamus, C6 Q97. Without question Nostradamus is referring to New York City in this quatrain because it sits close to forty-five degrees latitude. Line two of the quatrain verifies that an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile will be fired at and hit the great new city in line three. Line four suggests we are talking about a Russian missile, because the Normans are just north of New York City in French Quebec, Canada. We will want verification from the Normans that a missile has been detected by satellite because part of the early warning system in our old radar defense grid was installed in the northern most part of Canada during the Cold War. A missile flying over the North Pole from Russia headed toward the United States can get here much faster than one flying parallel to the Equator, which is considered to be the long way around. This is all part of the Mutually Assured Destruction plan devised by both sides during the Cold War.

If you live in New York City, please take my advice and leave while you still can. As for the rest of us, our losses will be great. The survival of the country will depend on the choices we make once this war begins. For the first time in history American lives will be lost in a battle within our own borders. If we do find a way to survive America, my advice is to cut your losses and let the Antichrist and ten horns have the rest of the world. If we follow them into the Middle East, then this country will face the full wrath of God right along with them. “For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty…into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.” Revelation 16:14-15.


Face Dignity

Face (sociological concept)
Face, idiomatically meaning dignity/prestige, is a fundamental concept in the fields of sociology, sociolinguistics, semantics, politeness theory, psychology, political science, communication, and Face Negotiation Theory.


Although Lin Yutang (1943:200) claimed “Face cannot be translated or defined”, compare these definitions:

The term face may be defined as the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes. (Goffman 1955:213)
Face is the respectability and/or deference which a person can claim for himself from others, by virtue of the relative position he occupies in his social network and the degree to which he is judged to have functioned adequately in that position as well as acceptably in his general conduct. (Ho 1975:883)
[Face] is something that is emotionally invested, and that can be lost, maintained, or enhanced, and must be constantly attended to in interaction. In general, people cooperate (and assume each other’s cooperation) in maintaining face in interaction, such cooperation being based on the mutual vulnerability of face. (Brown and Levinson 1978:66)
Face is a sense of worth that comes from knowing one’s status and reflects concern with the congruency between one’s performance or appearance and one’s real worth. (Huang 1987:71)
“Face” means ‘sociodynamic valuation’, a lexical hyponym of words meaning ‘prestige; dignity; honor; respect; status’. (Carr 1993:90)
“Face” has more meaning based on Chinese culture context.

“The concept of face is, of course, Chinese in origin” (Ho 1975:867), yet many languages have “face” terms that metaphorically mean “prestige; honor; reputation.” Marcel Mauss, who sociologically studied the Kwakwaka’wakw (formerly known as Kwakiutl) and Haida nations in British Columbia, interpreted the Kwak’wala word q’elsem (lit. “rotten face”) meaning “stingy potlatch-giver; one who gives no feast.”

Kwakiutl and Haida noblemen have the same notion of ‘face’ as the Chinese mandarin or officer. It is said of one of the great mythical chiefs who gave no feast that he had a ‘rotten face.’ The expression is more apt than it is even in China; for to lose one’s face is to lose one’s spirit, which is truly the ‘face’, the dancing mask, the right to incarnate a spirit and wear an emblem or totem. It is the veritable persona which is at stake, and it can be lost in the potlatch just as it can be lost in the game of gift-giving, in war, or through some error in ritual. (1954:38)

Michael Carr (1992, 1993) lexicographically investigated “face; prestige” dictionary forms in Chinese, Japanese, and English. Within this sample, Chinese dictionaries include 98 forms, e.g., sipo lian 撕破臉 (lit. “rip up face”) “have no consideration for someone’s feelings”; Japanese dictionaries list 89, e.g., kao o uru 顔を売る (lit. “sell face”) “become popular; gain influence”; and English dictionaries include 5 forms, e.g., lose face (borrowed from Chinese diulian 丟臉 “lose face”). Carr found that the Chinese and Japanese lexicons have roughly equal numbers of words for “losing face” and “saving face”, while English has more for “saving face.”


Two influential Chinese authors explained “face.” Lu Xun referred to the missionary Arthur Henderson Smith’s (1894:16-18) interpretation.

The term “face” keeps cropping up in our conversation, and it seems such a simple expression that I doubt whether many people give it much thought. Recently, however, we have heard this word on the lips of foreigners too, who seem to be studying it. They find it extremely hard to understand, but believe that “face” is the key to the Chinese spirit and that grasping it will be like grabbing a queue twenty-four years ago [when wearing a queue was compulsory] – everything else will follow. (1934, 1959:129)

Lin Yutang considered the psychology of “face.”

Interesting as the Chinese physiological face is, the psychological face makes a still more fascinating study. It is not a face that can be washed or shaved, but a face that can be “granted” and “lost” and “fought for” and “presented as a gift.” Here we arrive at the most curious point of Chinese social psychology. Abstract and intangible, it is yet the most delicate standard by which Chinese social intercourse is regulated. (1935: 199-200)

Lin refers to liu mianzi 留面子 “grant face; give (someone) a chance to regain lost honor”, shī miàn zi 失面子 “lose face”, zheng mianzi 爭面子 “fight for face; keeping up with the Joneses”, and gei mianzi 給面子 “give face; show respect (for someone’s feelings).”

The Chinese language has three common words meaning “face”:

mian (Chinese: 面; pinyin: miàn; Wade–Giles: mien)
lian (simplified Chinese: 脸; traditional Chinese: 臉; pinyin: liǎn; Wade–Giles: lien)
yan (simplified Chinese: 颜; traditional Chinese: 顏; pinyin: yán; Wade–Giles: yen).
Mian 面 “face; personal esteem; countenance; surface; side” occurs in words like:

mianzi 面子 “face; side; reputation; self-respect; prestige, honor; social standing”
mianmu 面目 (lit. “face eyes”) “face; appearance; respect; social standing; prestige; honor”
mianpi 面皮 (lit. “face skin”) “facial skin; complexion; feelings; sensitivity; sense of shame”
timian 体面 (lit. “body face”) “face; good looking; honor; dignity; prestige”
qingmian 情面 (lit. “feelings face”) “face; prestige; favor; kindness; partiality”
Mianmu, which occurs in the Shijing, Guanzi, and other Chinese classics, is the oldest Chinese word for figurative “face” (Carr 1992:43). David Yau-fai Ho (1974:241) describes timian as “an expression without an exact equivalent in English”, meaning “the social front, the ostensible display of one’s social standing to the public. It is both a prerogative and an implicit obligation for the socially prominent to be particular about.” Mianzi is a measurable and quantifiable concept of “face.” Hsien-chin Hu says it,

can be borrowed, struggled for, added to, padded, — all terms indicating a gradual increase in volume. It is built up through initial high position, wealth, power, ability, through cleverly establishing social ties to a number of prominent people, as well as through avoidance of acts that would cause unfavorable comment. (1944:61)

Lian 臉 “face; countenance; respect; reputation; prestige” is seen in several “face” words:

lianshang 臉上 (lit. “face on/above”) “one’s face; honor; respect”
lianmian 臉面 (lit. “face face”) “face; self-respect; prestige; influence”
lianpi 臉皮 (lit. “face skin”) “face; sensitivity; compassion”
Hu (1944:51-52) contrasts meiyou lian 沒有臉 (lit. “without face”) “audacious; wanton; shameless” as “the most severe condemnation that can be made of a person” and buyao lian 不要臉 (lit. “don’t want face”) “shameless; selfishly inconsiderate” as “a serious accusation meaning that ego does not care what society thinks of his character, that he is ready to obtain benefits for himself in defiance of moral standards.”

Yan 顏 “face; prestige; reputation; honor” occurs in the common expression diu yan 丟顏 and the words:

yanhou 顏厚 (lit. “face thick”) or houyan 厚顏 “thick-skinned; brazen; shameless; impudent”
yanmian 顏面 (lit. “face face”) “face; honor; prestige”
Chinese uses yan less often in expressing “face; prestige” than either mian or lian.

Carr (1992:58-60) summarizes four common Chinese lexical patterns for “face” words. First, the lexicon antithetically modifies all three “face” words with hou 厚 “thick; deep; great” and bao or bo 薄 “thin; slight; weak” to describe “(in)sensitivity to prestige”, for example, mianpi hou “thick-skinned; shameless” and mianpi bao “thin-skinned; diffident.” Second, owing to the importance of the visible face, kan 看 “see; look” meaning “have consideration for” and buhaokan 不好看 “not good looking” describe “face.” Third, several expressions reciprocally describe you 有 “having” or meiyou 沒有 “not having” “face”, such as dajia you mianzi “everybody has mutual honor” and meiyou mianzi “lacking prestige.” Fourth, “losing face” can be expressed with the common “lose” verb shi 失 and the rarer diu 丟, for instance, shi mianzi and diu mianzi “lose face; lose prestige.”

Recent studies of Chinese “face” have principally accepted Hu Hsien-chin’s original distinction between a person’s mianzi “social status” and lian “moral character.” Hu (1944:45) dichotomized mianzi as “a reputation achieved through getting on in life, through success and ostentation” versus lian which “represents the confidence of society in the integrity of ego’s moral character, the loss of which makes it impossible for him to function properly within the community.” Ho qualified this dichotomy:

Although the distinction between the two sets of criteria for judging face – based on judgments of character and, broadly, of the amoral aspects of social performance – is justified, it cannot be anchored to a linguistic distinction between the two terms, lien and mien-tzu, as proposed by Hu. However, we may continue to use these terms in the senses that Hu has defined. (1975:868)

On the basis of experiments showing that Chinese high school students defined losses of mianzi and lian interchangeably, while university students distinguished them, Huang Shuanfan concluded that:

Succinctly, among college subjects, loss of mianzi is more definitely tied to failure to measure up to one’s sense of self-esteem or to what is expected by others, whereas loss of lian is closely tied to transgression of social codes. Hu’s (1944) forty year old distinction between the two Chinese concepts of faces appears to stand very well, even today. (1987:73)

Lian is the confidence of society in a person’s moral character, while mianzi represents social perceptions of a person’s prestige. For a person to maintain face is important with Chinese social relations because face translates into power and influence and affects goodwill. A loss of lian would result in a loss of trust within a social network, while a loss of mianzi would likely result in a loss of authority.

Two “face”-related concepts in Chinese social relations are guanxi “connections; relationships” and ganqing “feelings.”


Look up face in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The English semantic field for “face” words meaning “prestige; honor” is smaller than the corresponding Chinese field, but historical dictionaries more accurately record its history. The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989) documents how the English community in China originated lose face and save face in the late 19th century, and how morphological variants like face-saver subsequently developed.

Lose face is a linguistic borrowing from Chinese diulian 丟臉 “lose face.” The OED2 Face 10 definition distinguishes meanings between native 10a. “Outward show; assumed or factitious appearance; disguise, pretence; an instance of this; a pretext” (for instance, to put a good face on) and borrowed:

10b. to save one’s face: see save v. 8f; also to save face; to lose face [tr. Chinese tiu lien]: to be humiliated, lose one’s credit, good name, or reputation; similarly, loss of face. Hence face = reputation, good name.

Robert Hart originally translated lose face in a January 23, 1876 Zongli Yamen customs memorandum, “The Inspector General’s Memorandum Concerning Commercial Relations” (Appendix II in Hart 1901:182-251).

The country begins to feel that Government consented to arrangements by which China has lost face; the officials have long been conscious that they are becoming ridiculous in the eyes of the people, seeing that where a foreigner is concerned they can neither enforce a Chinese right, nor redress a Chinese grievance, even on Chinese soil. (1901:225)

Loss of face occurs in The Times (August 3, 1929): “Each wishes to concede only what can be conceded without loss of ‘face’.”

Save face was coined from lose face applying the semantic opposition between lose and save. The OED defines Save 8 “To keep, protect or guard (a thing) from damage, loss, or destruction”, and elaborates,

8f. to save one’s face: to avoid being disgraced or humiliated. Similarly, to save (another’s) face. Hence save-face adj. = face-saving … Originally used by the English community in China, with reference to the continual devices among the Chinese to avoid incurring or inflicting disgrace. The exact phrase appears not to occur in Chinese, but ‘to lose face’ (tiu lien), and ‘for the sake of his face’, are common.

For the earliest usage examples, the OED gives the following. Save one’s face is recorded in the Westminster Gazette (April 5, 1898): “Unquestionably the process of saving one’s face leads to curious results in other countries than China.” Save-face is found in Chambers Journal of Literature, Science and Arts (1917): “The civilian native staff had bolted at the first sign of trouble, ‘going to report to the authorities’ being their ‘save face’ for it!” Face-saving first appears in Enoch A. Bennett’s Lilian (1922): “She had been trapped beyond any chance of a face-saving lie.” Face-saver, defined as “something that ‘saves one’s face’,” originated in Edgar Snow’s Scorched Earth (1941): “As a face-saver, however, Doihara was given enough support, from the Kwantung Army in Manchuria.” Carr (1993:74) notes, “It is significant that the earliest usages for English lose face, save face, save-face and face-saver refer to China, while later ones are more international in application.”

By expanding “lose face” into “save face”, English developed oppositely from Chinese, which has many “lose face” collocations, but none literally meaning “save face.” Yao mianzi 要面子 “eager to gain reputation; be concerned about appearances” is (Hu 1944:58) “the closest Chinese approximation” for “save face.”

The underlying reason for this difference is that English “face” lacks the sociological contrast between Chinese lian and mianzi. Since Chinese lian is ethically absolute while mianzi is socially quantitative, losing the former is more significant. According to Huang:

The fact that Chinese lexicalizes losing face (丟臉, 沒面子), but not gaining face is a potent reminder that losing face has far more serious implications for one’s sense of self-esteem or decency than gaining face. (1987:71)

Ho explains how “losing” one’s “face” is more sociodynamically significant than “saving” it.

Previous writers on face have treated losing face and gaining face simply as if they were opposite outcomes in a social encounter and have thus failed to notice the basic difference between two social processes that are involved. In the first instance, while it is meaningful to speak of both losing and gaining mien-tzu it is meaningful to speak only of losing lien. One does not speak of gaining lien because, regardless of one’s station in life, one is expected to behave in accordance with the precepts of the culture; correctly conceptualized, exemplary conduct adds not to one’s lien, but to one’s mien-tzu. (1975:870)

“Losing face” brings into question one’s moral decency and societal adequacy, but not “gaining face.”

The lose verb in lose face means “fail to maintain” (cf. lose one’s life), while the save in save face means “avoid loss/damage” (cf. save one’s honor). “The English creation of save face as the opposite of lose face was arbitrary because lose has other antonyms: win, find, keep, catch, maintain, preserve, gain, and regain”, Carr (1993:77) notes, “Speakers occasionally use the last three (esp. gain) regarding face ‘prestige’, though less frequently than save.” Another usage example is give face, which is included in the Wiktionary but not the OED2.

Among the English words of Chinese origin, lose face is an uncommon verb phrase and a unique semantic loan translation. Most Anglo-Chinese borrowings are nouns (Yuan 1981:250), with a few exceptions such as to kowtow, to Shanghai, to brainwash, and lose face. English face meaning “prestige; honor” is the only case of a Chinese semantic loan. Semantic loans extend an indigenous word’s meaning in conformity with a foreign model (e.g., French realiser “achieve; create; construct” used in the sense of English realize). The vast majority of English words from Chinese are ordinary loanwords with regular phonemic adaptation (e.g., chop suey < Cantonese tsap-sui 雜碎 "miscellaneous pieces"). A few are calques where a borrowing is blended with native elements (e.g., chopsticks < Pidgin chop "quick, fast" < Cantonese kap 急 "quick" + stick). Face meaning "prestige" is technically a "loan synonym" owing to semantic overlap between the native English meaning "outward semblance; effrontery" and the borrowed Chinese meaning "prestige; dignity."

John Orr (1953) coined the term "invisible exports" to describe how French forme, ouverte, and courir borrowed the sports meanings of English form, open, and run. Chinese lose face is an imperceptible English import because it appears to be a predictable semantic extension of face, and not a noticeable foreign borrowing. This invisible face "prestige; status" loan is, Chan and Kwok (1985:60) explain, "so firmly established in the English vocabulary that the average native speaker is unaware of its Chinese origin."

When face acquired its Chinese sense of "prestige; honor", it filled a lexical gap in the English lexicon. Chan and Kwok write,

The Chinese has supplied a specific 'name' for a 'thing' embodying qualities not expressed or possibly not fully expressed, by a number of terms in English. The aptness of the figurative extension has probably also played a part (1985:61-62).

Carr concludes,

The nearest English synonyms of the apt figurative face are prestige, honor, respect, dignity, status, reputation, social acceptance, or good name. Ho (1975:874-880) explains how 'face' is a more basic meaning than 'status', 'dignity', or 'honor'. 'Prestige' appears to be semantically closest to 'face', however a person can be said to have face but not prestige, or vice versa. Prestige is not necessary; one can easily live without it, but hardly without "face." (1993:87-88)


in Arabic the expression 'Hifz Ma'a Wajh' حفظ ماء وجه is used widely, it translates literally to 'save the water of face' which is used in situation where an individual or an entity is trying to maintain dignity and prestige.

Persia, Cultural and Religious Crossroads of East West

Persia, The cultural and Religious Crossroads of East and West. Carol Tebbs offers a brief introduction to Persia and its religious influence. “Despite the small number of practicing Zoroastrians in the world today, Persian religion has played one of the major roles on the stage of world religious history. Zoroaster was known and respected in Greece at the time of Plato, and the worship of Mithras spread throughout the Roman Empire and as far as the North of England. On the East, Arabian art, as well as Mithras worship spread from Iran to India in the 6th century C.E. and after. Zoroastrianism may well have stimulated the growth of the Savior concept in Buddhism in the form of Maitreya Buddha.

Excerpts from “Persia, The Culteral and Religious Crossroads of East and West,” by Carol Tebbs, MA.

Iran, Ancient Persia, stands as a bridge between East and West, a fact which has not only influenced her religion, but has also made Iran a watershed of history. Western Iran was influenced by Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome, and Eastern Iran was influenced by India and even China since the ancient trade routes cross-pollinated those cultures. As an interesting fact of history, we could have had a vastly changed religious prospect for the Western world, had it not been for the defeat of the Persian King Xerxes in the Battles of Marathon and Salamis.

“In other words, if the western march of the Persian Empire had not been stopped, their religion of Zoroastrianism rather than Judeo Christianity would undoubtedly have been the prevailing religion of Europe and the Americas… so appealing to the human heart were many of the Parsi [early Persian] conceptions and precepts that much of Zarathustra’s [Zoroaster’s] creed lives on in the religions.”

The Parsees are an Indo-European (Aryan) branch that moved into Persia about the same time as Abraham was said to have made his compact with Yahweh, about 2000 B.C.E. Zarathustra was born about 660 B.C.E and his influence was felt in that great age of religious consciousness and reformation between about 500 B.C.E. and the birth of Christ, while in India the conception of Brahma emerged as the supreme God, and Gautama Buddha, the great enlightener, was born. At the same time in China Confucius and Lao Tze were quickening the moral and religious perceptions of men through Confucianism and Taoism.

The religions of India and Iran, both under Aryan influence display a number of similar characteristics; 1) a number of gods appear in both, Mithras, for instance, 2) their concept of cosmic order is similar, and 3) their rituals have many common features. Though Zoroastrianism is not as dominant in Iran and the Near East today, its philosophy and sacred literature is still revered and respected world-wide for its formative role in human thought. Though the Avesta is the holy book of the Zoroastrians, the complete compendium of texts, including the learned commentaries of Zarathustra and all of the secondary texts, compromise the Zendavesta. This oldest collection of texts was once destroyed by Alexander in 330 B.C.E. and rewritten by the priests from memory. It was finally codified in about 350 CE and comprises four classes of writings: Yasna, for worship; Yasht, for sacrifice; Vendidad, for getting rid of demons; and Zend, for the secondary texts, written in Middle Persian (Pahlavi), to provide extracts of and to comment on the Avesta.

The Zoroastrians do not contrast the spirit and the flesh. The soul and the body are a unity, and to withdraw from the world as a monk is to reject God’s world. Asceticism is as great a sin as overindulgence. In fact, men have a religious duty to take a wife have children and to increase the good religion. Essentially, the Zoroastrian religion is a joyful one. It has a strong social ethic, and in contrast to Hinduism, an essentially activist one. Work is the “salt of life”. In contrast, death is the work of the devil, so a corpse is the abode of demons. To cremate or bury the corpse would defile the elements, so bodies are exposed in “Towers of Silence”, where they are devoured by the vultures. At death, one’s actions are weighed in the balance. If the good outweighs the bad, one passes on to heaven, but if not, then one passes on to hell, where the punishment is made to fit the crime. However, eternal hell is an immoral teaching in Zoroastrianism. God would never allow his creatures to suffer eternally. The purpose of punishment is to reform so that on the day of resurrection all may be raised by the Savior to face the final judgment. Then, when all are finally pure, the devil and all his works are finally destroyed and the distinction between heaven and earth is overcome so that all may worship and live with God in the full glory of his creation.

For a short history of Arabian religion, the Achaemenid period (c. 550-333 B.C.E) was a time of Zoroastrian infiltration into the traditional and state religion. The official priests were the Magi, a hereditary priestly class, whose duty it was to look after religion and spread the teaching. The Achaemenid Empire was vast and the intermingling of cultures had its effect on religion. Greek statues were introduced into the cult and Babylonian astrology became a major factor. Alexander the Great’s invasion in 333 B.C.E. and the advent of Hellenism provided a tremendous shock to the Iranians. Despite Alexander’s attempts to unite East and West and his adoption of many Arabian customs, he was less than successful in converting them. Later, the Parthians, who invaded Persia, retained much of Hellenism there, although Zoroastrianism remained the state religion in later Sassanian Iran (247-635 C.E.) amid a plethora of minority religions: Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Mandean and Manichaean.

Despite the small number of practicing Zoroastrians in the world today, Persian religion has played one of the major roles on the stage of world religious history. Zoroaster was known and respected in Greece at the time of Plato, and the worship of Mithras spread throughout the Roman Empire and as far as the North of England. On the East, Arabian art, as well as Mithras worship spread from Iran to India in the 6th century C.E. and after. Zoroastrianism may well have stimulated the growth of the Savior concept in Buddhism in the form of Maitreya Buddha. Iran has played a particularly important role in the religion of Islam, helping it to develop from an Arabian into an international religion; and the growth of the mystical movement and the Savior concept may all owe something to Iranian influence. Perhaps Iran’s greatest influence has been on the development of Judeo-Christian belief. It is widely accepted by biblical scholars, that the beleaguered Jewish concepts of the devil, hell, an afterlife, the resurrection, the end of the world and the Savior imagery were all colored by Zoroastrianism beliefs, which, of course, have affected the very foundations of Christianity.

An offshoot of Zoroastrianism, the Mandeans believed that the soul became imprisoned in matter at the creation. The body is created by the planets and life and breath come from the world of light. The soul’s release is blocked by the planets, stars and false religions. When the earth and planets are done away with, the souls of the pious will be liberated.

There is no animal worship involved in Zoroastrianism, but the emphasis upon the goodness and usefulness of the dog is one of the most beautiful details in this religion of shepherds and cattlemen. By Zoroastrian rules dog life was protected as human life was, first because of his usefulness to people dependent upon herds and flocks, but also because of the devoted character of the dog, which has attracted dog lovers throughout history.

In the two thousand years since Zarathustra’s teaching, Iran still stands at the cultural gateway between East and West, making it evermore important to learn its history and cultural heritage.

Saturn – The Greater Malefic, Satan

Excerpted from “THE ILLUMINATI FORMULA USED TO CREATE AN UNDETECTABLE MIND CONTROL SLAVE,” a book by Fritz Springmeier & Cisco Wheeler:

…”The Use of Esoteric Language

One method of deception is the use of Esoteric language. Esoteric terms are understood by those deep in the occult, but are misunderstood by the common people. The best example is the term “Saturn.”


The word Saturn consistently turns up as an important word for the Illuminati and upper levels of the occult. Because Saturn is such an important concept, it should be covered in this part of the book. Therapists may encounter something to do with Saturn in a programmed multiple. Before Fritz began researching the elite of the occult world, Saturn was merely meant an enormous planet 95 times the size of the earth’s mass, the 6th of the solar system in an orbit of 29.5 years around the sun. This means that the co-authors of this book are less than three Saturian years old.

Fritz was also aware that Saturn was the father of all Gods in the mythology of the ancient world. David M. Talbot in his book The Saturn Myth documents how all over the world Saturn has been worshipped even more than the sun god. Saturn has been the secret god of the occult world. When we read in Deut. 18:9-10, “When thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch.”

All of these practices are abominations done by Satanists today and are becoming commoner among Americans. Note that the first item mentioned by Moses in this passage was passing (putting) children into the fire (of Moloch). Commentary on The Pentateuch, III, reprint, Grand Rapids , MI : Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1949, p.393.) (Keil, Carl F. and Franz Delitzch) on DT 18:9-10: “Moses groups together all the words which the language contained for different modes of exploring the future and discovering the will of God, for the purpose of forbidding every description of soothsaying, and places the prohibition of Moloch-worship at the head, to show the inward connection between soothsaying and idolatry, possibly because februation, or passing children through the fire in the worship of Moloch, was more intimately connected with soothsaying and magic than any other description of idolatry.”

The worship of Moloch was the worship of Saturn. There are perhaps various routes one can take to learn this. One route is a very close examination of the Scripture, especially the old Septuagint. Scriptures actually write of this fact in Amos 5:25-26 and Acts 7:41-43. Amos wrote, “Did ye bring unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, 0 House of Israel ? Yea, ye have borne the tabernacle of your king (“siccuth malkecem”, or in the Septuagint it reads “skenen tou Moloch”!), and the shrine (kiyyun) of your images, the star of your God, which ye made to yourselves” AMS 5:25-26 The Christian Stephen quotes these passages of Amos and connects it with the worship of the golden calf (bull or Taurus). His words on this are recorded in Acts 7:4 1. He further connects it in the next verse with the worship of “the host of heaven”. In line with translations like the Septuagint, he states in verse 43 that Amos 5 refers to the cult “of Moloch and the star of the god Rephan”.

Hebrew writing consists of only the consonants. The vowels can be added with what are termed vocalizations, which are dots. The Jewish scribes in their contempt for heathen gods placed vocalizations (vowel indicators) on the word Molech (M-L-CH) from a Hebrew word for “shame”. Because the incorrect vocalization was added out of contempt for the heathen names of abominable gods, the word Molech (Saturn worship) has been mistranslated by some translators. Further, the word Chiun (Kaimanu in Assyria ) has been represented by the word Rephan in Acts 7:43. Rephan is Kaivan (Chiun) which is the arabian and syrian way of saying Saturn. Rephan apparently was a very limited or localized way of saying Saturn. The adoration of the calf (bull) in the wilderness was an important act of defiance by the Israelites– while Moses went up on the mountain to speak to God face to face.

This worship of the bull was actually worship of Saturn! Some call this star worship, and the bull was worshipped because at that time the constellation Taurus (the Bull) marked the position of the sun at the time of the spring equinox. The fact that the calf was gold was no accident–gold has many Satanic connotations. For a modern occult reference connecting the Bull, astrology and gold together see Esoteric Astrology by Alice Bailey (Lucis Trust, 1951), pp 378-79. Various scholars on ancient religion have written that the worship of Moloch was Saturn worship.

For instance, Siculus Diodorus wrote, “. ..there was a brazen statue of Saturn putting forth the palms of his hands, bending in such a manner toward the earth, as that the boy who was laid upon them, in order to be sacrificed, should slip off, and so fall down headlong into a deep burning furnace…” The ancient Roman circus, like so many public activities in America , was based upon the occult. The circus had 7 circuits, and had a pyramid in the center with 3 alters, one to Saturn, one to Jove, and one to Mars. This is an example of what the common people knew about Saturn. Moloch, then was the Sun God, during the Zodiac period from Taurus to Serpens and Scorpio which is when the sun is hottest. The Babylonians referred to Saturn as the “star of the sun”.

In the Mithraic Mysteries, Saturn was the Sun God. (See Hall, Manly P. The Lost Teachings of All Ages. p. facing 21.) In fact, Saturn was the Sun God of many of the Pagan religions, and was the foundation of the Solar Temple . (ibid. Hall tells us on pg. 97, Lower Left, that Saturn is the foundation of the Solar Temple .) The Ten tribes of the Israelites fell into the ritual sacrifices of Moloch (Saturn worship and sacrifice) which brought them their judgment of Assyrian captivity. (2 KGS 17:16 – 17)

Astrology, witchcraft, and ritual sacrifice were also associated with Saturn worship. Isaiah the prophet tells those who worship Saturn, “Let now the astrologers, the star-gazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee.” ISA 47:13 Saturn did not save the Israelites from captivity.

Ex-Illuminati members have revealed that Saturn is Satan. Yes, Saturn is Satan. The Satanic Illuminati hierarchy teach the high level students that “those who serve Saturn promote the return of the lost son Saturn.” The religion of Saturn is Saturnian gnosis–which turns out to simply be a rehash of the gnosticism that the high level Satanists believe in. Saturn is severe. Jupiter is mild. The merging of Saturn (severity) with Jupiter (mildness) is the creation of the new Golden Age–according to high level Satanic hierarchy teachings. The earth has been caught in a battle between a bi-polar world–the inner Solar Logos and the outer Saturnian sphere. The trans-Saturnian planets actually belong to Alcyone(!) which eventually gets its planets returned. (This may be the reason, that the Satanic hierarchy has treated us to “good aliens from the Pleiades.” Alcyone is a star in the Pleides.) Page 161 …. Saturnian gnostic teachings are that darkness contains the light.

What this means is that darkness is necessary for light to exist. And light appears within the matrix of darkness only by the Demiurge Saturnes–the Logos. This is what they teach. According to Albert Pike in the Masonic Text Book Morals and Dogma given to 320 Masons, the work of the Sun is the perfecting (also known as the deification of) man. Christians view that it is Satan’s work to teach men that they can be deified (which is rebellion to the one and only true God).


In secret Satanic rituals, the Grande Master has a scepter which represents his authority to wield power through the Lord of this world who is known as Saturn. New Age leaders are calling “Saturn” “Sanat Kumera”. A devil by any name is still a devil. In a dialogue with a Mother of Darkness, this Mother of Darkness alter provides some interesting information.

The dialogue went like this:

Mother of Darkness: “Saturn is the gateway that must be opened. For a season God has winked that man might be illuminated. But excessive light destroys. Man must not forget his destiny is concerned with loving regeneration of the earth [Mother Gaia worship] and balance. Soon the other eye of God must open. Those who are illuminated have kept the balance point. The majority of mankind has not. Few seek the ancient seed of wisdom that springs from the brow of Lucifer. Man becomes.. .forgetful of His spiritual ancestry and destiny….They are Ellyllon. Keepers of nothing. They fill the earth with their passing and crowd the planes with nothingness. They are a waste of the energies. And so the other eye must open. Each man shall receive abundance in what he seeks. Some call it Karma…”

Interviewer: “What do you mean by the other eye?”

Mother of Darkness: “The other eye of God as some would say. Chemosh. Cleansing Fire. The outstreched arms of Molech.”

Interviewer: “What has that got to do with Saturn?”

Mother of Darkness: “Everything. This is a most secret thing. Saturn is the gateway. The point at which all thought is fixed. The point at which all feeling shall be projected as the eye opens. Much ritual and preparation has gone into the issuance through the gateway of the ancient ones. There has been a gathering of the elemental essence to clothe them. A strengthened invisible quintessence to hold them in this plane at the time of advent.

Interviewer: “And what will be the result of this advent? What will it mean?”

Mother of Darkness: “A restoring of balance. Those who do not seek wisdom shall cease. Those who are so bound to the earth that they forget the light shall cease….When the other eye opens the dawn shall come. The Golden Dawn shall be upon us and the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in His wings…. The urge to sacrifice others is a gift. It is a liberation from the awful rigidity for at least it permits an awareness of other humans. However badly.. .treated as a result of that awareness they have served an important purpose. The balance is kept and the light dwells upon the illuminated. The energy is released into the circle and is converted into something powerful and useful….In this way you can see they do not truly die. Light increases. Wisdom grows….Death begets life. The sacred cycle of the ancients. The earth shall regenerate herself when the eye of Molech opens.”

There the reader has it, secret teachings from a Mother of Darkness on Saturn. Gnosticism believes that there is a force (not Almighty God)–the Force as it is called can be used for evil or good. Within the hierarchy of the Satanists (Moriah), their thinking has no problem understanding that Lucifer is the same person as Satan.

Satan is what happens when the evil side of the Force is being used, and Lucifer is that person when the good side of the Force is being used. As in all of the Mystery Religions and in the occult world in general, people are told different things at different levels. Most people don’t want to serve evil. They want to think they are good–their pride motivates them to want to be thought of as good and great. They will easily follow Lucifer, but are not going to admit to themselves or anyone that they are following Satan. NO problem–they are allowed to think they are Luciferians. OR if being a follower of Lucifer is too strong a statement, they can be a worshipper of almost thing. Satan in his pride has provided esoteric teachings on the worship of just about everything. There are esoteric teachings about worshipping rock, mountains, trees, the stars, animal spirits, mother earth etc. If one probes deep enough into the layers of hidden meanings all these worships go back to Satan. The five primary interlocked concepts of Satan, are all represented by the Serpent, which are Lucifer (aka Light-bearer or godhood); Search for light or wisdom; sun worship, the Sun god, or energy; fire also called Kundalini force; and the regenerative principle which is phallic and sex worship. These 5 interconnected concepts are represented world wide by snakes (serpents) and represent worship of the supreme serpent Satan.


The big event or operation that is being carried out is the externalization of the hierarchy. Satan’s secret hierarchy with its pure Satanists have been around for thousands of years. But the Satanic conspiracy to control mankind is to become an ”open conspiracy”. The hierarchy is to be externalized. And the elimination of Christians (those who haven’t sought worldly wisdom–that worldly wisdom which comes from Satan) –is to pave the way for Satan’s appearance.

The Satanic occult conspiracy is to leave its secret confines in Masonic Temples and Oddfellow Halls and is to permeate Society in general. This is what has been happening. The real light must go out for the dark side to feel comfortable coming completely out. The Mysteries, also known as the Mystery Religions are the Mysteries that one is initiated into when one joins Freemasonry. In fact, the very first item any prospective Masonic candidate must do is fill out a form requesting to be initiated into ”the Mysteries.”

The Mystery Religions were actually veiled forms of the worship of Lucifer or Satan. Lucifer is simply Satan dressed up as the Light-bearer. In the Mystery Religions the disciples are taught that the spirits of men are the powdered bones of Saturn. When one learns who Saturn is–it is a rather distasteful idea to think that men are taught that their bodies belong to Saturn.

Further, Freemasonry teaches about Hiram Abiff and CHiram. It turns out when we study the Hiramic Legend by Freemasonry’s best philosopher that we learn who Santa Claus is. Santa is a scrambling of Satan. Anyway the Hiramic legend goes like this according to Freemasonry great expert on the Mystery Religions, “Saturn, the old man who lives at the north pole, and brings with him to the children of men a sprig of evergreen (the Christmas tree), is familiar to the little folks under the name of Santa Claus, for he brings each winter the gift of a new year.” “Part of the symbols, are displayed.. .to the initiated, but he is intentionally led astray by false interpretations…Masonry conceals its secrets from all except the Adepts, the Sages and the Elect; and uses false explanations for its symbols to mislead those deserving to be misled.” (This is according to the great Freemason Albert Pike in his book Morals & Dogma.)

It should come as no surprise that Saturn is one of the items which is mentioned by various Masonic authors. For instance, the Freemason Ragon, who is considered an expert on Freemasonry, wrote, “This is the important phenomenon, the ineffable mystery, the key to nature, which the ancient sages succeeded in discovering, and which they adopted as the basis of Masonic doctrine…It is interpretation, the revolting atrocities of subject of Masonic legends. According to Saturn…were considered interesting enigmas, which involve facts worth our notice.” (Ragon, Tyileur General De La Franc-Maconnerie, p. 219-19 as quoted in Mohr, Gordon. The Hidden Power Behind Freemasonry, Burnsville, MN: Weisman Pub., 1990, p. 109) Alice Bailey’s Esoteric Astrology states that Saturn is the Lord of Karma (p. 105) Venus and Saturn shall rule men during Aquarius. (p. 148) “Saturn is the planet of discipleship… we stand at the gateway of the new world, of the new age and its new civilization, ideals and culture.” (p. 148) The occult book A Treatise on Cosmic Fire, pp 1196-1207 states that Saturn is the 5th creative Hierarchy.

This is the type of stuff that the Kaballa comes out with. And American businesses which are controlled by the Illuminati are getting into the act of bringing the occult out into society. Ford called its car Taurus (Bull–the Pleiades), another car is named Aries which is another occult astrological name. Then there is the car named Saturn!!

In conclusion, Saturn turns out to be an occult name for Satan. Santa turns out to be an occult name for Saturn. It also turns out that the name Saturn has been used for Satan for centuries by the occult. The ritual sacrifices to Molech was Saturn worship. The opening of the eye of Saturn is the materialization of hordes of demons taking place during this time period.

High level Illuminati, who will gather together in Atlanta in the summer of 1996, under the cover of the ’96 Olympics will carry out high level rituals to open up a large hole for the materialization of hordes of demons to complete their push toward a world dictator. The use of the name Saturn is an example of how Satanism operates under the cover of layers of deception.

Many Christian words also have occult meaning. There is a Morning Star Church in Tulsa which ministers to victims of Illuminati Trauma Based Total Mind-Control. There is also a prophetic magazine named The Morning Star, which is very slick and glossy. On the other side of things, the term “the Morning Star”–Stella Matutina in Latin- is another name for Lucifer. Stella Matutina is also the name of a cabalistic black magic lodge which Satanist Aleister Crowley led when the Golden Dawn reorganized in 1903. There are Morning Star rituals done by Illuminati members. One Illuminati slave, who was trained to infiltrate Christian churches and turn them toward the New Age movement, channeled a demon named Jesus. He infiltrated Christian churches for decades, and when he spoke about Jesus, he was referring to the demon he channeled. We know about this because one day, his front alters gave their life to Jesus Christ, and he abandoned his job of infiltration, and sought spiritual help.

People need to understand that almost all Christian terms have dual meanings. Just because a term sounds familiar doesn’t mean it is being used in the way that a sincere Christian would understand them.

In Summary

To summarize, the Illuminati are manipulating technology, language, ritualistic activity, subliminal awareness, fear, lust, human vulnerabilities, and conflicts. These manipulations are external deceptions, which help cover up their trauma-based mind control. They use the best covers as fronts. They use fiction, the best of religious fronts, travelling entertainment fronts, and the cover of national defense. They use deflection, blinds, slides, Hegelian dialectics, deniability, and esoteric language. They use agent provocateurs, “clean agents”, “legends”, and safe houses. The Illuminati have refined the art of deception far beyond what the common man has imagined. The very life & liberty of humanity requires the unmasking of their deceptions. That is what this book is about. ”

The Illuminati Formula Used to Control…

Astrology Is A Form Of Divination

Astrology is Divination by Definition

Proverbs 16
New International Version – UK (NIVUK)
16 To humans belong the plans of the heart,
but from the Lord comes the proper answer of the tongue.
2 All a person’s ways seem pure to them,
but motives are weighed by the Lord.
3 Commit to the Lord whatever you do,
and he will establish your plans.
4 The Lord works out everything to its proper end –
even the wicked for a day of disaster.
5 The Lord detests all the proud of heart.
Be sure of this: they will not go unpunished.
6 Through love and faithfulness sin is atoned for;
through the fear of the Lord evil is avoided.
7 When the Lord takes pleasure in anyone’s way,
he causes their enemies to make peace with them.
8 Better a little with righteousness
than much gain with injustice.
9 In their hearts humans plan their course,
but the Lord establishes their steps.
10 The lips of a king speak as an oracle,
and his mouth does not betray justice.
11 Honest scales and balances belong to the Lord;
all the weights in the bag are of his making.
12 Kings detest wrongdoing,
for a throne is established through righteousness.
13 Kings take pleasure in honest lips;
they value the one who speaks what is right.
14 A king’s wrath is a messenger of death,
but the wise will appease it.
15 When a king’s face brightens, it means life;
his favour is like a rain cloud in spring.
16 How much better to get wisdom than gold,
to get insight rather than silver!
17 The highway of the upright avoids evil;
those who guard their ways preserve their lives.
18 Pride goes before destruction,
a haughty spirit before a fall.
19 Better to be lowly in spirit along with the oppressed
than to share plunder with the proud.
20 Whoever gives heed to instruction prospers,[a]
and blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord.
21 The wise in heart are called discerning,
and gracious words promote instruction.[b]
22 Prudence is a fountain of life to the prudent,
but folly brings punishment to fools.
23 The hearts of the wise make their mouths prudent,
and their lips promote instruction.[c]
24 Gracious words are a honeycomb,
sweet to the soul and healing to the bones.
25 There is a way that appears to be right,
but in the end it leads to death.
26 The appetite of labourers works for them;
their hunger drives them on.
27 A scoundrel plots evil,
and on their lips it is like a scorching fire.
28 A perverse person stirs up conflict,
and a gossip separates close friends.
29 A violent person entices their neighbour
and leads them down a path that is not good.
30 Whoever winks with their eye is plotting perversity;
whoever purses their lips is bent on evil.
31 Grey hair is a crown of splendour;
it is attained in the way of righteousness.
32 Better a patient person than a warrior,
one with self-control than one who takes a city.
33 The lot is cast into the lap,
but its every decision is from the Lord.

Proverbs 16:20 Or whoever speaks prudently finds what is good Proverbs 16:21 Or words make a person persuasive
Proverbs 16:23 Or prudent / and make their lips persuasive

New International Version – UK (NIVUK)
Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.


1. The art or act of foretelling future events or revealing occult knowledge by means of augury or an alleged supernatural agency. 2. An inspired guess or presentiment.
3. Something that has been divined.
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English divinacioun, from Latin divination-, divinatio, from divinare Date: 14th century
1 : the art or practice that seeks to foresee or foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge usually by the interpretation of omens or by the aid of supernatural powers 2 : unusual insight : intuitive perception — di·vi·na·to·ry \də-ˈvi-nə-ˌtȯr-ē, də-ˈvī-nə-, ˈdi-və-nə-\ adjective

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. divination [ˌdɪvɪˈneɪʃən]
1. (Spirituality, New Age, Astrology & Self-help / Alternative Belief Systems) the art, practice, or gift of discerning or discovering future events or unknown things, as though by supernatural powers 2. A prophecy
3. A presentiment or guess
divinatory [dɪˈvɪnətərɪ -trɪ] adj

1. the practice of seeking to foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge by occult or supernatural means. 2. intuitive perception; instinctive foresight.

A form of divination involving the relative positions of heavenly bodies. Also called genethlialogy, genethliacs.

divination by observation of the stars. Also called sideromancy.

1. The art of f oretelling the future by means of signs, originally by the flight of birds; divination.
2. An omen or portent from which the future is foretold. — augur, n. — augurial, adj. — augurous, adj. austromancy
divination by observing the winds, especially the south wind. Cf. aeromancy.

1. The magic practiced by a witch or sorcerer.
2. A form of divination through communication with the dead. Also called nigromancy. — necromancer, necromant, nigromancien, n. — necromantie, adj.

A form of divination involving numbers. Also called arithmancy.

A form of divination involving sacrificial remains or sacred objects. Also called hieroscopy.

1. The art of casting horoscopes or divinations based upon the relative positions of heavenly bodies.
2. The position of the sun and stars at the time of a person’s birth. — horoscoper, horoscopist, n.

Divination – successful conjecture by unusual insight or good luck
speculation, supposition, surmisal, surmise, guess, conjecture, hypothesis – a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence 2. Divination – a prediction uttered under divine inspiration prophecy
forecasting, foretelling, prediction, prognostication – a statement made about the future
oracle – a prophecy (usually obscure or allegorical) revealed by a priest or priestess; believed to be infallible
3. Divination – the art or gift of prophecy (or the pretense of prophecy) by supernatural means fortune telling, soothsaying, foretelling
prophecy, vaticination, prognostication – knowledge of the future (usually said to be obtained from a divine source) arithmancy – divination by means of numbers
dowse, dowsing, rhabdomancy – searching for underground water or minerals by using a dowsing rod
geomancy – divination by means of signs connected with the earth (as points taken at random or the arrangement of particles thrown down at random or from the configuration of a region and its relation to another)
hydromancy – divination by water (as by patterns seen in the ebb and flow of the tides) lithomancy – divination by means of stones or stone talismans necromancy – conjuring up the dead, especially for prophesying oneiromancy – divination through the interpretation of dreams onomancy – divination by the letters of a name
chirology, chiromancy, palm reading, palmistry – telling fortunes by lines on the palm of the hand.

noun prediction, divining, prophecy, presage, foretelling, clairvoyance, fortune-telling, prognostication, augury, soothsaying, sortilege. Every method of divination is a philosophy about the world.

Methods of Divination:
crystal gazing,
I Ching,
tea leaves

Means of Divination:
ailuromancy – cats
alphitomancy – wheat or barley cakes
arachnomancy – spiders
astragalomancy – dice
bibliomancy – passages from books
cartomancy – cards
catoptromancy – mirror
ceromancy – melted wax
chiromancy – hands
cleidomancy – suspended key
crithomancy – freshly baked bread
cromniomancy – onions
crystallomancy – crystal ball
dactylomancy – suspended ring
geomancy – earth, sand, or dust
hippomancy – horses
hydromancy – water
lampadomancy – oil lamps
lithomancy – precious stones
lychnomancy – flames of wax candles
molybdomancy – molten lead
necromancy – the dead
oneiromancy – dreams
ornithomancy – birds
pegomancy – sacred pool
pyromancy – fire or flames
radiesthesia – pendulum
rhabdomancy – rod or wand
sciomancy – ghosts
tasseography – tea leaves
theomancy – god
tyromancy – cheese
A form of divination involving idols.
A divination to determine the precise time for action.
A form of divination involving playing cards.

as·trol·o·gy (-strl-j)
1. The study of the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs. 2. Obsolete Astronomy.
[Middle English astrologie, from Old French, from Latin astrologia, from Greek astrologi : astro-, astro- + -logi, -logy.] as·trolo·ger n.
astro·logi·cal (str-lj-kl), astro·logic adj.
astro·logi·cal·ly adv.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

astrology [əˈstrɒlədʒɪ]
1. (Spirituality, New Age, Astrology & Self-help / Astrology) the study of the motions and relative positions of the planets, sun, and moon, interpreted in terms of human characteristics and activities
2. (Astronomy) the primitive study of celestial bodies, which formed the basis of astronomy
[from Old French astrologie, from Latin astrologia, from Greek, from astrologos (originally: astronomer); see astro-, -logy] astrologer , astrologist n
astrological [ˌæstrəˈlɒdʒɪkəl] adj
astrologically adv
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003

as•trol•o•gy (əˈstrɒl ə dʒi)

1. The study that assumes and attempts to interpret the influence of the heavenly bodies on human affairs. 2. Obs.astronomy.
[1325–75; Middle English < Latin astrologia < Greek. See astro-, -logy] as•trol′o•ger, n.
as•tro•log•i•cal (ˌæs trəˈlɒdʒ ɪ kəl) as`tro•log′ic, as•trol′o•gous (-gəs) adj. as`tro•log′i•cal•ly, adv.

The study of star divination; future

Archaic. the casting of horoscopes. — apotelesmatic, adj.
astrology. — astroalchemist, n.
1. the study that assumes, and professes to interpret the influence of the stars and planets upon human existence by star divination. 2. Obsolete, astronomy. — astrologer, astrologist, n. — astrological, adj. genethliac
Obsolete, a person who is skilled in genethlialogy.
the art or practice of casting genethliacs, or astrological nativities. genethliacs
the lore that underlies the art of casting genethliacs, or astrological nativities. Also genethliacs. — genethlialogic, genethlialogical, adj. horoscopy
1. The art of casting horoscopes.
2. The position of the sun and stars at the time of a person’s birth. — horoscoper, horoscopist, n.

the teaching and studies of the priestly caste in ancient Media and Persia whose belief in the advent of a savior king involved them in intensive astrological research, including the following of a star to Bethlehem (See Matthew 2:1-12). Nativity
1. The time, place, and circumstances of a person’s birth.
2. The configuration of the planets at the time of a person’s birth and a representation, as a chart, of that configuration. synastry
coincidence in stellar or astrological influence; the condition of two or more persons having been born under the same stellar configuration. -Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Thesaurus Legend: Synonyms Related Words Antonyms
Noun 1. astrology – a pseudoscience claiming divination by the positions of the planets and sun and moon. Star Divination
zodiac – (astrology) a circular diagram representing the 12 zodiacal constellations and showing their signs horoscopy – the drawing up and interpretation of horoscopes
pseudoscience – an activity resembling science but based on fallacious assumptions
triplicity, trigon – (astrology) one of four groups of the zodiac where each group consists of three signs separated from each other by 120 degrees mansion, planetary house, sign of the zodiac, star sign, sign, house – Astrology:
noun – stargazing, astromancy, horoscopy.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

Nahum 3:15…Woe to Nineveh

3 Woe to the city of blood,
full of lies,
full of plunder,
never without victims!
2 The crack of whips,
the clatter of wheels,
galloping horses
and jolting chariots!
3 Charging cavalry,
flashing swords
and glittering spears!
Many casualties,
piles of dead,
bodies without number,
people stumbling over the corpses –
4 all because of the wanton lust of a prostitute,
alluring, the mistress of sorceries,
who enslaved nations by her prostitution
and peoples by her witchcraft.
5 ‘I am against you,’ declares the Lord Almighty.
‘I will lift your skirts over your face.
I will show the nations your nakedness
and the kingdoms your shame.
6 I will pelt you with filth,
I will treat you with contempt
and make you a spectacle.
7 All who see you will flee from you and say,
‘‘Nineveh is in ruins – who will mourn for her?”
Where can I find anyone to comfort you?’
8 Are you better than Thebes,
situated on the Nile,
with water around her?
The river was her defence,
the waters her wall.
9 Cush[a] and Egypt were her boundless strength;
Put and Libya were among her allies.
10 Yet she was taken captive
and went into exile.
Her infants were dashed to pieces
at every street corner.
Lots were cast for her nobles,
and all her great men were put in chains.
11 You too will become drunk;
you will go into hiding
and seek refuge from the enemy.

Acts 7:38-42, 43, 42-60
43 You have taken up the tabernacle of Molek
and the star of your god Rephan,
the idols you made to worship.
Therefore I will send you into exile”[a] beyond Babylon.

Acts 7:43 Amos 5:25-27 (see Septuagint)

(Acts 7:43; R.V., "Rephan"). In Amos 5:26 the Heb. Chiun (q.v.) is rendered by the LXX. "Rephan," and this name is adopted by Luke in his narrative of the Acts. These names represent the star-god Saturn or Moloch.

Solomon's Star Worship and Sorcery

Well, here is where it gets intriguing: M. Hirsch Goldberg in his book The Jewish Connection states: " The Star of David is not of Jewish origin – and the ancient Israelites never used it as their religious symbol" (they used the Menorah or Seven Candlestick). So, why did the six-pointed star become known as the Jewish star? This symbol was widely adopted, not because the Jewish people chose it, but ironically because Adolph Hitler forced all Jews to wear a yellow six-pointed star during the holocaust. The word holocaust means burnt offering, and the six-pointed star was used in the past when burnt human sacrifices were offered to Moloch and Ashtoreth in Baal worship. The few Jews who had anything to do with the Six-Pointed star (hexagram) were those who were involved in occult practices. Back to Hitler, would he put anything good on a Jew? Hitler meant to insult and destroy the Jews, and being wrapped up in the occult (reference the book, "The Nazis and the Occult"), he may have meant the Jews to be his burnt offering for power. Today, most Jews wear this star by choice, and without thinking or checking out its origin and usage through time. Wearing the six-pointed star became a vogue.

The first mention of the six-pointed star in Israelite literature was in Amos 5:6, when YAWEH angrily tells His people that " I hate and despise your feast days…. You shall take up Siccuth, your king and Chiun your images, the star of your God…." Siccuth (Sakkuth) and Chiun (Kaiwan) means "star" and refers to Saturn as a star, and was objects of idolatrous worship, as they were considered to be Assyrian gods, some of which myth can be traced back to Babylon, the Tower of Babel. The mixed multitude that went out of Egypt with the children of Israel took the star with them. Like the obelisk, the six-pointed star was an Egyptian idol used in idolatrous worship. In 922 B.C. when Solomon married the daughter of Pharoah, he became involved in Egyptian idol worship and went into magic, and witchcraft. Solomon built an altar to Ashtoreth and Moloch, and the six-pointed star, the chief symbol of human sacrifices in magic and witchcraft circles, came to be called the Seal of Solomon.

Solomon did not heed the subsequent warnings from God to cease from these abominable practices, even after God threatened to rend the Kingdom of Israel from his son's hand. And indeed, the split occurred after Solomon's death. Solomon's idolatry caused the Kingdom of Israel to be split in two. The practices he introduced to the children of Israel eventually caused the House of Israel to go into exile into the Caucasus, and the House of Judah to go into captivity. It was Josiah who later destroyed this forbidden altar. Did you know that the number 666 was connected to Solomon? (1 Kings 10:14) Yes, 666 talents of gold was sent to Solomon each month by none other than the King of Tyrus. After you have read this account in the book of 1 Kings, turn to Ezekiel Chapter 28. Oh, what a tangled web was weaved, when Solomon practised to deceive. King Solomon left many articles which proved his blatant idolatry, such as King Solomon's Mirror, King Solomon's Comb, and the six-pointed star, which became known as the Seal of Solomon in the witchcraft and occult world. Solomon also laid down the foundations of the Craft (Daniel 8:25) which later became known as Freemasonry., and the six-pointed star features prominently in Masonic rituals.

King David was Solomon's father, but he was never an idolater. He made it absolutely clear that God Himself was his shield, not only in Psalm 3:3 but in Psalm 28:7, Psalm 119:114, and Psalm 144:2.

The book, "The Six-Pointed Star," is the first academic work which documents the origin and historical usage of this symbol. From Egypt to Solomon, to Arab magic, and witchcraft, to Druid uses, to freemasonry, to Mayer Amschel Bauer, who in the 17th century changes his name to depict the red six-pointed star which hung on his door in Germany, and thus began the family of "Rothschild" (meaning red shield). The Rothschild family incorporated this symbol in their Court of Arms. The research traced the six-pointed star through the Cabala, to astrology, to Hitler and his putting a yellow six-pointed star on Jews during the holocaust, to the Zionist symbol, and finally to the flag of the State of Israel and beyond.

Because this symbol is comprised of a six within a six within a six (i.e. 6 points, 6 triangles, 6 sides of the inner hexagon) the research also includes a look at the 666 prophecies in the Book of Daniel etc., regarding the "willful king" (anti-Christ) and the "mark of the Beast." Included too, is the Scriptural significance of the number seven, and the Biblical description of the real Messiah, and the seven-branched Candlestick (Menorah), which God gave to the children of Israel as an everlasting Covenant, which is also mentioned in the New Testament and the Book of the Revelation. All sources are written at the bottom of each page making it easy for readers to see and check for themselves. It is said to be, of itself, the first and only book published on the origin and history of the six-pointed star. The book contains shocking information regarding the usage of the six-pointed star and its intimidating link with mankind, making it quite an intriguing good read.

Biblical References to Diviners:
Judges 9:37
But Gaal spoke up again: ‘Look, people are coming down from the central hill, and a company is coming from the direction of the diviners’ tree.’ Judges 9:36-38 (in Context) Judges 9 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations 1 Samuel 6:2
the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners and said, ‘What shall we do with the ark of the Lord? Tell us how we should send it back to its place.’ 1 Samuel 6:1-3 (in Context) 1 Samuel 6 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Isaiah 44:25
who foils the signs of false prophets and makes fools of diviners, who overthrows the learning of the wise and turns it into nonsense, Isaiah 44:24-26 (in Context) Isaiah 44 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Jeremiah 27:9
So do not listen to your prophets, your diviners, your interpreters of dreams, your mediums or your sorcerers who tell you, “You will not serve the king of Babylon.” Jeremiah 27:8-10 (in Context) Jeremiah 27 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Jeremiah 29:8
Yes, this is what the Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, says: ‘Do not let the prophets and diviners among you deceive you. Do not listen to the dreams you encourage them to have. Jeremiah 29:7-9 (in Context) Jeremiah 29 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Daniel 4:7
When the magicians, enchanters, astrologers and diviners came, I told them the dream, but they could not interpret it for me. Daniel 4:6-8 (in Context) Daniel 4 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Daniel 5:7
The king summoned the enchanters, astrologers and diviners. Then he said to these wise men of Babylon, ‘Whoever reads this writing and tells me what it means will be clothed in purple and have a gold chain placed round his neck, and he will be made the third highest ruler in the kingdom.’ Daniel 5:6-8 (in Context) Daniel 5 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Daniel 5:11
There is a man in your kingdom who has the spirit of the holy gods in him. In the time of your father he was found to have insight and intelligence and wisdom like that of the gods. Your father, King Nebuchadnezzar, appointed him chief of the magicians, enchanters, astrologers and diviners. Daniel 5:10-12 (in Context) Daniel 5 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Micah 3:7
The seers will be ashamed and the diviners disgraced. They will all cover their faces because there is no answer from God.’ Micah 3:6-8 (in Context) Micah 3 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Zechariah 10:2
The idols speak deceitfully, diviners see visions that lie; they tell dreams that are false, they give comfort in vain. Therefore the people wander like sheep oppressed for lack of a shepherd. Zechariah 10:1-3 (in Context) Zechariah 10

Biblical Reference to Divination:

Genesis 30:27
But Laban said to him, ‘If I have found favour in your eyes, please stay. I have learned by divination that the Lord has blessed me because of you.’ Genesis 30:26-28 (in Context) Genesis 30 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Genesis 44:5
Isn’t this the cup my master drinks from and also uses for divination? This is a wicked thing you have done.”’ Genesis 44:4-6 (in Context) Genesis 44 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Genesis 44:15
Joseph said to them, ‘What is this you have done? Don’t you know that a man like me can find things out by divination?’ Genesis 44:14-16 (in Context) Genesis 44 (Whole Chapter)
Leviticus 19:26
‘“Do not eat any meat with the blood still in it. ‘“Do not practise divination or seek omens. Leviticus 19:25-27 (in Context) Leviticus 19 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Numbers 22:7
The elders of Moab and Midian left, taking with them the fee for divination. When they came to Balaam, they told him what Balak had said. Numbers 22:6-8 (in Context) Numbers 22 (Whole Chapter)
Numbers 23:23
There is no divination against Jacob, no evil omens against Israel. It will now be said of Jacob and of Israel, “See what God has done!” Numbers 23:22-24 (in Context) Numbers 23 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Numbers 24:1
Now when Balaam saw that it pleased the Lord to bless Israel, he did not resort to divination as at other times, but turned his face towards the wilderness. Numbers 24:1-3 (in Context) Numbers 24 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Deuteronomy 18:10
Let no one be found among you who sacrifices their son or daughter in the fire, who practises divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft,
Deuteronomy 18:9-11 (in Context) Deuteronomy 18 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Deuteronomy 18:14
[ The prophet ] The nations you will dispossess listen to those who practise sorcery or divination. But as for you, the Lord your God has not permitted you to do so.
Deuteronomy 18:13-15 (in Context) Deuteronomy 18 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations Joshua 13:22
In addition to those slain in battle, the Israelites had put to the sword Balaam son of Beor, who practised divination. Joshua 13:21-23 (in Context) Joshua 13 (Whole Chapter)

ARROW » Divination by (Ezekiel 21:21)
PAUL » Reproves the soothsayer; causes the evil spirit to come out of the girl who practises divination (Acts 16:16-18) SORCERY » (Divination by an alleged assistance of evil spirits) VENTRILOQUISM » Divination by (Acts 16:16)
New International Version – UK (NIVUK)
Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.


Astrology – Referred To As The OBSERVING Of TIMES

Before going any further with these discussions! What does the word of the ruler of the Universe, who created the earth and heavens, stars, planets, Sun and Moon say in regard to Astrology and such esoteric practices?

Genesis 1-2:10.
New International Version – UK (NIVUK)
The beginning

1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

3 And God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light ‘day’, and the darkness he called ‘night’. And there was evening, and there was morning – the first day.

6 And God said, ‘Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water.’ 7 So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the vault ‘sky’. And there was evening, and there was morning – the second day.

9 And God said, ‘Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.’ And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground ‘land’, and the gathered waters he called ‘seas’. And God saw that it was good.

11 Then God said, ‘Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.’ And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning – the third day.

14 And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.’ And it was so. 16 God made two great lights – the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. 17 God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening, and there was morning – the fourth day.

Deuteronomy Chapter 18: 9-22

9 When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.

10 There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch.

11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer.

12 For all that do these things are an abomination unto the LORD: and because of these abominations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee.

13 Thou shalt be perfect with the LORD thy God.

14 For these nations, which thou shalt possess, hearkened unto observers of times, and unto diviners: but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do.

15 The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;

16 According to all that thou desiredst of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.

17 And the LORD said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken.

18 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.

19 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.

20 But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die.

21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?

22 When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.

To the law and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, it is because they have no dawn.

Isaiah 8:20 20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

1 Samuel …He has also rejected you Saul, from being king.

Satan the deceiver. Pagan practices.  The great counterfeit.  Revelations:  There was a war in heaven and Shatan the Devil, the dragon, was cast out to Earth and his demon entarauge.

Occult practices condemned.

Psalm 106:36-39, 40…
36 They worshiped their idols, and this led to their downfall. 37 They even sacrificed their sons and their daughters to the demons. 38 They shed innocent blood, the blood of their sons and daughters. By sacrificing them to the idols of Canaan, they polluted the land with murder. 39 They defiled themselves by their evil deeds, and their love of idols was adultery in the LORD’s sight.

Paul – Ephesians 5:11
Do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose them;
And have no fellowship with the barren unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.

Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible

Have no fellowship – Have no religious connection whatever with heathens or their practices or worship.

Unfruitful works of darkness – Probably alluding to the mysteries among the heathens, and the different lustrations and rites through which the initiated went in the caves and dark recesses where these mysteries were celebrated; all which he denominates works of darkness, because they were destitute of true wisdom; and unfruitful works, because they were of no use to mankind; the initiated being obliged, on pain of death, to keep secret what they had seen, heard, and done: hence they were called απορῥητα μυστηρια, unspeakable mysteries – things that were not to be divulged. That the apostle may refer to magic and incantations is also probable, for to these the Ephesians were greatly addicted. See the proofs in the notes on Acts 19:19.

Rather reprove them – Bear a testimony against them; convince them that they are wrong; confute them in their vain reasons; reprove them for their vices, which are flagrant, while pretending to superior illumination. All these meanings has the Greek word ελεγχω, which we generally render to convince or reprove.

Ephesians 6:12.
For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

Leviticus 20:6-7 prostitute themselves with mediums
Such as channeling…
Leviticus 20:6-7
6 “If a person turns to mediums and necromancers, whoring after them, I will set my face against that person and will cut him off from among his people. 7 Consecrate yourselves, therefore, and be holy, for I am the Lord your God.

Proverbs 3:5-6
5 Trust in the Lord with all your heart,
and do not lean on your own understanding.
6 In all your ways acknowledge him,
and he will make straight your paths.

Satan masquerades as an Angel of light.
2 Corinthians 11:14
And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.

Revelations – having a form of godliness but denying its power.

1 Peter 5:5-8
5 In the same way, you who are younger, submit yourselves to your elders. All of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, because,

“God opposes the proud
but shows favor to the humble.”[a]
6 Humble yourselves, therefore, under God’s mighty hand, that he may lift you up in due time. 7 Cast all your anxiety on him because he cares for you.

8 Be alert and of sober mind. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour. 9 Resist him, standing firm in the faith, because you know that the family of believers throughout the world is undergoing the same kind of sufferings.

10 And the God of all grace, who called you to his eternal glory in Christ, after you have suffered a little while, will himself restore you and make you strong, firm and steadfast. 11 To him be the power for ever and ever. Amen.
1 Peter 5:8:
Be alert and of sober mind. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.

2 Peter 1: 3-20
3 His divine power has given us everything we need for a godly life through our knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and goodness. 4 Through these he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature, having escaped the corruption in the world caused by evil desires.

5 For this very reason, make every effort to add to your faith goodness; and to goodness, knowledge; 6 and to knowledge, self-control; and to self-control, perseverance; and to perseverance, godliness; 7 and to godliness, mutual affection; and to mutual affection, love. 8 For if you possess these qualities in increasing measure, they will keep you from being ineffective and unproductive in your knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9 But whoever does not have them is nearsighted and blind, forgetting that they have been cleansed from their past sins.

10 Therefore, my brothers and sisters,[a] make every effort to confirm your calling and election. For if you do these things, you will never stumble, 11 and you will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

Prophecy of Scripture

12 So I will always remind you of these things, even though you know them and are firmly established in the truth you now have. 13 I think it is right to refresh your memory as long as I live in the tent of this body, 14 because I know that I will soon put it aside, as our Lord Jesus Christ has made clear to me. 15 And I will make every effort to see that after my departure you will always be able to remember these things.

16 For we did not follow cleverly devised stories when we told you about the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 17 He received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.”[b] 18 We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain.

19 We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. 20 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. 21 For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.


2 Peter 1:10 The Greek word for brothers and sisters (adelphoi) refers here to believers, both men and women, as part of God’s family.

Ephesians 6:10-17 The Armor of God

10 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. 11 Put on the full armor of God, so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. 12 For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. 13 Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. 14 Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, 15 and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. 16 In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 17 Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.

18 And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the Lord’s people. 19 Pray also for me, that whenever I speak, words may be given me so that I will fearlessly make known the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains. Pray that I may declare it fearlessly, as I should.

Phillipians 4:13, 4:4-9
I can do all this through him who gives me strength.
4 Rejoice in the Lord always. I will say it again: Rejoice! 5 Let your gentleness be evident to all. The Lord is near. 6 Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. 7 And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.

8 Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable—if anything is excellent or praiseworthy—think about such things. 9 Whatever you have learned or received or heard from me, or seen in me—put it into practice. And the God of peace will be with you.
Ephesians 6:8
New International Version (NIV)
8 because you know that the Lord will reward each one for whatever good they do, whether they are slave or free.

Colosians 1:15-23
The Supremacy…

15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy. 19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.

21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of[g] your evil behavior. 22 But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation— 23 if you continue in your faith, established and firm, and do not move from the hope held out in the gospel. This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant.
Revelations 13:4 13-14, 11:15

Ecclesiastes 11:13 we don’t know the works of God. 11:7-8
12 Remember your Creator
in the days of your youth,
before the days of trouble come
and the years approach when you will say,
“I find no pleasure in them”—
2 before the sun and the light
and the moon and the stars grow dark,
and the clouds return after the rain;
3 when the keepers of the house tremble,
and the strong men stoop,
when the grinders cease because they are few,
and those looking through the windows grow dim;
4 when the doors to the street are closed
and the sound of grinding fades;
when people rise up at the sound of birds,
but all their songs grow faint;
5 when people are afraid of heights
and of dangers in the streets;
when the almond tree blossoms
and the grasshopper drags itself along
and desire no longer is stirred.
Then people go to their eternal home
and mourners go about the streets.

Psalms 8

Solomon says get your wisdom from the good Shepard. To fear God and Love and obey. Seek this first to find meaning and answers to questions. Nothing has such meaning as does when God is accepted in the heart and the fullness of good satisfaction of abundant life, peace and prospering in accordance with Gods will.

“I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth; Even every one that is called by my name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.” Isaiah 43:6,7.

• “Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.” Romans 1:21-25.

Her priests have violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am profaned among them. Her princes in the midst thereof are like wolves ravening the prey, to shed blood, and to destroy souls, to get dishonest gain. And her prophets have daubed them with untempered morter, seeing vanity, and divining lies unto them, saying, Thus saith the Lord GOD, when the LORD hath not spoken. The people of the land have used oppression, and exercised robbery, and have vexed the poor and needy: yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrongfully. And I sought for a man among them, that should make up the hedge, and stand in the gap before me for the land, that I should not destroy it: but I found none. Therefore have I poured out mine indignation upon them; I have consumed them with the fire of my wrath: their own way have I recompensed upon their heads, saith the Lord GOD. Ezekiel 22:26-31.

“But lusted exceedingly in the wilderness, and tempted God in the desert. And he gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul. They envied Moses also in the camp, and Aaron the saint of the LORD.” Psalms 106:14-16.

“…And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean; And that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.” Leviticus 10:8-11.

“And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.” Revelation 14:6,7.

But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the prophets.” Revelation 10:7.

When the Bible speaks of the name of God it is talking about His character. How is His character described?
• “And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD. And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth,” Exodus 34:5,6.
9. To glorify God is to reveal His character or name in our lives. What all does this include?
• “Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.” 1Cor 10:31.
10. What will happen when we do this?
• “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.” Matthew 5:16.
11. The mystery of God to be finished just before the close of probation is “Christ in you the hope of glory”. If Christ lives in us, what does that make us?

“What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.” 1Corinthians 6:19,20.
12. What happens if we defile our temple?
• “Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.” 1Corinthians 3:16,17.

Allah T’ala says in the Holy Quran:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلاَلٍ مُّبِينٍ

وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ

فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ رَأَى كَوْكَبًا قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّي فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لا أُحِبُّ الآفِلِينَ

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّي فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لأكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّي هَـذَآ أَكْبَرُ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

006.074 Lo! Abraham said to his father Azar: “Takest thou idols for gods? For I see
thee and thy people in manifest error.”

006.075 So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and
the earth, that he might (with understanding) have certitude.

006.076 When the night covered him over, He saw a star: He said: “This is my
Lord.” But when it set, He said: “I love not those that set.”

006.077 When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: “This is my Lord.” But
when the moon set, He said: “unless my Lord guide me, I shall surely be among those
who go astray.”

006.078 When he saw the sun rising in splendour, he said: “This is my Lord; this is
the greatest (of all).” But when the sun set, he said: “O my people! I am indeed free
from your (guilt) of giving partners to God.

006.079 “For me, I have set my face, firmly and truly, towards Him Who created the
heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to God.”

In these verses, some light is thrown on the mental experience through which Abraham (peace be on him) passed in the beginning and which led him to an understanding of the Truth before prophethood was bestowed on him. This experience shows how a right-thinking and sound-hearted man, who had opened his eyes in a purely polytheistic environment and had received no instruction in monotheism, was ultimately led to discover the Truth by careful observation of, and serious reflection on the phenomena of the universe.

The account of the conditions prevailing among the people of Abraham shows that when he began to think seriously, the scene was dominated by the worship of the heavenly bodies – the moon, the sun and the stars. It was natural, therefore, that when Abraham began his quest for the Truth, he should have been faced with the question: Is it possible that any of these, the sun, the moon and the stars, is God? He concentrated his reflection on this central question and by observing that all the gods of his nation were bound by a rigid law under which they moved about like slaves, he concluded that those so-called gods were not possessed of even a shadow of the power of the One True Lord, Who alone had created them all and had yoked them to serve His will.

The Qur’anic passage describing Abraham’s reactions on observing first a star, then the moon, and finally the sun, has puzzled some readers because the words seem to suggest that Abraham had never before witnessed these common phenomena. This misconception has made the whole narration such a riddle for some scholars that they could only solve it by inventing the strange anecdote that Abraham was born and grew to maturity in a cave and was thus deprived of the opportunity to observe the heavenly bodies. What is said, however, is so plain that one need not fall back on any such incident in order to comprehend it. It is well known, for instance, that when Newton saw an apple fall from a tree in his orchard, the incident instantly raised in his mind the question: Why do things always fall to the ground? As a result of his reflection on this question he arrived at his theory of gravity. On reading this incident one might wonder if Newton had never before seen anything fall to the ground! Obviously, he must have seen things fall. For what reason, then, should the falling of an apple cause in his mind a reaction quite different from those caused by hundreds of earlier observations of similar things falling? The answer is that a reflecting mind does not react uniformly to similar observations. A man may observe something over and over again without this observation creating any stir in his mind, but then there comes a moment when suddenly the same observation agitates his mind and his mental faculty begins to work in a different direction. It may also happen that while a man’s mind is wrestling with a problem, he encounters something which is otherwise quite ordinary but which suddenly seems to provide the key. Something to this effect happened with Abraham. Certainly, he was as familiar as anyone else with nightfall and the ensuing daybreak. The sun, the moon and the stars had all risen before his eyes in the past and had then disappeared from sight. But on one particular day his observation of a star was to stimulate his thinking in a certain direction and to lead him in the end to perceive the truth of God’s Oneness. It is possible that Abraham’s mind was already engrossed in reflecting on whether, and if so to what extent, the beliefs which served as the foundation of the entire life-system of his people embodied the Truth.


Table of Contents
Among the Israelites.
This is perhaps the oldest form of idolatry practised by the ancients. According to Wisdom xiii. 2, the observation of the stars in the East very early led the people to regard the planets and the fixed stars as gods. The religion of the ancient Egyptians is known to have consisted preeminently of sun-worship. Moses sternly warned the Israelites against worshiping the sun, moon, stars, and all the host of heaven (Deut. iv. 19, xvii. 3); it may be said that the prohibition of making and worshiping any image of that which is in heaven above (Ex. xx. 4; Deut. v. 8) implies also the stars and the other celestial bodies. The Israelites fell into this kind of idolatry, and as early as the time of Amos they had the images of Siccuth and Chiun, “the stars of their god” (Amos v. 26, R. V.); the latter name is generally supposed to denote the planet Saturn. That the kingdom of Israel fell earlier than that of Judah is stated (II Kings xvii. 16) to have been due, among other causes, to its worshiping the host of heaven. But the kingdom of Judah in its later period seems to have out-done the Northern Kingdom in star-worship. Of Manasseh it is related that he built altars to all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of Yhwh, and it seems that it was the practise of even kings before him to appoint priests who offered sacrifices to the sun, the moon, the planets, and all the host of heaven. Altars for star-worship were built on the roofs of the houses, and horses and chariots were dedicated to the worship of the sun (ib. xxi. 5; xxiii. 4-5, 11-12). Star-worship continued in Judah until the eighteenth year of Josiah’s reign (621 B.C.), when the king took measures to abolish all kinds of idolatry (ib.). But although star-worship was then abolished as a public cult, it was practised privately by individuals, who worshiped the heavenly bodies, and poured out libations to them on the roofs of their houses (Zeph. i. 5; Jer. viii. 2, xix. 13). Jeremiah (vii. 18) describes the worship of the queen of heaven to have been more particularly common among the women. Ezekiel, who prophesied in the sixth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (591 B.C.), describes the worship of the sun as practised in thecourt of the Temple (Ezek. viii. 16 et seq.), and from Jer. xliv. 17 et seq. it may be seen that even after the destruction of the Temple the women insisted on continuing to worship the queen of heaven. In Job (xxxi. 26 et seq.) there is an allusion to the kissing of the hand in the adoration of the moon (see Moon, Biblical Data). According to Robertson Smith (“The Religion of the Semites,” p. 127, note 3, Edinburgh, 1889), star-worship is not of great antiquity among the Semites in general, nor among the Hebrews in particular, for the latter adopted this form of idolatry only under the influence of the Assyrians. But Fritz Hommel (“Der Gestirndienst der Alten Araber,” Munich, 1901) expresses the opposite opinion. He points to the fact that the Hebrew root which denotes the verb “to swear” is the same as that which denotes “seven,” and claims that this fact establishes a connection between swearing and the seven planets; and he furthermore declares that there are many Biblical evidences of star-worship among the ancient Hebrews. Thus, the fact that Terah, Abraham’s father, had lived first at Ur of the Chaldees, and that later he settled at Haran (Gen. xi. 31), two cities known from Assyrian inscriptions as places of moon-worship, shows that Abraham’s parents were addicted to that form of idolatry. According to legend, Abraham himself worshiped the sun, moon, and the stars before he recognized the true God in Yhwh (see Abraham in Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature). The golden calf, Hommel declares, was nothing more than an emblem of the moon-god, which, in the Assyrian inscription, is styled “the youthful and mighty bull” and the lord of the heavenly hosts (comp. “Yhwh Ẓeba’ot,” which term is intentionally omitted from the Pentateuch). He assigns the same character to the two calves made by Jeroboam several centuries later (I Kings xii. 28).
The ancient Hebrews, being nomads, like the Arabs favored the moon, while the Babylonians, who were an agricultural nation, preferred the sun. But, as appears from Ezek. xx. 7-8, the moon-worship of the Israelites, even while they were still in Egypt, was combined with sun-worship. The close similarity between the ancient Hebrews and the southern Arabs has led Hommel furthermore to find allusion to moon-worship in such Hebrew names as begin with “ab” (= “father”), as in “Abimelech” and “Absalom,” or with “‘am” (= “uncle”), as in “Amminadab” and “Jeroboam,” because these particles, when they appear in the names of southern Arabs, refer to the moon.
The term “star-worship” (“‘abodat kokabim u-mazzalot”) in the Talmud and in post-Talmudic literature is chiefly a censor’s emendation for “‘abodah zarah.”

4 Then the word of the Lord came to him (Abram): “This man will not be your heir, but a son who is your own flesh and blood will be your heir.” 5 He took him outside and said, “Look up at the sky and count the stars—if indeed you can count them.” Then he said to him, “So shall your offspring be.”

none of this SUPERSTITION…
Dictionary meaning of superstition star lore. Magic…

Superstition is a pejorative term for belief in supernatural causality: that one event leads to the cause of another without any physical process linking the two events, such as astrology, religion, omens, witchcraft, etc., that contradicts natural science.

Superstition is a belief, not based on human reason or scientific knowledge, that future events may be influenced by one’s behaviour in some magical or mystical way.

Date: 13th century
1 a : a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or chance, or a false conception of causation b : an irrational abject attitude of mind toward the supernatural, nature, or God resulting from superstition 2 : a notion maintained despite evidence to the contrary.

1. An irrational belief that an object, action, or circumstance not logically related to a course of events influences its outcome.
a. A belief, practice, or rite irrationally maintained by ignorance of the laws of nature or by faith in magic or chance.
b. A fearful or abject state of mind resulting from such ignorance or irrationality.
c. Idolatry.

Originally the word superstition meant something like “standing still in apprehension or awe,” but since has been rather watered down in its application and use. According to the writer Raymond Lamont Brown: “Superstition is a belief, or system of beliefs, by which almost religious veneration is attached to things mostly secular; a parody of religious faith in which there is belief in an occult or magic connection.”
Another way to put it is that superstition is an irrational or nonscientific belief in the existence of certain powers operant in the world, with positive or ill (usually ill) effects, and therefore a concomitant belief in the counter-effects of amulets, tokens and such, and the power of certain actions (or avoidance of some actions, such as not walking under a ladder) to diminish or deflect these ill effects and/or to promote the positive influence (i.e. crossing one’s fingers, or rubbing a beneficent stone, for good luck) of these indeterminate and usually unnamed powers.

Pronunciation: \ˈma-jik\
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English magique, from Middle French, from Latin magice, from Greek magikē, feminine of magikos Magian, magical, from magos magus, sorcerer, of Iranian origin; akin to Old Persian maguš sorcerer
Date: 14th century
1 a : the use of means (as charms or spells) believed to have supernatural power over natural forces b : magic rites or incantations 2 a : an extraordinary power or influence seemingly from a supernatural source b : something that seems to cast a spell : enchantment 3 : the art of producing illusions by sleight of hand.

1. The art that purports to control or forecast natural events, effects, or forces by invoking the supernatural.
a. The practice of using charms, spells, or rituals to attempt to produce supernatural effects or control events in nature.
b. The charms, spells, and rituals so used.
3. The exercise of sleight of hand or conjuring for entertainment.
4. A mysterious quality of enchantment: “For me the names of those men breathed the magic of the past” (Max Beerbohm).
1. Of, relating to, or invoking the supernatural: “stubborn unlaid ghost/That breaks his magic chains at curfew time” (John Milton).
2. Possessing distinctive qualities that produce unaccountable or baffling effects.

Magic may refer to:

Magic (illusion), the art of appearing to perform supernatural feats using sleight of hand, escapology, or other methods
Magic (paranormal), the use of paranormal methods to manipulate natural forces, such as:
Witchcraft, also called ‘witchery’ or ‘spellcraft’
Hoodoo (folk magic), also called ‘Conjure’ and (erroneously) ‘Voodoo.’
Cunning folk and other practitioners of Folk magic
Conjuring, evocation or summoning of various spiritual entities
Ceremonial magic, a ritual system of esoteric spiritual development using occult techniques, related to Hermeticism, Kabbalah, and Western esotericism
Magick, a specific system of ritual magic deriving from the religious philosophy of Thelema
Magic and religion, which may involve the intercession of deities or other spirits, such as prayer
Divination and other Occult practices are often considered to be aspects of magic.

Since the mid-20th century Witchcraft has become the designation of a branch of contemporary Paganism, most notably including Wiccan traditions, who claim to practice a revival of pre-Abrahamic spirituality.

The Russian word for witch is ведьма (ved’ma, literally “the one who knows”, from Old Slavic вѣдъ “to know”).[36]

In the north of England, the superstition lingers to an almost inconceivable extent. Lancashire abounds with witch-doctors, a set of quacks, who pretend to cure diseases inflicted by the devil … The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham.

Conjuration in the Middle East

Conjuration is a very common mystic practice in the Middle East, most commonly found in Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Iraq. Many practice it to settle personal grudges or for healing, personal enhancement, or foretelling the future. There are also those who will sell their services as conjurers to others.

Islam strongly forbids the use of conjuration, because it is seen as an unholy procedure, and therefore to perform it is to give an insult to God. It is also considered to, in the end, harm people more than help them: those who regularly contact demons are believed to go mad through overdosing on power, or being possessed (since demons are thought to be short-tempered beings, and given the opportunity might overpower and enslave the one who summoned them).

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
sorcery [ˈsɔːsərɪ]
n pl -ceries
(Spirituality, New Age, Astrology & Self-help / Alternative Belief Systems) the art, practices, or spells of magic, esp black magic, by which it is sought to harness occult forces or evil spirits in order to produce preternatural effects in the world
[from Old French sorcerie, from sorcier sorcerer]
sorcerous adj
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
The practices of a person who is thought to have supernatural powers granted by evil spirits; black magic; witchery.

The art, practices, or spells of a person who is supposed to exercise supernatural powers through the aid of evil spirits; black magic; witchery. — sorcerer, n. — sorcerous, adj.

A New Heaven and a New Earth

1And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. 2And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. 4And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away. 5And he that sat on the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said to me, Write: for these words are true and faithful. 6And he said to me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give to him that is thirsty of the fountain of the water of life freely. 7He that overcomes shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son. 8But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.

Isaiah 14
New International Version (NIV)
14 The Lord will have compassion on Jacob;
once again he will choose Israel
and will settle them in their own land.
Foreigners will join them
and unite with the descendants of Jacob.
2 Nations will take them
and bring them to their own place.
And Israel will take possession of the nations
and make them male and female servants in the Lord’s land.
They will make captives of their captors
and rule over their oppressors.
3 On the day the Lord gives you relief from your suffering and turmoil and from the harsh labor forced on you, 4 you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon:

How the oppressor has come to an end!
How his fury[a] has ended!
5 The Lord has broken the rod of the wicked,
the scepter of the rulers,
6 which in anger struck down peoples
with unceasing blows,
and in fury subdued nations
with relentless aggression.
7 All the lands are at rest and at peace;
they break into singing.
8 Even the junipers and the cedars of Lebanon
gloat over you and say,
“Now that you have been laid low,
no one comes to cut us down.”
9 The realm of the dead below is all astir
to meet you at your coming;
it rouses the spirits of the departed to greet you—
all those who were leaders in the world;
it makes them rise from their thrones—
all those who were kings over the nations.
10 They will all respond,
they will say to you,
“You also have become weak, as we are;
you have become like us.”
11 All your pomp has been brought down to the grave,
along with the noise of your harps;
maggots are spread out beneath you
and worms cover you.
12 O Lucifer! How you have fallen from heaven,
morning star, son of the dawn!
You have been cast down to the earth,
you who once laid low the nations!
13 You said in your heart,
“I will ascend to the heavens;
I will raise my throne
above the stars of God;
I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly,
on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon.[b]
14 I will ascend above the tops of the clouds;
I will make myself like the Most High.”
15 But you are brought down to the realm of the dead,
to the depths of the pit.
16 Those who see you stare at you,
they ponder your fate:
“Is this the man who shook the earth
and made kingdoms tremble,
17 the man who made the world a wilderness,
who overthrew its cities
and would not let his captives go home?”
18 All the kings of the nations lie in state,
each in his own tomb.
19 But you are cast out of your tomb
like a rejected branch;
you are covered with the slain,
with those pierced by the sword,
those who descend to the stones of the pit.
Like a corpse trampled underfoot,
20 you will not join them in burial,
for you have destroyed your land
and killed your people.
Let the offspring of the wicked
never be mentioned again.
21 Prepare a place to slaughter his children
for the sins of their ancestors;
they are not to rise to inherit the land
and cover the earth with their cities.
22 “I will rise up against them,”
declares the Lord Almighty.
“I will wipe out Babylon’s name and survivors,
her offspring and descendants,”
declares the Lord.
23 “I will turn her into a place for owls
and into swampland;
I will sweep her with the broom of destruction,”
declares the Lord Almighty.
24 The Lord Almighty has sworn,

“Surely, as I have planned, so it will be,
and as I have purposed, so it will happen.
25 I will crush the Assyrian in my land;
on my mountains I will trample him down.
His yoke will be taken from my people,
and his burden removed from their shoulders.”
26 This is the plan determined for the whole world;
this is the hand stretched out over all nations.
27 For the Lord Almighty has purposed, and who can thwart him?
His hand is stretched out, and who can turn it back?
A Prophecy Against the Philistines

28 This prophecy came in the year King Ahaz died:

29 Do not rejoice, all you Philistines,
that the rod that struck you is broken;
from the root of that snake will spring up a viper,
its fruit will be a darting, venomous serpent.
30 The poorest of the poor will find pasture,
and the needy will lie down in safety.
But your root I will destroy by famine;
it will slay your survivors.
31 Wail, you gate! Howl, you city!
Melt away, all you Philistines!
A cloud of smoke comes from the north,
and there is not a straggler in its ranks.
32 What answer shall be given
to the envoys of that nation?
“The Lord has established Zion,
and in her his afflicted people will find refuge.”

Isaiah 14:4 Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac; the meaning of the word in the Masoretic Text is uncertain.
Isaiah 14:13 Or of the north; Zaphon was the most sacred mountain of the Canaanites.

c. How the oppressor has ceased: God want us to know now that the literal and metaphoric king of spiritual Babylon, a city that angered him since the time of building of the tower of Babel with its temple of idolatry atop of 7th tier reaching up into Heaven. Where concept of 7th Heaven originated along with the goddess myth such as Cybil, Queen of Heaven, Isis, Ishtar, Asterath, Easter, Artimis etc, a city built with towers to become as gods in satanic cult of god envy – Satan – that his days are numbered. There will come a day when his oppression has ceased, and when the LORD will break the staff of the wicked, and the scepter of the rulers.

Babylon is repeatedly referred to metaphorically and literally throughout both the old and new testaments. As in Revelations.

[7] Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.
[8] I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.
[9] I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.
[10] I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
[11] Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
[12] And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;
[13] And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
[14] His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;
[15] And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.
[16] And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.
[17] And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:
[18] I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
[19] Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;
[20] The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.


[1] Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;
[2] I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:
[3] And hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name’s sake hast laboured, and hast not fainted.
[4] Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love.
[5] Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent.
[6] But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.
[7] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.
[8] And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
[9] I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.
[10] Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.
[11] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.
[12] And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;
[13] I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.
[14] But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication.
[15] So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.
[16] Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.
[17] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.
[18] And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;
[19] I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first.
[20] Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.
[21] And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.
[22] Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.
[23] And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.
[24] But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak; I will put upon you none other burden.
[25] But that which ye have already hold fast till I come.
[26] And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations:
[27] And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father.
[28] And I will give him the morning star.
[29] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.


[1] And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
[2] Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die: for I have not found thy works perfect before God.
[3] Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard, and hold fast, and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee.
[4] Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy.
[5] He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels.
[6] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
[7] And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;
[8] I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.
[9] Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.
[10] Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.
[11] Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown.
[12] Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.
[13] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
[14] And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;
[15] I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot.
[16] So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth.
[17] Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked:
[18] I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see.
[19] As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent.
[20] Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.
[21] To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.
[22] He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

[1] After this I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.
[2] And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne.
[3] And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.
[4] And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.
[5] And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.
[6] And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four beasts full of eyes before and behind.
[7] And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle.
[8] And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.
[9] And when those beasts give glory and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever,
[10] The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,
[11] Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.


[1] And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals…

…[12] And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;
[13] And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.
[14] And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
[15] And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;
[16] And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:
[17] For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

[1] And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.


[1] And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.
[2] And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets.
[3] And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne.
[4] And the smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of the angel’s hand.
[5] And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar, and cast it into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake.
[6] And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound…

…[10] And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters;
[11] And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.
[12] And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.

[13] And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound!

[1] And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.
[2] And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.
[3] And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power.
[4] And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.
[5] And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months: and their torment was as the torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man.
[6] And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them…

…[18] By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.
[19] For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt.
[20] And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:

[21] Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts….[19] And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

[1] And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars:
[2] And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.
[3] And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
[4] And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
[5] And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.
[6] And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days.
[7] And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels,
[8] And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.
[9] And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
[10] And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.
[11] And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.
[12] Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time.
[13] And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man child.
[14] And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.
[15] And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.
[16] And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.
[z17] And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
…[6] And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,
[7] Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.
[8] And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.
[9] And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,
[10] The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb:
[11] And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.


[1] And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of God.

…[8] And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire.
[9] And men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give him glory.

…[17] And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.
[18] And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.
[19] And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.
[20] And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.
[21] And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

[1] And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
[2] With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.
[3] So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
[4] And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
[6] And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
[7] And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.

Revelations 17:
[1] And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
[2] With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.
[3] So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
[4] And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
[6] And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
[7] And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
[8] The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.
[9] And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.
[10] And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.
[11] And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
[12] And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
[13] These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.
[14] These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.
[15] And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.
[16] And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.
[17] For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.
[18] And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

[1] And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.
[2] And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
[3] For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.
[4] And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.
[5] For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
[6] Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
[7] How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.
[8] Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her.
[9] And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,
[10] Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.
[11] And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:
[12] The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble,
[13] And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.
[14] And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.
[15] The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,
[16] And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!
[17] For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,
[18] And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city is like unto this great city!
[19] And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.
[20] Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.
[21] And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
[22] And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
[23] And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
[24] And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.

[1] And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:
[2] For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.
[3] And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
[4] And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.
[5] And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.
[6] And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
[7] Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.
[8] And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.
[9] And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

Critical Degrees

The point of the intersection of the Lunar Zodiac (Moon Mansions) with the Solar Zodiac are considered Critical Degrees.

Each Moon Mansion is 12 degrees, 51 minutes and 26 seconds in size.

The math for this overlay begins at start point of 0˚ Aries for both the Solar and Lunar Zodiacs;

the 2nd Moon Mansion cusp begins at 12˚51’26” of Aries,

the 3rd at 25˚42’52” of Aries;

The 4th at 8˚34’18” of Taurus and so on…


Rounded up to the degree, they are 0, 12, 26 of Cardinal signs (Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn), 9, and 221 of Fixed Signs (Taurus,  Leo ,Scorpio,  Aquarius), 4 and 17 of Mutable Signs (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces).


The actual critical degree is the exact degree and minute of the degree according to the math, rather than the rounded up figure.   Particular attention would be noted if the Sun or Moon resides on on of these degrees and/or if the Sun and Moon are in hard aspect connected to these degrees, in a natal horoscope for instance.

Medical Astrology utilized these and critical degrees in making prognosis.  In  earlier times,  doctors were versed in astrology as part of their training in medicine.  The critical list is still part and parcel of medical terminology, though other scientific means are used in determining such status.



 A tattooed number, a computer chip under the skin, or something more subtle? It’s one of the most misinterpreted prophecies in all of the Bible – yet it is so important to correctly understand this subject. But in studying the mark of the beast, we must address some very sensitive issues, naming names and being specific. This is not a popular thing today, but we must be firm because God loves His people and He wants them to know the truth. This message is not ours, but Jesus’. And with eternal death facing those who receive the mark, it would be a crime to not help Him deliver this message. This lesson should probably be prefaced with a warning: “WHAT THE DEVIL DOES NOT WANT YOU TO READ AND  STUDY.” Please read Revelation 13:1-8, 14:9-12, and 16-18, and pray for the Holy Spirit to grant you an honest and understanding heart before embarking on this study adventure.

An Urgent Reminder

We learned from Study Guide 2 that a terrible conflict is in progress between God and the devil. It has raged through the centuries since Lucifer, heaven’s most powerful angel, rebelled against God. With the angels who joined him, he attempted to overcome God and seize control of the universe. God and the loyal angels had no choice but to eject Lucifer and his angels from heaven. Lucifer, who became known as the devil and Satan, was infuriated. His determination to destroy God and control the universe has grown with every passing year. Amazingly, he has won the support of the vast majority of earth’s people in his rebellion. The Lord also asks for people’s loyalty and support, but He leaves all free to choose. Soon every person on earth will have aligned with either Satan or God. The final battle between Satan and God is just ahead, and it is described in the book of Revelation. This book points out that God has an emblem, or mark, which will identify His people. Satan also has an emblem, or mark, that will identify those who support him. As usual, Satan will work through an earthly power (symbolized in Revelation by a beast) to impose his mark. This Study Guide will reveal the beast’s mark, which every lost person of the end time will receive. Unless you know what his “mark” is, how will you avoid receiving it?


1.   In order to know what the “mark” is, we must first identify the beast. How does the Bible describe the beast?

Revelation 13:1-8, 16-18 provides 11 identifying characteristics. They are listed below:
A. Rises from sea (verse 1).
B. Composite of the four beasts of Daniel chapter 7 (verse 2).
C. Dragon gives it power and authority (verse 2).
D. Receives a deadly wound (verse 3).
E. Deadly wound healed (verse 3).
F. Strong political power (verses 3, 7).
G. Strong religious power (verses 3, 8).
H. Guilty of blasphemy (verses 1, 5, 6).
I. Wars with and overcomes the saints (verse 7).
J. Rules for 42 months (verse 5).
K. Has mysterious number–666 (verse 18).

afsg20-1b.jpgThe beast of Revelation chapter 13 symbolizes the Antichrist.

Do some of these points have a familiar ring? Certainly! We encountered many of them earlier when we studied about the Antichrist in Daniel chapter 7. The “beast” of Revelation 13 is simply another name for the “Antichrist,” which we learned from Daniel 7 is the papacy. Prophecies of Daniel and Revelation often cover the same ground as prior prophecies, but each time new features are added that help make the prophecies certain. So expect to learn some new things about the Antichrist from this Study Guide. Now let’s consider, one by one, the 11 points that describe the beast.

A. It would rise from the sea (Revelation 13:1).
The sea (or water) in prophecy refers to people, or a populated area (Revelation 17:15). So the beast, or Antichrist, would arise from amid the established nations of the then-known world. The papacy, as we all know, arose in western Europe, so it fits this point.

A Word of ExplanationIn harmony with God’s command to honor all people (1 Peter 2:17), we pause here to recognize the papacy for her many good deeds and activities. Her hospitals, orphanages, care for the poor, homes for unwed mothers, and care for the aged are appreciated universally. She can honestly be lauded for many things. But, like all other organizations, she has also made mistakes. God pinpoints some of her errors in Revelation. The Lord, who blesses and comforts, must sometimes chasten and correct. Please ask His Spirit to speak to you as you study this crucial topic.

B. It would be a composite of the four beasts of Daniel chapter 7 (Revelation 13:2).

Study the comparison below to see how it all fits together:

Daniel chapter 7 Revelation chapter 13
Babylon Lionlike beast (vs. 4) “Mouth of a lion” (vs. 2)
Medo-Persia Bearlike beast (vs. 5) “Feet of a bear” (vs. 2)
Greece Leopardlike beast (vs. 6) “Like unto a leopard” (vs. 2)
Rome Ten-horned beast (vs. 7) “Having … ten horns” (vs. 1)
afsg20-1c.jpgThe papacy is the Antichrist.

The four beasts of Daniel 7 are depicted as part of Antichrist, or the beast, because the papacy incorporated pagan beliefs and practices from all four empires. She clothed them in spiritual garb and spread them to the world as Christian teachings. Here is one of many supporting statements from history: “In a certain respect, she [the papacy] has copied her organization from that of the Roman Empire, has preserved and made fruitful the philosophical intuitions of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, borrowed from both Barbarians and the Byzantine Roman Empire, but always remains herself, thoroughly digesting all elements drawn from external sources.” 1 This point definitely fits the papacy.

C. The beast must receive its power, seat (capital), and authority from the dragon (Revelation 13:2).

afsg20-1d.jpgKing Herod tried to “devour”, or kill, Jesus at birth.

To identify the dragon, we go to Revelation chapter 12, where God’s end-time church is pictured as a pure woman. In prophecy, a pure woman represents God’s true people or church (Jeremiah 6:2; Isaiah 51:16). (In Study Guide 23, we will present a detailed study of God’s end-time church of Revelation chapter 12. Study Guide 22 explains Revelation chapters 17 and 18, where fallen churches are symbolized by a fallen mother and her fallen daughters.) The pure woman is portrayed as pregnant and about to deliver. The dragon crouches nearby, hoping to “devour” the baby at birth. However, when the baby is born He evades the dragon, fulfills His mission, and then ascends to heaven. Obviously the baby is Jesus, whom Herod tried to destroy by killing all the babies in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:16). So the dragon represents pagan Rome, of which Herod was a king. The power behind Herod’s plot was, of course, the devil (Revelation 12:7-9). Satan acts through various governments to accomplish his ugly work–in this case, pagan Rome.

afsg20-1e.jpgGeneral Berthier inflicted a deadly wound upon the papacy by taking Pope Pius VI captive.

We will quote just two supportive references from history, though there are many: (1) “The Roman Church … pushed itself into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation. …The Pope … is Caesar’s successor.” 2 (2) “The mighty Catholic Church was little more than the Roman Empire baptised. Rome was transformed as well as converted. The very capital of the old Empire became the capital of the Christian Empire. The office of Pontifex Maximus was continued in that of Pope.” 3 So this point also fits the papacy. She received her capital city and power from pagan Rome.

D. It would receive a deadly wound (Revelation 13:3).
The deadly wound was inflicted when Napoleon’s general, Alexander Berthier, entered Rome and took Pope Pius VI captive in February of 1798. Napoleon decreed that at the death of the pope, the papacy would be discontinued. The pope died in France in August of 1799. “Half Europe thought … that without the Pope the Papacy was dead.” 4

So this point also fits the papacy.

afsg20-1f.jpgMore than 100 nations have state representatives at the Vatican.

E. The deadly wound would be healed, and the entire world would give homage to the beast (Revelation 13:3).
Since its healing, the strength of the papacy has grown and increased until today she is one of the most powerful religio-political organizations and influence-centers in the world. Malachi Martin, consummate Vatican insider and intelligence expert, reveals the following in his best-selling book The Keys of This Blood 5 (page numbers in parentheses):

He is as determined to be world ruler as was Constantine in his day (49). He is protected by four governments (120). He is the best-known person of the 20th century (123). He is personal friends with the leaders of 91 countries (490). People of the world seem to him ready for strong worldwide moral government with control (160). Sixteen thousand journalists covered his American visit (490).ABOUT THE PAPACY:
The American ambassador says the Vatican is unmatched as a “listening post” (120). The Vatican knows by Saturday what will happen on Monday anywhere in the world (439). Papal structure is prepared for worldwide rule now (143).

Obviously, the wound is healed and the eyes of the nations are upon the Vatican, so this point also fits the papacy.

afsg20-1g.jpgMillions of Christians lost their lives during periods of papal persecution.

F. It would become a strong political power (Revelation 12:3, 7).
See item E above.

G. It would become a very powerful religious organization (Revelation 13:3, 8).
See item E above.

H. It would be guilty of blasphemy (Revelation 13:5, 6).
The papacy is guilty of blasphemy because her priests claim to forgive sins and her popes claim to be Christ.

I. It would war with and persecute the saints (Revelation 13:7).
The papacy did persecute and destroy millions of saints during the Dark Ages.

J. It would reign for 42 months (Revelation 13:5).
The papacy reigned for 42 prophetic months, which equals 1,260 years–from A.D. 538-1798.

Points H through J also clearly fit the papacy. We touched on them only briefly here because they were covered thoroughly in Study Guide 15, question 8, items E, G, and H.

afsg20-666.jpg* V and U each equal five in Roman numerals.

K. It would have the mysterious number 666 (Revelation 13:18).
This verse says, “It is the number of a man,” and Revelation 15:2 says it is “the number of his name.” What man do you think of when you think of the papacy? Naturally, we all think of the pope. What is his official name? Here is a Catholic quote: “The title of the pope of Rome is “Vicarius Filii Dei” (English: “Vicar of the Son of God”).6 Malachi Martin, in The Keys of This Blood, uses the same title for the pope on pages 114, 122. A footnote for Revelation 13:18 in some Douay [Catholic] versions of the Bible says, “The numeral letters of his name shall make up this number.” Notice the chart at right, which shows what happens when we total up the Roman numeral value of the letters of the name.

Again, the papacy fits the identification point. The beast with the “mark” is the papacy. No other power in history could possibly fit these divine descriptive points. Now that we have positively identified the beast, we can discover her mark, or symbol of authority. But first, let’s look at God’s sign of authority.

1Andre Retif, The Catholic Spirit, trans. by Dom Aldhelm Dean, Vol. 88 of The Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism(New York, Hawthorne Books, 1959), p. 85.
2Adolf Harnack, What is Christianity? trans. by Thomas Bailey Saunders (New York: Putnam, 2nd ed., rev., 1901), p. 270.
3Alexander Clarence Flick, The Rise of the Mediaeval Church (reprint: New York, Burt Franklin, 1959), pp. 148, 149.
4Joseph Rickaby, “The Modern Papacy,” Lectures on the History of Religion, Lecture 24, (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1910), p. 1.
5(New York, Simon & Schuster, 1990)
6“Answers to Readers’ Questions,” Our Sunday Visitor, Nov. 15, 1914.


2.   What is God’s mark, or symbol, of authority?

“I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them.” Ezekiel 20:12. “It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth.” Exodus 31:17.

Answer: God is saying in the texts above that He gave us His Sabbath as a glorious sign of His power to create and His power to sanctify (convert and save) us. In the Bible, the words seal, sign, mark, and token are used interchangeably.7 God’s sign, the Sabbath, represents His holy power to rule as Creator and Saviour. Revelation 7:1-3 says it will be written upon the foreheads (minds–Hebrews 10:16) of His people. It will signify that they are owned by Him and have His character. Hebrews 4:4-10 confirms this by saying that when we enter His rest (receive salvation), we should keep His seventh-day Sabbath holy as a symbol, or mark, of salvation. True Sabbathkeeping signifies that a person has surrendered his life to Jesus Christ and is willing to follow wherever Jesus leads.

Since the symbol, or mark, of God’s authority and power is His holy Sabbath day, it seems likely that the symbol, or mark, of God’s challenger–the beast–might also involve a holy day. Let’s see if it does.

7(Compare Genesis 17:11 with Romans 4:11 and Revelation 7:3 with Ezekiel 9:4.)


3.   What does the papacy say is her symbol, or mark, of authority?

Answer: Notice the following section from a Catholic catechism:

Question: Have you any other way of proving that the Church has power to institute festivals of precept?”
Answer: Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with
her–she could not have substituted the observance of Sunday the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority.”8

So the papacy is here saying that it changed Sabbath to Sunday and that virtually all churches accepted the new holy day. Thus, the papacy claims that Sunday as a holy day is the mark, or symbol, of her power and authority.

8Stephen Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism [FRS No. 7.], (3rd American ed., rev.: New York, Edward Dunigan & Bro., 1876), p. 174.


4.   Did God predict such a change in Scripture?

Answer: Yes! In describing the Antichrist in Daniel 7:25, God said it would “think to change times and laws.”

A. How has the papacy tried to change God’s laws? In three different ways: In her catechisms she has (1) omitted the second commandment against veneration of images, and (2) shortened the fourth (Sabbath) commandment from 94 words to just eight. The Sabbath commandment (Exodus 20:8-11) clearly specifies Sabbath as the seventh day of the week. As changed by the papacy, the commandment reads: “Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day.” Written thus, it can refer to any day. And, finally, she (3) divided the tenth commandment into two commandments.

B. How has the papacy attempted to change God’s times? In two ways: (1) She has changed the time of the Sabbath from the seventh day to the first day. (2) She has also changed God’s “timing” for the beginning and closing hours of the Sabbath. Instead of counting the Sabbath day from sundown Friday night to sundown Saturday night as God mandates (Leviticus 23:32), she adopted the pagan Roman custom of counting the day from midnight Saturday night to midnight Sunday night. God predicted these “changes” would be attempted by the beast, or Antichrist.

Notice the following section from a Catholic catechism:
Question: Which is the Sabbath day?
Answer: Saturday is the Sabbath day.
Question: Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
Answer: We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday.”9

Here is another Catholic statement: “The Church is above the Bible; and this transference of Sabbath observance from Saturday to Sunday is proof positive of that fact.” 10

The papacy is saying in these references that its successful change of Sabbath observance to Sunday worship is proof that its authority is greater, or “above,” Scripture.

9Peter Geiermann, The Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine (St. Louis, B. Herder Book Co., 1957 ed.), p. 50.
10The Catholic Record (London, Ontario, Canada, Sept. 1, 1923).


5.   How could anyone dare attempt to change God’s holy day?

We ask the papacy, “Did you really change Sabbath to Sunday?”
She replies, “Yes, we did. It is our symbol, or mark, of authority and power.”
We ask, “How could you even think of doing that?”
It’s a pertinent question. But the question the papacy officially asks Protestants is even more pertinent. Please read it carefully:

“You will tell me that Saturday was the Jewish Sabbath, but that the Christian Sabbath has been changed to Sunday. Changed! but by whom? Who has authority to change an express commandment of Almighty God? When God has spoken and said, Thou shalt keep holy the seventh day, who shall dare to say, Nay, thou mayest work and do all manner of worldly business on the seventh day; but thou shalt keep holy the first day in its stead? This is a most important question, which I know not how you can answer. You are a Protestant, and you profess to go by the Bible and the Bible only; and yet in so important a matter as the observance of one day in seven as a holy day, you go against the plain letter of the Bible, and put another day in the place of that day which the Bible has commanded. The command to keep holy the seventh day is one of the ten commandments; you believe that the other nine are still binding; who gave you authority to tamper with the fourth? If you are consistent with your own principles, if you really follow the Bible and the Bible only, you ought to be able to produce some portion of the New Testament in which this fourth commandment is expressly altered.” 11

11Library of Christian Doctrine:Why Don’t You Keep Holy the Sabbath-Day? (London: Burns and Oates, Ltd.), pp. 3, 4.

Tragically, both Catholicism and Protestantism stand guilty before the judgment bar of heaven for rejecting God’s holy Sabbath–His sacred sign of identification.


6.   What solemn warnings has God given regarding His law and His sign, or mark?

A. God warns religious leaders against causing people to stumble by saying that some commandments do not matter(Malachi 2:7-9). For example, some ministers teach, “It doesn’t matter what day you keep holy.”
B. God warns people who want their ministers to preach smooth fables rather than the truth about His law (Isaiah 30:9, 10).
C. God warns people about hardening their hearts against the truth of His law (Zechariah 7:12).
D. God warns people who say it would seem “strange” to keep God’s law–like the Sabbath, for example (Hosea 8:12).
E. God states that the upheaval, tragedy, problems, and woes of earth come because people refuse to follow His law–and have even tried to change it (Isaiah 24:4-6).
F. God warns religious leaders who refuse to preach the prophecies of the end time (Isaiah 29:10, 11).
G. God solemnly warns that leaders who teach there is really no difference between sacred things (such as God’s holy Sabbath) and common things (such as Sunday) will face His indignation (Ezekiel 22:26, 31).


7.   Revelation 13:16 says people will receive the mark of the beast in the forehead or in the hand. What does this mean?

Answer: The forehead represents the mind (Hebrews 10:16). A person will be marked in the forehead by a decision to keep Sunday as a holy day. The hand is a symbol of work (Ecclesiastes 9:10). A person will be marked in the hand by working on God’s holy Sabbath or by going along with Sunday laws for practical reasons (job, family, etc.). The sign, or mark, for either God or the beast will be invisible to people. You will, in essence, mark yourself by accepting either God’s sign or mark, the Sabbath, or the beast’s mark, Sunday. Though invisible to men, God will know who has which mark (2 Timothy 2:19).


8.   According to Isaiah 58:1, 13, 14, what decisive message does God deliver to His people in the last days?

“Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and shew my people their transgression.” “If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, … Then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord.” Isaiah 58:1, 13, 14.

Answer: He says, show “my people” that they are (innocently perhaps) sinning because they are trampling on My holy day, and ask them to quit breaking My Sabbath so I can bless them. Speak loudly so they will hear you!

Notice that the third angel of Revelation 14:9-12, who brings the message about the mark of the beast, speaks with a loud voice also (verse 9). The message is too important to treat as ordinary. It’s a life-or-death issue. Jesus says His sheep, or people, will follow Him when He calls them. (John 10:16, 27).


9.   Do people who worship on Sunday (as a holy day) have the mark of the beast now?

Answer: No! No one will have the mark of the beast until Sunday worship becomes an issue forced by law. At that time (just ahead), those who decide to follow the false teachings of the beast and worship on Sunday (the beast’s counterfeit holy day) will receive the mark of the beast.

Those who follow Jesus and obey His truth will keep His Sabbath day holy and receive His mark. Those who expect to refuse the beast’s mark in the future must step under Jesus’ Sabbath banner now. His power is available to those who obey Him (Acts 5:32). Without Him, we can do nothing (John 15:5). With Him, all things are possible (Mark 10:27).


10.   According to the book of Revelation, whom did John specifically see in God’s eternal kingdom?

Answer: The answer is threefold and very clear:

A. Those who have God’s mark, or sign (His Sabbath), in their foreheads (Revelation 7:3).
B. Those who refused to identify with the beast or his image and who refused to have his mark or name in their foreheads (Revelation 15:2).
C. The people who–today and for eternity–follow where Jesus leads, trusting Him fully in everything (Revelation 14:4). There is no other way.


11.   What is Jesus saying to people today?

“He that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.” John 8:12.

Answer: What a fantastic promise! If we follow Him, we will not end up in darkness but will, instead, have glorious truth. Nothing could be more exciting! Further, following Him and keeping His Sabbath will put God’s mark on our foreheads and protect us from the dreadful plagues (Psalms 91:10) that will fall upon the disobedient (Revelation chapter 16). It also marks us as ready for translation at Jesus’ second coming. What blessed protection and assurance God has offered us!

An Urgent Alert
You will discover some astounding information as you study the final three Study Guides of the nine that deal with the three angels’ messages of Revelation 14:6-14. These Study Guides will explain (1) the role of the United States in earth’s final conflict, (2) how churches and religions of the world will be involved, (3) what world conditions will precipitate earth’s final battle, and (4) Satan’s amazing strategy for deceiving billions.

Perhaps you are wondering what Protestant churches have to say about the papal claim for changing Sabbath to Sunday. The quotes that appear in the  “Thought Questions Answered” section provide the shocking answers.

12.   Keeping His seventh-day Sabbath (Saturday in English) as His holy day and follow His lead.


Thought Questions
1.   What do other preachers and pastors say about the Sabbath and Sunday? (Exodus 20:8)
Answer: Here are a host of comments from churches and other authorities about the Sabbath:

Baptist: “There was and is a commandment to keep holy the Sabbath day, but that Sabbath day was not Sunday. … It will be said, however, and with some show of triumph, that the Sabbath was transferred from the seventh to the first day of the week. … Where can the record of such a transaction be found? Not in the New Testament–absolutely not. There is no scriptural evidence of the change of the Sabbath institution from the seventh to the first day of the week.” –Dr. Edward T. Hiscox, author of The Baptist Manual, in a paper read before a New York ministers’ conference held Nov. 13, 1893.

Catholic: “You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we [Catholics] never sanctify.” –James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers, 16th edition, 1880, p. 111.

Church of Christ: “Finally, we have the testimony of Christ on this subject. In Mark 2:27, he says: ‘The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath.’ From this passage it is evident that the Sabbath was made not merely for the Israelites, as Paley and Hengstenberg would have us believe, but for man … that is, for the race. Hence we conclude that the Sabbath was sanctified from the beginning, and that it was given to Adam, even in Eden, as one of those primeval institutions that God ordained for the happiness of all men.” –Robert Milligan, Scheme of Redemption, (St. Louis, The Bethany Press, 1962), p. 165.

Congregationalist: “The Christian Sabbath [Sunday] is not in the Scriptures, and was not by the primitive church called the Sabbath.” —Dwight’s Theology, Vol. 4, p. 401.

Episcopal: “Sunday (Dies Solis, of the Roman calendar, ‘day of the sun’, because dedicated to the sun), the first day of the week, was adopted by the early Christians as a day of worship. … No regulations for its observance are laid down in the New Testament, nor, indeed, is its observance even enjoined.” –“Sunday,” A Religious Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, (New York, Funk and Wagnalls, 1883) p. 2259.

Lutheran: “The observance of the Lord’s day [Sunday] is founded not on any command of God, but on the authority of the church.” –Augsburg Confession of Faith, quoted in Catholic Sabbath Manual, Part 2, Chapter 1, Section 10.

Methodist: “Take the matter of Sunday. There are indications in the New Testament as to how the church came to keep the first day of the week as its day of worship, but there is no passage telling Christians to keep that day, or to transfer the Jewish Sabbath to that day.” –Harris Franklin Rall, Christian Advocate, July 2, 1942.

Moody Bible Institute: “The Sabbath was binding in Eden, and it has been in force ever since. This fourth commandment begins with the word ‘remember,’ showing that the Sabbath already existed when God wrote the law on the tables of stone at Sinai. How can men claim that this one commandment has been done away with when they will admit that the other nine are still binding?” –D. L. Moody, Weighed and Wanting, p. 47.

Presbyterian: “Until, therefore, it can be shown that the whole moral law has been repealed, the Sabbath will stand. … The teaching of Christ confirms the perpetuity of the Sabbath.” –T. C. Blake, D.D., Theology Condensed, pp. 474, 475.

Pentecostal: “‘Why do we worship on Sunday? Doesn’t the Bible teach us that Saturday should be the Lord’s Day?’ … Apparently we will have to seek the answer from some other source than the New Testament.” –David A. Womack, “Is Sunday the Lord’s Day?” The Pentecostal Evangel, Aug. 9, 1959, No. 2361, p. 3.

Encyclopedia: “Sunday was a name given by the heathen to the first day of the week, because it was the day on which they worshiped the sun, … the seventh day was blessed and hallowed by God Himself, and … He requires His creatures to keep it holy to Him. This commandment is of universal and perpetual obligation.”
Eadie’s Biblical Cyclopedia, 1872 ed., p. 561.


SUMMATION by LittleGuyInTheEye:  THE MARK OF THE BEAST THE GREAT ___________________________ COUNTERFEIT                                                  

Mark of the Beast part 1 – Biblical definition

Mark of the Beast part 2 – 666

Mark of the Beast part 3 – Ivy, Bacchus/Dionysius

Mark of the Beast part 4 – Frequencies & Symbols

Mark of the Beast part 5 – The Cross

Mark of the Beast part 6 – The Hexagram

Mark of the Beast part 7 – Saturn

Mark of the Beast part 8 – Solomon & Freemasonry

Mark of the Beast Part 9 – Pentagram

Part 10 – Holy Grail

Part 11 – Zionism

Part 12 As Above so below

Part 13 Philosopher’s Stone – Ye Shall be As gods

Part 14 DNA

Posted by LittleGuyintheEye via BlogThis!  (Link for Pictures & Graphic)


Labels: 666, as above so below, cross, DNA, hexagram, holy grail, ivy, mark of the beast, mark of the beast counterfeit, mark of Yah, saturn, ye shall be as gods, zionism


This 14 part series on the mark of the beast is 2474 pages, this page is an attempt to summarize this information.


Years ago I believe the Most High led me to study the subject of the mark of the beast in greater depth. As I began to study the topic from the Scriptures I realized that the mark of the beast subject ran all throughout the Holy Scriptures and was not relegated to just the book of Revelation. It is one of the main themes of Scripture. By letting the Scriptures define the mark of the beast, it is seen that it is a counterfeit of the mark/seal of YHWH. I realized that one of the most important ideas put forth in the Word  is that the adversary/devil/Lucifer/Beelzebub etc. seeks to be like the Most High (Isaiah 14:14). He is a counterfeiter. As this became more clear to me, the subject of the mark of the beast became more clear as well.

I began this study by looking into Revelation 13:16-18 in more detail in the Greek and tracing the Greek back to Hebrew as well as thematic connections found in Scripture. From there I followed what I found and continued to follow the subject matter that was laid out from thereon out. I attempted not to interject my own  preconceived notions as to what the mark was, but to truly let the Scriptures/Holy Spirit be my guide.

In short, the mark of YHWH is His Word. His Messiah. His people will be marked with His mark. The mark of the adversary is his ‘word.’ His Messiah. His people will be marked with his mark which will be an counterfeit version of the mark of YHWH. The mark of YHWH is His ‘Image.’ The mark of the beast is his ‘image.’ Man must choose which side he wants to be on. This has been the choice ever since the garden, the tree of Life or the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

The mark of the beast is a replay of the deception in the Garden of Eden. The Scriptures state that the end is in the beginning (Isaiah 46:10). The first temptation of man will also be his last. The tree of knowledge was an offer by the adversary for man to reject the true Word and to obtain immortality (ye shall not die) via another method, the obtaining of knowledge. This has been the offer of the adversary ever since. If one looks into any religion in the world today he or she will find that this is the same lie being proposed in various forms. All of these religions trace back to the Mystery Religions of old which descend from the Garden and the serpent in the tree. This includes Christianity, Judaism & Islam. The symbols used to represent these religions tell the story.

In summary, the mark of the beast is his image, his name/character placed upon his followers. Just as believers in YHWH are  marked/sealed with His Name & will be formed into His Image. The first choice man had to make was between the tree of Life or the tree of knowledge of good and evil. This will be the last choice

man must face as well.

By allowing Scripture to define what the mark of YHWH is and what the mark of the beast is, and by following the facts through history one can see that there has only been two choices all along. Salvation by grace through faith in Messiah Yahshua or salvation by ‘works’ or ‘knowledge’ that must be attained by graduations after being initiated.

In the beginning, YHWH Elohim created man in His image and likeness. After man fell in the Garden, the promise was that He would restore man back to that estate by taking upon Himself the punishment for man’s sin. It is then that mankind will be restored to the image and likeness of the Most High. The adversary seeks to be like the Most High so his desire is to see mankind formed into his image and likeness. In the end this may be accomplished by corrupting the book of life which is DNA.

Mark of the Beast 1 – Biblical Definition

In order to understand the mark of the beast, one must go to the Scriptures and let the Word define what it is. The Scriptures define the mark of the beast as a counterfeit of the mark of YHWH. The mark of YHWH is His Image, His Word, His Messiah. The mark of the beast is the image, word and messiah of the adversary.

The adversary is the great counterfeiter who desires to be like the Most High. The phrase ‘like God’ in Hebrew has the numerical value of 666. This phrase was first used in reference to partaking of the fruit of the tree of knowledge and sets the precedent for the meaning of the number 666 and the mark of the beast.

The Scriptures link the mark to the resurrection. Resurrected to life through Messiah or to death through the beast. Again, it goes back to Life through the Tree of Knowledge or ‘ye shall not die’ through the knowledge of good and evil.

YHWH marks His people with His Name just as He marked Israel in the wilderness. The adversary seeks to mark his people with his name and to be the head of a false Israel. The adversary seeks to sit in the sides of the North which is defined in the Holy Scriptures as Mt. Zion. Throughout this study it will become clear that Satan desires to be the Christ of Zion/Sion, a counterfeit of the Zion of Scriptures.

Mark of the Beast 2 – 666

The number 666 is the number of the name of the beast. It points back to the false Christ of the mysteries. The counterfeit of Messiah Yahshua. The Greek letters χξς; have the literal meaning of a serpent in a tree, again pointing back to the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

The number is about more than gematria and finding names of world leaders that add up to 666. The word name in Hebrew, shem, has the meaning of character. This is what 666 is all about. It is the character of the beast. The Name of YHWH is His Word. The counterfeit is the name of the adversary, his ‘word.’ The

Word of YHWH dwelt in the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle/Temple which is a picture of the human body. In the human body this is pictured by the heart, and on a deeper level the DNA within the cellular structure of man. This is where the adversary seeks to dwell. In the hearts of men and to manipulate their DNA to turn them into his image.

666 is linked with sun worship and the sun god which again links back to the Mystery Religions. 666 also points to Asherah/the tree of knowledge, the Kundalini spirit and Jacob’s ladder which on a deeper level point to DNA.

The only name in the TaNaKH that adds up to 666 is Sethur which means mystery. In the mystery religions this is equivalent to the ‘god’ Saturn. As this study progresses it will be seen that Saturn and the ‘golden age’ of the gods is intimately related to the mark of the beast.

Mark of the Beast 4 – Frequencies & Symbols

The use of symbols to represent the Most High traces back to the Mystery religions. Symbolism is the

language of the mysteries. By examining religious symbols and their meanings, one is led to a better understanding of the mark of the beast.

All of creation came forth from the Word of Elohim. Hence, His Image is embedded in all of His works. The adversary seeks to corrupt His Image and lead mankind into the worship of idols, and ultimately himself. This chapter sets the stage that images and symbols are used to represent ideas and concepts, in specific the

mark of the beast.

Initiates in the mystery religions used symbols to communicate due to the confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel. As one further studies these images it is seen that similar themes are displayed. The Garden of Eden, the tree of knowledge and the temptation of the adversary that ‘ye shall be as gods.’ Over and over again,

this is the message that is portrayed.

Mark of the Beast 3 – Ivy

In the Apocryphal book of Maccabees, it is described how the ivy symbol of Bacchus/Dionysius was branded upon Jews during the days the Greek kingdom. These times were a foreshadow of the end of days. Through the study of ivy and its meanings one comes to the conclusion that ivy is a symbol for the mark of the beast.

The time of the Maccabees displays an important message in relation to the mark. A defilement of the Temple. The Temple is a picture of the human body, so it is seen that the mark of the beast is in relation to this concept.

The topics of DNA, Kundalini, Saturn, Sion etc are all related to Ivy. Through the study of occult symbology it is seen that the same themes are continually portrayed. Again, they point back to the tree of knowledge of good and evil and the temptation of ‘ye shall be as gods.’

Mark of the Beast 5 – The Cross

As shocking as it may sound, the cross symbol points to the mark of the beast. Messiah took upon Himself the sins of mankind by becoming a ‘serpent on a pole.’ He overcame the mark of the beast that the adversary brought forth in the garden by becoming that sin so that mankind could be delivered from its punishment.

The cross symbol is a portrayal of the Hebrew letter tav. Tav represents a covenant. Covenant relationship is the most important theme in Scripture, culminating in the new covenant which was cut in

Messiah during the crucifixion. According to Ezekiel 9, the mark of the righteous is a ‘tav’ in the foreheads. Religion is the counterfeit of covenant with Elohim with the mark of the wicked being a cross. Again, the counterfeit theme is seen.

Today, the cross represents Christianity which is a religion of man that leads to death. Christianity mixes the truth of the Scriptures with the errors of man. This is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

The serpent encoiled around the tree points back to the tree of knowledge and is seen in the concept of the Kundalini spirit where the serpent coiled at the base of the spine climbs the 33 backbones to reach the pineal gland to ‘open’ the third eye of enlightenment. This has passed down through the ages as the image of the

caduceus prevalent in the mysteries.

The cross is a symbol linked to Saturn, who is represented for the most part by the hexagram. On the surface it would seem that the cross and hexagram are not related, but in reality have the same meaning. This is how the adversary works. On the surface level he will use supposedly opposing concepts to divide man but in reality is the one who is pulling the strings behind the scenes.

Mark of the Beast 6 – The Hexagram

The Hexagram, like the cross, represents the mark of the beast. It has become the symbol of ‘Israel’ and Judaism and the same can be said about the hexagram as the cross, in reference to the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Judaism is a mixture of good and evil. The Holy Scriptures along with man’s interpretations.

The hexagram has been used for thousands of years by those in the mystery religions and contrary to popular thought today, did not originate with King David or Solomon. In reality it is the mark of Saturn.

The hexagram is a mark used by false Messiahs of Israel in the past and therefore is a proper symbol of the beast.

The hexagram is used in the mysteries as a symbol representing the concept of ‘as above, so below.’ The mixture of man and God. The false kingdom of heaven and a false resurrection.

In alchemy it represents the transmutation of lead into gold, pointing to the ‘evolution’ of mankind into gods.

The hexagram symbol was used by the Sumerians, Hittites, ancient Grecians & Romans, Japanese, Mexicans, Muslims, Mormons as well as Hindus and Buddhists. The symbol does not represent Israel, it

represents satan and his many faces.

The Rothschilds are responsible for the hexagram being used to represent the State of Israel today. The Rothschilds are the main power behind the founding of the State and are the epitome of what false Israel is.

Mark of the Beast 7 – Saturn

Saturn is represented by the image of the hexagram. Saturn is just another name for Satan. He represents the kingdom of Atlantis in the antediluvian world, the ‘golden age of the gods.’ The desire of the adversary is to bring about this kingdom once again. He will attempt to counterfeit the 1,000 year reign of Messiah and the restoration of Eden.

The kingdom of Saturn points back to the days of Noah where the fallen angels mixed with woman and brought forth giants/nephilim. The religion of those days was resurrected by Nimrod and has passed down through the ages in various forms. This is why the symbolism in all religions throughout the world link back to

Saturn and these days.

Saturn is the god of false Israel. The days of Noah precede the return of Messiah. This will be a time where the adversary counterfeits the kingdom of Heaven and the return of the Messiah. Part of this deception is using the name of Israel for his followers.

Mark of the Beast 8 – Solomon & Freemasonry

Solomon is a picture of Messiah Yahshua, as well as the counterfeit antichrist. The beast will be a ‘reincarnated’ Solomon, who builds a false Temple and rules over the earth.

Freemasonry relies heavily on the Temple and Solomon for the foundation of their teachings but in reality, Freemasonry is a continuation of the Mystery religions of old which mixes truth with error. The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. The main objective of Freemasonry is finding the ‘Lost Word’ which is the Name

of YHWH. They seek to rebuild the Temple of Solomon which on the surface level is speaking of a literal temple, but on a deeper level is speaking of the human body.

The seal of Solomon is the hexagram which is the same as the square and compass of Freemasonry. Freemasonry traces back to the Mystery religions and the Kabbalah. The Kabbalah is a mixture of the doctrines of the mystery religions and the Bible, a perfect picture of the tree of knowledge. The Kabbalah played a major

role in the founding of the United States.

The United States of America has a secret history where it was hoped that it would be a New Atlantis and be used to bring about a New World Order. The Kingdom of the antichrist, the golden age of the gods.

Mark of the Beast 9 – Pentagram

The pentagram is linked with all of the previous chapters. It is another symbol that is used in reference to Messiah but in reality is a counterfeit that points to the antichrist, the ‘god-man’ and the counterfeit kingdom of heaven known as the Golden Age of Saturn.

The pentagram is a symbol tracing back to the hand. It is a counterfeit of the Hand of Elohim who is Messiah and is portrayed by the ‘hand of mysteries.’

The Fibonacci spiral is linked with the number 5 and the pentagram. The Fibonacci Spiral is also known as the Golden ration or Divine Proportion as it was used by the Most High in many of His works of creation. Hence, the counterfeiter seeks to use this proportion to glorify himself over YHWH.

The pentagram was also used in ancient times to represent Jerusalem. This points to Revelation 11 and the description of Jerusalem as Sodom & Egypt. Jerusalem above versus Jerusalem below…

The rose symbol is linked to the pentagram. The rose has been an ancient symbol pointing to the ‘divine feminine.’ It is a symbol of the great mystery of the ancient mystery schools. Man becoming gods.

The crescent moon is linked to the pentagram and displays that Islam is also a religion that traces back to the mysteries.

Baphomet, an image made famous by the Templars, is linked to the pentagram as well. Baphomet represents transformation. Man becoming god.

Freemasonry’s blazing star is described in same instances as the pentagram and is a link between the pentagram and the hexagram.

The pentagram is most famous today for its use in witchcraft and the occult. This traces back to its use in magic and the occult going back to the days of Solomon and beyond.

Ultimately, the image of the pentagram represents the union of opposites. The joining man and god.

Mark of the Beast 10 – The Holy Grail

Many theories have been proposed as to what the Holy Grail is.  Some say it is the chalice with which the Messiah used at the Last Supper, others claim it is Mary Magdalene and the bloodline that supposedly came forth from her union with Christ.  Ultimately, it traces back to the Garden of Eden and the tree of knowledge where the adversary offers ‘eternal life’ which in reality leads to death.  The Holy Grail is a symbol that represents the mark of the beast, a false resurrection/regeneration of the body through the tree of knowledge…

The Holy Grail/Graal is called a stone which the alchemists and initiates into the mysteries called the Philosopher’s stone.  The Philosopher’s stone is the sought after ‘lapis elixir’ which delivers its finder from death.  This traces back to the tree of knowledge of good and evil.  ‘Ye shall not die.’

This stone is linked to the stone that fell from heaven who is  Diana/Asherah who was the wife of Saturn.  Asherah is represented by a tree and called ‘Bethel’, the house of God.  Again linking the Grail back to the tree of knowledge.

The Philosopher’s stone is also said to be in the human body as the pineal gland.  Again, the theme seen is man evolving into godhood.

The stone is linked to the Kaaba of Islam which traces back to the stone that is said to have fallen from the coronet of Lucifer in an ancient battle with the Archangel Michael.

The Holy Grail also traces to the Nephilim bloodlines that have been passed down through the bloodlines of the Illuminati since the days of Noah.  It is this bloodline that makes these men feel that they have the divine right to rule over mankind.  Some of these men, most famously the Merovingians, claim that they descend from a marriage between Messiah and Mary Magdalene.

These traditions have been passed down from the Essenes to the Knights Templars to the organization of Freemasonry and other secret societies.

Biblically, the bloodlines have no relevance.  Salvation comes by grace through faith in Messiah.  Herein lies the choice.  Faith in the Messiah and partaking of the Tree of Life or reliance on blood/DNA and partaking of the tree of knowledge.  The Olive Tree of Israel, whose is Messiah; or the vine of the Illuminati bloodlines…

These bloodlines may claim to trace their lineage back to Messiah or King David but in reality they descend from the Nephilim.  Merovee, from whence sprang the Merovingians, claimed descent from a beast from the sea, Neptune.  Their desire is to set one of their own on the throne at Jerusalem and rule over the world in a counterfeit paradise/new Atlantis.  A replay of the days of Noah.

Zionism comes forth from the men of the bloodlines whose desire is to deceive mankind into thinking their 13 tribes are the true tribes of Israel when in reality they are counterfeits.

The Merovingians and the Priory of Sion are not the only ones who stake claim to the ‘divine’ bloodlines.  The British, through legends of King Arthur and the Stone of Destiny, stake their claim as well.

The Stone of Destiny passed through Ireland whose legends and traditions trace back to Atlantis. Those of the British-Israel movement claim that the Tuatha de Danaan are the northern tribes of Israel who went into exile in 700-800 B.C., but in reality are the Nephilim of old.

Hitler and the Nazis were trying to bring about a 1,000 year reign of the kingdom of Atlantis but failed.  Hitler was a descendant of the Rothschilds who are the real power behind the State of Israel.  When researching the Grail, inevitably, one is led back to false Israel, the synagogue of satan.

Napoleon was another historical figure who attempted to gain power of mankind.  He sought to establish his legitimacy to power by marrying into the Merovingian family.  He also sought to reinstate the Sanhedrin and re-establish the State of Israel.

Archaeological digs that are being done today in Israel are controlled by the Rothschilds who also are main players behind the corruption of the Holy Scriptures by introducing corrupt texts to believers and claiming that they are ‘older’ ‘more reliable’ texts than the Biblical texts that have been around for millenia.

The desire to corrupt the text of the Bible falls in line with their desire to change who the Messiah is.  Change the Word, change the Word who was made flesh.  The inerrancy of the Bible is attacked, the divinity of Messiah is attacked, the crucifixion and resurrection is attacked by these Holy Grail/bloodline adherents.  Their main goal is to legitimize their claims that they have the true faith of Christianity and the real ‘Jesus.’

Ultimately it comes down to the two seeds mentioned in Genesis 3 which represent the two trees in the midst of the garden.  Proponents of the Holy Blood Holy Grail theory attempt to change who Messiah is and change who His people are.  They change the image of the Messiah who is the Tree of Life, corrupting it and making it a counterfeit.  This is the tree of knowledge.  Yahshua is the Olive tree of Yisrael, His branches are His people, the Netsarim sharing the fruit of the tree of life (Proverbs 11:30).  The tree of knowledge points to the adversary and his branches/netsarim.’  Isaiah 14:19 calls Lucifer the abominable branch (netser).  His body consists of the netsarim of the tree of knowledge, the fruit of the serpent (Isaiah 14:29).

Mark of the Beast 11 – Zionism

Zion represents the people and the land of the Covenant.  Biblically, people are equated with landsClick Here. The Scriptures refer to the people and land of the covenant as Zion, so the adversary/counterfeiter desires to be linked with this term Zion.  The adversary seeks to be like the Most High (Isaiah 14:14), sitting on the sides of the North.  This is defined as Mt. Zion.

As discussed throughout this series on the mark, the foundation of the mark  is the image (Acts 17:29) of the God you serve and the covenant with that God.  The mark of YHWH is His covenant which is His Word (Isaiah 42:6; 49:8; Zechariah 9:11; Jeremiah 31:31; Matthew 26:28). The mark of the beast is a counterfeit, the covenant with death (Isaiah 28:15).  We must choose which God we will serve.  YHWH Elohim, the Creator of all things, or the god of this world (2 Corinthians 4:4).  So too, we must choose which Zion we will be a part of.  The Zion spoken of in the Scriptures which is the body of Messiah, or the Zionism of this world which is the body of the beast/synagogue of satan.

The Messiah returns to earth in vengeance because of the controversy of Zion.  This is defined as the battle between who Zion is.  The Zion of Scriptures or the counterfeit Zion of the world.

Zion is defined as the people of YHWH.  This is further defined in Scripture as the believers in Messiah.  Believers in Messiah are the true chosen people of the Most High.  They are marked with His Mark.  The counterfeit is the ‘chosen people’ who deny Messiah Yahshua.  They are following the path that leads to the mark of the beast.

Zion is His people and His land.  Messiah returns to the earth to save His people and bring about the Kingdom of Heaven.  His angels divide the land and apportion it out to His people.  The counterfeit is the coming of the antichrist who saves his people, the false Israel.  His angels (the fallen angels) divide the land and apportion it out to his people.  This division of the land is linked to the mark that you receive.  The mark of YHWH or the mark of the beast.

The dividing of the land by the fallen angels leads to the slavery of mankind.  The end will be a replay of the Egyptian Exodus and the people of YHWH overcoming the beast through the Lamb of Elohim.

The Assyrian, which is a euphemism for the beast, is the ‘Pharaoh’ who will lead his people to cut the covenant of death with the adversary which is replay of Genesis 3.

The Greater exodus and the regathering of Israel is brought about by Messiah Yahshua.  The counterfeit is the State of Israel and the ‘1948 regathering.’  This false regathering is paving the way for the antichrist to come on the scene and deceive mankind into worshipping him as the savior of Israel.

Rabbinic Judaism traces back to Phariseeism which springs forth form Mystery Babylon.  Scripture defines this religion as the ‘synagogue of satan.’

The Oral law is a ‘poison book’ which is what the definition of 666 points to.  It is a form of the tree of knowledge.

The Kabbalah traces back to the Mystery Religions and the tree of knowledge as well.  Kabbalists believe that the kingdom and Messiah will come through the merit of the Kabbalah.

Judaism traces back to Esau, not Jacob.  Esau is described as the daughter of Babylon in Scripture, again linking Judaism with Mystery Babylon.  Esau seeks to steal the land of the covenant away from true believers.  This is the essence of Zionism.

Zionism traces back to the bloodlines, in specific the Rothschilds.  Fritz Springmeier, a bloodline researcher, speaks of ‘all roads leading to the Rothschilds,’ and when one studies this subject one must concur with his statement.  WWI and WWII were intimitely linked to the Zionist movement as will the planned WWIII between Islam and ‘Judeo-Christianity.’

The Rothschilds are most famous for their banking deals and immense wealth.  This is linked to Revelation 13 as the mark is a prequesite in order to buy and sell when the beast is in power.  This buying and selling is linked to the Temple and the ‘new man.’

Money traces back to the tree of knowledge as the symbology linked to money reveals.  Gold has many mysteries in the esoteric schools, most important of which is the link to turning man into ‘gods.’  It is the counterfeit manna from heaven.  A counterfeit ‘word.’

Zionism is leading to the kingdom of the antichrist and the mark of the beast as well as the Noachide laws which will bring grave persecution to the saints.

The masses are already brainwashed into believing that the Jews are ‘God’s Chosen’ and that ‘Gentile Christians’ are not to keep the Law.  It is not hard to see that when the counterfeit Messiah appears on the scene saving ‘Israel’ from Islam that the world will accept him.  He will re-institute the temple worship and bring fire down from heaven to consume the sacrifices indicating that God accepts him (Revelation 13:13).  He will teach the Oral law/Kabbalah which is called Torah in Judaism but in reality is lawlessness (2Thessalonians 2:3; Matthew 23:28).

Followers of Judaism have been prepared to receive this antichrist ‘torah’ due to the teachings of the Oral Law.  Christians too have been prepared to accept his Noachide laws by a misinterpretation of Acts 15 and the letters of Paul.  It is those who believe in Messiah Yahshua and keep His commandments that will be persecuted (Revelation 12:17; 14:12).  It is those who keep the commandments and belief in Yahshua who will over come the mark of the beast (Revelation 20:4) for they will have been marked with the mark of YHWH.

Mark of the Beast 12 – As Above So Below

‘As above, so below’ represents a kingdom.  There are two choices.  The true Kingdom of Heaven, whose King is Messiah Yahshua or the counterfeit whose king is the beast. There are two paths, one narrow, one broad.  One leads to the Kingdom of Heaven and the tree of Life, the other to the kingdom of the beast and the tree of knowledge.

The types and shadows in the Bible point to Messiah Yahshua. The types and shadows in the mystery religions point to the antichrist.  Man can choose to repent and turn to Messiah and enter into the Wedding supper of the Lamb, or man can rebel and be a part of the wedding supper of the beast.

The concept of ‘as above, so below’ pervades the mark of the beast subject.  The symbols mentioned throughout this study such as the hexagram, cross, crescent, phoenix etc., all derive from this concept.  The union of opposites, the joining of male and female, heaven and earth becoming one.  The macrocosm and the microcosm.

As above so below is best portrayed by the hexagram which is a form of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life but in reality is the tree of knowledge.

In the Mysteries, the image of the hexagram representing ‘as above, so below’ is many times surrounded by the Oroboros.  The oroboros is a serpent eating it’s tail representing eternity or immortality.  It was also a symbol of ‘wisdom’ and traces back to the serpent in the garden of Eden.  The Masonic G also displays this oroboros as the G represents the Hebrew letter gimel which is a pictograph of the camel.  In esoteric thought, the camel represents satan in the garden.

The gimel is also linked to the ‘golem’ the frankenstein like creature of Kabbalistic lore.  The golem represents Adam Kadmon, the ‘god-man’ of Kabbalistic thought.  Adam Kadmon is the human representation of the sephirot, the 10 ’emanations’ of God which is displayed in a 3 pillar ‘tree of life’.

The concept of ‘as above, so below’ is a counterfeit of ‘Thy will be done, here on earth as it is in heaven.’  This is the essence of the war that has existed since the beginning.  Man must choose between the Will of YHWH or his own will.  The tree of Life or the tree of knowledge (ye shall be as gods knowing good and evil…ie choosing your own way).  His Will is His Torah, His Image, His mark.  Believers are called to die to themselves that His Will/Word/Mark can be formed through us.

The Kingdom of Heaven is a restoration of the Garden of Eden.  Consequently, the counterfeit kingdom of heaven (the kingdom of the beast) is a counterfeit Eden.  Zion vs. Sion.  The Olive tree of Israel who is Messiah, the Tree of Life, or the false olive of Israel who is the beast, the tree of knowledge.

The land is likened unto a bride in Scripture.  The bride of Messiah is His kingdom and His people.  The bride of the beast is his land and his people.  The Israel of Elohim vs. the Israel of the flesh likened unto Sodom in Egypt in the book of Revelation.  False Eden, False Zion, False Jerusalem is equated with 666.  The inheritance of the land is also linked with a mark.  Man must choose between the Jerusalem above, or the Jerusalem below.

The coming of Messiah Yahshua is spoken of as a wedding in Scripture (Revelation 19:7-9) and is foreshadowed in Eden when Eve was brought to Adam.  As with most of Scripture, the adversary will counterfeit this wedding with his bride.

The Feasts of Scripture are wedding rehearsals for this event.  The feasts of the beasts are wedding rehearsals as well.  The beast seeks to change the times and law because this corrupts the Image of the Most High.  This is the primary objective of the adversary, to counterfeit YHWH in order to corrupt His image and consequently His body.

His body is His Temple of which was also a picture of Messiah.  In every culture where the religion of the Mysteries existed there were temples which displayed the ‘as above, so below’ concept.  In many cases they were very similar to the Tabernacle & Temple of YHWH, displaying the counterfeit of the adversary.

Entire cities have been built to display ‘as above, so below’ and man’s innate desire to return to paradise.  Giza, Teotihuacan and in modern times Washington D.C. were built to align with the stars and the movements of the heavenly bodies.  Washington D.C. is especially significant as America’s ‘destiny’ is to be a ‘New Atlantis’ to bring about a ‘new world order’ which is in reality a return to the golden age of the gods/Atlantis/the days of Noah.

From crop circles, to the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx to Lincoln’s Memorial, initiates have continually built edifices to the gods with the desire to return to the days where the ‘gods’ dwelt with mankind.

However, On earth as it is in heaven can only come when YHWH ends the exile (Exile is likened unto death). This is pictured when Adam was exiled out of the garden and later in the exile of Israel due to disobedience. Adam was cast out of the garden due to disobedience and can only re-enter through Messiah.  The cherubim who guarded the way are pictured in the Tabernacle/Temple in the Holy of Holies.  This veil is only entered through Messiah (Matthew 27:51; Hebrews 10:20; 6:19; 9:3; 2 Corinthians 3:16; Luke 23:45).  This exile is ended through the resurrection of the dead when we are born again into the Image of Messiah, covered in His garments of salvation.

The adversary seeks to counterfeit this with ‘as above, so below.’  He gives a counterfeit Regathering (end of exile) which is pictured by the false State of Israel, ultimately being fulfilled by a false Garden of Eden where man is given the opportunity to overcome death in the flesh by partaking of the fruit of the tree of knowledge.  This is the food of the wedding supper of the beast where his bride will put on corrupted garments of his false priesthood.

Mark of the Beast 13 – Ye Shall Be As Gods

The Holy Scriptures teach that the end is revealed out of the beginning (Isaiah 46:10). The first temptation of man was to eat from the tree of knowledge that he might be as a god. In the end this will be the same temptation man must face. The religions of mankind of today all point to this fact.

The Jewish religion teaches of ‘Adam Kadmon’ the divine man. Catholic teaching speaks of ‘God becoming man so that man can become God’. This is the also doctrine of Mormonism. The New Age movement speaks of man ‘evolving’ into ‘godhood.’ This is the doctrine of the religions of the East as well (Buddhism, Hinduism etc).

From the garden, through the days of Noah and on the other side of the Flood this doctrine has been passed down from the Mysteries to the religions of today.

The lie of the serpent in the Garden of ‘ye shall be as gods’ has passed down through history in types and shadows (spiritual realm) and will eventually play out in the physical realm in the end of days via DNA alteration.

‘Ye shall be as gods’ traces back to the Garden of Eden and the tree of knowledge of good and evil, the ‘root’ of this study. The phrase םיהלאכ ‘like god’ has the numerical equivalent of 666. This sets the precedent for this number and it proves to be the underlying doctrine of the beast system from the Garden unto today.

The number 666 in Revelation is displayed through the Greek letters which would be rendered into the Hebrew as the letter tav which is a picture of two crossed sticks. The letter samekh which is the picture of a thorn or branch. The Greek stigma means a mark and is used to represent a coiled serpent. Here, pictographically, it can be seen that 666 points to the serpent in the tree of knowledge. It should come as no surprise then, that a serpent and a tree is at the basis for all the mystery religions of man throughout history.

The mysteries speak of the Kundalini spirit which is supposed to be a serpent coiled at the base of the spine which climbs the 33 backbone of the vertebrae until it reaches the pineal gland in the brain where man then becomes an enlightened being with his ‘third eye’ opened…knowing good and evil. The pineal gland looks like a pine cone and was represented as such in the mysteries of old. Many believe that the pineal gland’s secretions are linked with the ‘activation’ of dormant DNA, a.k.a.

junk DNA, to lead man into his next step of evolution.

From Cain to the days of Noah and Nimrod, down through the mysteries and to the major religions of today, the same doctrine is seen in varying degrees. ‘Ye shall be as gods.’ Some religions offer more fruit from the good side of the tree of knowledge than others, but it is still fruit from the tree that leads to death. Man must put his trust in Messiah alone, that he may partake from the tree of Life. The only source of eternal life.

Mark of the Beast 14 – DNA

The mark of the beast is a counterfeit of the mark of YHWH which is His Image, His Word. DNA, in specific human DNA, is a physical representation of the Word. The DNA in the body of man is the ‘word’/blueprint which is used to produce man who was created in the image of Elohim. A corruption of the human DNA genome would constitute a corruption of the Image of YHWH and His Word. Messiah Yahshua came to earth as the Word made flesh. The antichrist beast manifests as a corruption of the Word, a counterfeit Image of YHWH.

Going back to Volume 1 in the Biblical definition of the mark of the beast, it is seen that the mark is equated with the image of the one you serve. Whether YHWH and His mark, the tree of Life or the adversary and his mark, the tree of knowledge. The word for mark in Hebrew is תא which represents the Hebrew Alphabet. This is significant as DNA is a perfect portrayal of the Hebrew language.

DNA is the language of the book that is used to form our bodies, just as the Hebrew language is the language of the Word who became flesh and dwelt among us.

The DNA molecule is the instruction manual for the forming of amino acids which make the structural elements of proteins that turn into the biochemical units that drive all biological processes.

The proteins formed from the amino acids which the DNA molecule makes are 22 in number corresponding to the 22 letters in the Hebrew Aleph-Bet. These 22 letters point to Messiah Yahshua who is the Alef & the Tav, the Alpha & the Omega (the Alphabet).

The word for sign תוא which is the same word in Hebrew word a ‘letter’. The 22 letters of the Hebrew Aleph-Bet form the Image of the Messiah who is the Word made flesh. This is seen in the physical realm in our bodies where the DNA forms 22 amino acids which make the proteins for each individual part of our bodies.

DNA is used to make up proteins whose etymology brings forth interesting connections to the DNA-Hebrew language connection. DNA creates 22 amino acids which correspond to the 22 letters of the Hebrew Aleph-Bet. These 22 amino acids combine to form the proteins of the body. Interestingly, the word protein comes from the Greek word ‘protos’ which comes from the Hebrew word ‘avar.’ ‘Avar’ is the root of the word ‘ivrit’ (Hebrew).

DNA further connects to the Hebrew language through grammar. Each Hebrew word traces back to a 2 letter ‘parent root.’ This parent root, for the most part, can’t be used in a sentence without the addition of a 3rd letter. Hebrew verbs require a 3 consonant root in order to be conjugated. This 3 letter root is called the ‘child root.’

The DNA helix is formed through the combination of 2 nucleotides. Adenine and Thymine or Cytosine and Guanine combinations. In order for amino acids of the genetic code to be formed into proteins the nucleotides must combine into 3 letter combinations to make ‘codons.’ When the DNA is in the nucleus, the DNA contains two letter pairs held together by hydrogen bonds. The letters are unable to form a body without leaving the nucleus and taking on a 3rd letter, just like the Hebrew language. In order to take on a 3rd letter the DNA helix must “unwind”, where it copies itself onto messenger RNA. The letters then make one long string of letters. Just like an ancient Torah scroll.

The DNA letters are “transcribed” by Messenger RNA, just as Scribes transcribed one Torah scroll onto another scroll. The messenger RNA is also called the Servant RNA.

You can not add or take away from the DNA or a mutation results, just as was warned in the Holy Scriptures (Deuteronomy 12:32; Matthew 5:17).

The epigenome is likened unto an invisible wind that moves upon the genome and turns on or off certain parts of the DNA information in order to ultimately make life. The epigenome that ‘translates’ the genetic code is likened to the Spirit. The Holy Spirit teaches man and leads him to interpret the Word correctly where he can be formed into the Image of Messiah. (2 Corinthians 3:18; Galatians 4:19; Romans 8:29) whereas the spirit of evil works in the children of disobedience where the Word is corrupted and leads to them being formed into the corrupted man of sin (Ephesians 2:2-3; Isaiah 1:4; 57:4; 1 Peter 1:13-16).

The ribosomes ‘read’ the 22 amino acids in order to form proteins. Ribosomes are a picture of Scribes. The etymology of Ribosomes plays out this understanding in greater depth.

The nucleotides (letters) of the DNA strand attach to a sugar-phosphate backbone. Sugar (sweetness) and phosphate (light) are both appellations of the Word, yet further connecting DNA-the Hebrew language and the Word.

There are 46 chromosomes in the human body corresponding to the combination of the Hebrew and Greek languages of which the Holy Scriptures were written. 22 letters in Hebrew + 24 letters in Greek combine to bring forth life.

The human body is linked to books. Trees are linked to books. Humans are linked to trees…All these things are linked together and show that the DNA/book which forms man is ultimately linked to the tree of which he is a part of. The tree of Life which brings life, or the tree of knowledge which brings forth death.

It is clear that DNA points to the Word. His Word is His Name which is His Mark. The counterfeiter seeks to be like the Most High so it is seen all throughout history where the beast corrupts this Word, whether literally or in types and shadows. A corruption of the Word/DNA leads to the mark of the beast.

There are two paths that man can choose. The tree of Life and Messiah Yahshua or the tree of knowledge of good and evil and the beast/satan. Man can repent and die to himself to be made alive through Yahshua and the resurrection or man can seek to be made ‘gods’ through the fallen angels and manipulation of DNA.


As there are many discussions on the end of times or end of the world or end of Mayan Calendar or the end of Piscean age transition to beginning of Aquarian age, it might be helpful to understand who are those that are promised will survive to enjoy the next era.

The Elect – 
God’s Chosen People
To the Christians dispersed among the nations Peter writes: “But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; who once were not a people but are now the people of God, who had not obtained mercy but now have obtained mercy” (1 Peter 2:9,10).
What a privilege it is to be God’s chosen people. “Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord, and the people whom He has chosen as His own inheritance” (Psalm 33:12). On the last day, only God’s elect will be saved: “And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other” (Matthew 24:31 // Mark 13:27).
The concept of God’s chosen people is first found in the Old Testament. God chose Israel as His special people. “And because He loved your fathers, therefore He chose their descendants after them; and He brought you out of Egypt with His Presence, with His mighty power” (Deuteronomy 4:37). “For you are a holy people to the Lord your God; the Lord your God has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth” (Deuteronomy 7:6 // Deuteronomy 14:2).
“But you, Israel, are My servant, Jacob, whom I have chosen, The descendants of Abraham My friend. You whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, And called from its farthest regions, And said to you, ‘You are My servant, I have chosen you and have not cast you away; Fear not, for I am with you; Be not dismayed, for I am your God. I will strengthen you, Yes, I will help you, I will uphold you with My righteous right hand'” (Isaiah 41:8-11).
Who are God’s chosen people now? Jesus warned: “Many are called, but few are chosen” (Matthew 22:14 // Matthew 20:16).
Now that the promised Messiah has come, God’s chosen people are they who accept Him as Lord and Savior: “For Moses truly said to the fathers, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your brethren. Him you shall hear in all things, whatever He says to you. And it shall come to pass that every soul who will not hear that Prophet shall be utterly destroyed from among the people'” (Acts 3:22,23). “Even so then, at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. What then? Israel has not obtained what it seeks; but the elect have obtained it, and the rest were hardened” (Romans 11:5-7).
The election is no longer based on physical lineage, but on one’s relationship with the Messiah: “He is Lord of lords and King of kings; and those who are with Him are called, chosen, and faithful” (Revelation 17:14).
The election of physical Israel was but a sign of a higher spiritual election on the basis, not of the lineage of Abraham, but of the faith of Abraham. This was God’s plan even before the creation of the world. “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love, having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, by which He has made us accepted in the Beloved” (Ephesians 1:3-6).
As Peter says in the salutation of his first letter, this election in Christ is based on the foreknowledge of God: “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied” (1 Peter 1:1,2).
Paul explains this more fully in his letter to the Romans. “And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose. For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified. What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us” (Romans 8:28-34).
“Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, longsuffering; bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, if anyone has a complaint against another; even as Christ forgave you, so you also must do” (Colossians 3:12,13).
This election before the foundation of the world was in Christ, which means that we are part of God’s chosen people only if we are in Christ and remain in Him. Peter tells us how we can make our calling and election sure: “Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord, as His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who called us by glory and virtue, by which have been given to us exceedingly great and precious promises, that through these you may be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust. But also for this very reason, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, to virtue knowledge, to knowledge self-control, to self-control perseverance, to perseverance godliness, to godliness brotherly kindness, and to brotherly kindness love. For if these things are yours and abound, you will be neither barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. For he who lacks these things is shortsighted, even to blindness, and has forgotten that he was purged from his old sins. Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your calling and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble; for so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” (2 Peter 1:2-11).


Dignities are how power is defined and wielded. The one that is the highest ranking dignitary is also referred to as the Almuten: The one holding the most essential dignity in the chart or in a specific degree in a given sign.


The dignity of sign rulership, for example a planet in it’s own sign which it rules, is like a lord of there within his own own power and self interest. Having an aspect which both planets are in each others sign of rulership offers a way to get back to normal and give each other dignified status through the exchange which is in both their best interests.

The dignity of exaltation is similar to being a guest of honor, for example being treated royally with highest honors such as an honorary degree that is given by some universities. It is a prestigious placement. To offer that to another through mutual reception this, is very respectful and admiring or interested in honoring with that prestige, their noblest traits. This kind of exchange is highly rewarding and beneficial in that sense. An aspect between planets which are in each others exaltation is therefore likely to achieve some high gain and benefits. This is why it is considered to help mitigate difficult aspects and some other debilities to have such a dignified reciprocation present.

The dignity of Triplicity which means of three, has the diurnal which refers to the day chart with Sun above the horizon, above and beyond the degree of 7H cusp. The nocturnal refers to the night chart charts where Sun is below the horizon and is on or beyond the Ascendent degree or somewhere throughout from 1st to 7th Cusp. Day and night rulers are assigned their rulerships and these are taken into account when deciding which has power. The participating triplicity does not depend on day or night and is the third one. This may be like warmly participating with some friendly interest and sharing. The participating tends to be overlooked since Lilly disregarded it’s inclusion in his tables, as he was said to find it had less effect on interactions, from what he witnessed in his practice having to do with Horary, but did refer to it somewhat for natal interpretations. Before that, it was a participation that helps things between aspects in some nice way. It is just not as obvious and strong a dignity such as by sign or exaltation where participation is not an issue so much as granting or holding a more absolute power. It seems more optional as if whether would like to share in and participate which doesn’t matter day or night. So to offer it to each other between planets is a nice gesture of friendly civility. This can help mitigate a difficult aspect somewhat then through friendly persuasion that is kindly.

The dignity of terms, also known as bounds, are given a limited amount of power over that area in a sign. They are still ruled by the sign which is their overlord, but if in own terms, may have some say for maintaining some of their preferences in order to feel some comfort there while are not in their home sign. To exchange this dignity between planets in a mutual reception is to have some benefit to accomidate each other in some way that is acceptable to each of each other though they have a different ruler, they can form a treaty or handle each other in their preferred manner in making the exchange to fulfill the aspect beneficially.

The dignity of face or decan refers to the decant meaning ten degrees sections throughout the zodiac assigned to various rulers. These do not rule the sign or have exaltation there, but have some dignity or status by that. Some refer to that as saving face or just being given a recognition and sometimes that can make a beneficial difference helping mitigate or affirm an aspect. Mutual reception by face, is like both nodding in agreement when meeting in the street or wherever it may be. They have some respect for each other and abide that with each other.

The lack of standing in any of own dignity is referred to as perigrine. This is a weakness of not having any of one’s own power by subject to other than themselves. They have no invested interest or aim and are like wild lost wanderers . If they find through aspect or such a mutual or mixed reception with another, they may be benefited and be put back to a more normal feeling, motivation and aim through that alliance.

The indignity of detriment is damaging and ruinous of better traits in that circumstance where are given in to being taken over and ruled by an enemy or where they are not safe and sound or have power to manage themselves well. To offer indignity to another is not beneficial nor attractive. They see by aspect in detriment of another, that it is some discomfort involved and some unacceptable trait or manner or feeling that they might identify badly in reference with them. Being in each others detriment are like in enemy camps and they do not wish each other the benefit of the doubt or enjoy any good benefit unless are also in some of their other dignities, which is mixed or ambivalent attitude where the bad outweighs the good, though they may wish to enjoy the mixed blessing through such an aspect. They don’t seem whole heartedly involved with it. There is mutual despise or disrespect as enemy influences or derisive discomfort is all that is afforded between those mutually in each others detriment. There is something abhorrent involved that is discomforting to both in the exchange. They may be bringing out some of the worst in each other. What signs they are in may impart or determine the nature of what that is worst of more exactly.

The indignity of being in fall, or fallen is a kind of disgrace. This is an overwhelm by an unfriendly influence or ruler that is like an enemy whose snare or pit they are in danger of suffering in or through. They fall short of their desires and potential and find it less than fulfilling to be put down there in humiliation or subjected derision that they don’t measure up good enough or well. To mutually exchange this is not beneficial to either and is less than ideal for both parties which may find it distasteful somehow or substandard. This is a low regard, the lowly, the lowbrow, the under achiever who may resort to less than proper means and methods of operating under this. A low battery or signal doesn’t create enough current to provide adequate power to meet safe and wholesomeness standards. Low esteem which cheapens the dignity by being in the fall of it.


Mutual Reception and of any sort is a kind of remedy for some of the difficulties and debilities that aspects might be succumbed to otherwise.


Some reciprocations are not of same kind of dignity, referred to as mixed reception where both exchange some of each others dignity or are in some level of the others dignity that is not equivalent to what the other is standing in such as one being in the others term, while the other is that ones exaltation, for example. This is not the classic reiprocation, but may impart some benefit to both to ensure the exchange goes well or mitigate some difficulty, though not as even and thereby not as assuredly, though they do honor and respect or accept each other to varying amounts between themselves, which by all means is still kind of good.

Dignities are useful in determining the Almuten of a degree. Which is the rather Midieval way to determine what planet has the most power of that particular degree. The degree in a given sign, of any point, house cusp or planet that might happen to be in or on that particular degree. The dignities are weighted in Classical Astrology for this kind of purpose though it wasn’t necessarily part of the way they were originally meant to be defined, by this concocted way of weighting them, that is. The Almutens were not used as significators to any extent judging according to the texts handed down over the centuries concerning their weights. Not until most recently, have some traditional kinds of modern day practitioners begun using them as such, when looking to examples. As an alternative co-significator is a use the Almuten might be put to. Some circumstances where a co or alternate might be looked for to be found.

The point system devised to weight the powers of dignity:

Sign rulership is given 5 points.

Sign of Exaltation whether or not in the degree of exaltation there = 4 points.

Triplicity is given 3 points, depending on if it is a day or night chart or if are using Participating triplicity. This is a warm friendly dignity given 3 points.

Term is a more limited dignity also called bounds which is given 2 points.

Face, saving face, also know as decan (derived of 10 in Greek) given 1 point.

Ancient texts defining the lessor dignities seem to be lost or obscured when some of details concerning their translation took place, but it has been held that it wasn’t that those dignities of term and face were so scant, so much as it pertained to them, that they are ruled by another planet. They have some dignified standing, though the status is not as overlord, by comparison with the sign ruler.

The almuten for Part of Fortune for example may be different than it’s depositor which is generally looked at for signification of PoF. Almutens are used as significators or alternate co-rulers of houses that they hold the most power of natural dignity in the particular degree. The almuten of the chart is said to be the body that holds the most dignity, this is not quite the same as the final depositor. Almutens are not used that much, as many ancient and classical astrologers didn’t consider them by wieghts and made no mention of that when it was handed down or translated. It was devised as a way to wieght the powers of dignities.


Accidental dignity is taken by accident of being in or on an angle where it is made strong regardless of it’s inherit essential dignity or lack of thereof. Placement in and close to the degree of the angle gives it power to act in a cardinal house. Cardinal is said to be defined by movement. This is an action house of movers and shakers, so to speak. However, if there is some other debility to act or indignity, that may even out or if they are farther away from the angle into the next sign, they may not hold as much precedence being a bit over the horizon or in the dark side of the house, as some refer to that area when not using whole sign method of house division. Being placed in a bad house, which is associated especially, with the 8th and 6th, is accidental detriment on the other hand. The houses are weighted as to their quality and power of good and bad effectiveness. Having a mutual reception, is a way of getting back to normal by having an interaction that is beneficial. The interaction would be an aspect. It is traditionally supposed that mutual reception is to be channeled by an aspect and helps confirm and hold promise of a good aspect or help mitigate a harsh one. Mutual reception is when planets are in each others dignities of equal dignity such as sign or exaltation, but can be of lessor dignities which offer some portion of dignity or benefit to the other as reward or comfort which may be of mixed dignities between them referred to mixed reception. That is put under the umbrella of M/R.


A retrograde planet is said not as cooperative or likely to offer benefit of mutual reception because it is not returning the light properly or fully. It doesn’t help soon enough or too little too late or not in the right way to be of use. It begrudges or holds back and is introverted so that it doesn’t perfect the exchange properly. Retrograde is a debility to act in way or time as it should be or would expect of it as when it is direct. Ir might abuse or misuse or misdirect it’s power or attribute the benefits to the wrong interest or take things the wrong way by mistake. An intercepted planet or light is similar to retrograde in some ways also, it isn’t expressing or allowing to exhibit it’s qualities or dignities or hiding it’s indignity as the case may be. It would need a closer inspection how that is playing out, because is not as would ordinarily assume it should be. It is said to behave out of contrarity. That is not as dignified in way, time nor manner that would ordinarily assume it should act. So it is uncooperative and holds back some of the light and introverts it instead of reflecting it well enough, which may be somewhat disappointing to behold.

Added below are some graphs for Part of Fortune. In a bad house or sign or on a malefic fixed star, it can become accidentally unfortunate like the part of Misfortune in some regard. This helps illustrate house weighting and how accidental dignity is considered.

Part of Fortune Table

As mentioned above, certain non-zodiacal circumstances affect a planet’s strength, or ability to “perform” within a chart. For instance, certain houses strengthen planets, while others weaken them. Lilly ranked the strength of the houses in the following order: 1, 10, 7, 4, 11, 5, 9, 3, 2, 8, 6, 12. According to Anthony Louis, Lilly derived this ranking from Dorotheus, whose order was slightly different. To Dorotheus, the most harmful houses are (from least harmful to most) 3,2,8,6,12.
<p style=”text-align:center;”>Traditional astrologers devised point systems to evaluate the strength of planets (and the Part of Fortune). The table below shows the point system used by Lilly and most present-day traditional astrologers to evaluate the strengths of planets and the Pars Fortuna. This system measures the combined effects of essential and accidental dignity. Dignities/Strengths are added, Debilities/weaknesses subtracted.




A Planet in its own sign or in mutual reception by sign +5 A planet in its Detriment -5
A planet in its exlatation, or in mutual reception by exaltation +4 In its Fall -4
In its own triplicity (day or night) +3 Peregrine -5
In its own term +2
In its own decanate or face +1



In the Midheaven or Ascendant +5 In the 12th House -5
In the 7th, 4th and 11th Houses +4 In the 8th and 6th -2
In the 2nd and 5th +3 Retrograde -5
In the 9th +2 Slower than average daily motion -2
In the 3rd House +1 Saturn, Jupiter, Mars Occidental -2
Direct (doesn’t apply to Sun and Moon) +4 Moon Decreasing in Light -2
Faster than Average Daily Motion +2 Combust the Sun (between 17′ and 8.5°) -5
Saturn, Mars, Jupiter Oriental +2 Under the Sun’s Beams (between 8.5° and 17° of Sun -4
Mercury, Venus Occidental +2 Partile conjunction with Moon’s south nodes -4
The Moon Occidental, or increasing in light +2 Beseiged between Saturn and Mars -5
Free from combustion and the Sun’s rays +5 Partile opposition of Saturn or Mars -4
Cazimi +5 Partile square of Saturn or Mars -3
Partile conjunction with Jupiter or Venus +5 Within 5° of Caput Agol -5
Partile conjunction with Moon’s North Node +4
Partile Trine with Jupiter or Venus +4
Partile sextile with Jupiter or Venus +3
Partile conjunction with Regulus. +6
Partile conjunction with Spica +5
[* Cor Leonis (Regulus) is at 29°50′ Leo in Jan. 2000] [*Caput Agol is at 26°10′ Taurus in January 2000
[**Spica is at 23d°50′ Libra in Jan. 2000]



In Taurus and Pisces +5 In Scorpio, Capricorn, or Aquarius -5
In Libra, Sagittarius, Leo, Cancer +4 In Aries 0
In Gemini +3 Partile conjunction Saturn or Mars -5
In terms of Venus and Jupiter when in Virgo +2 Partile opposition Saturn or Mars -4
Partile conjunction with Jupiter or Venus +5 Partile conjunction Moon’s South Node -3
Partile trine with Jupiter or Venus +4 In Terms of Saturn or Mars -2
Partile sextile of Jupiter or Venus +3 In the 12th House -5
Partile conjuntion with Moon’s North Node +3 In the 8th or 6th House -4
In the 1st or 10th House +5 Combust -5
In the 7th, 4th, 11th House +4 Conjunct Caput Algol -5
In the 2nd or 5th House +3
In the 9th House +2
In the 3rd House +1
Conjunct Regulus +6
Conjunct Spica +5
Neither Combust nor under the Sun’s Beams +5

Here is the table of average daily motion (i.e., per 24 hours) for the luminaries and traditional planets:

Planet/Luminary Avg. Daily Motion
Sun 0°59′
Moon 13°11′
Mercury 1°23′
Venus 1°12′
Mars 0°31′
Jupiter 0°05′
Saturn 0°02′

Dignities are how power is defined. The one that is the highest ranking dignitary is also referred to as the Almuten.


The dignity of sign rulership, for example a planet in it’s own sign which it rules, is like a lord of there within his own own power and self interest. Having an aspect which both planets are in each others sign of rulership offers a way to get back to normal and give each other dignified status through the exchange which is in both their best interests.

The dignity of exaltation is similar to being a guest of honor, for example being treated royally with highest honors such as an honorary degree that is given by some universities. It is a prestigious placement. To offer that to another through mutual reception this, is very respectful and admiring or interested in honoring with that prestige, their noblest traits. This kind of exchange is highly rewarding and beneficial in that sense. An aspect between planets which are in each others exaltation is therefore likely to achieve some high gain and benefits. This is why it is considered to help mitigate difficult aspects and some other debilities to have such a dignified reciprocation present.

The dignity of Triplicity which means of three, has the diurnal which refers to the day chart with Sun above the horizon, above and beyond the degree of 7H cusp. The nocturnal refers to the night chart charts where Sun is below the horizon and is on or beyond the Ascendent degree or somewhere throughout from 1st to 7th Cusp. Day and night rulers are assigned their rulerships and these are taken into account when deciding which has power. The participating triplicity does not depend on day or night and is the third one. This may be like warmly participating with some friendly interest and sharing. The participating tends to be overlooked since Lilly disregarded it’s inclusion in his tables, as he was said to find it had less effect on interactions, from what he witnessed in his practice having to do with Horary, but did refer to it somewhat for natal interpretations. Before that, it was a participation that helps things between aspects in some nice way. It is just not as obvious and strong a dignity such as by sign or exaltation where participation is not an issue so much as granting or holding a more absolute power. It seems more optional as if whether would like to share in and participate which doesn’t matter day or night. So to offer it to each other between planets is a nice gesture of friendly civility. This can help mitigate a difficult aspect somewhat then through friendly persuasion that is kindly.

The dignity of terms, also known as bounds, are given a limited amount of power over that area in a sign. They are still ruled by the sign which is their overlord, but if in own terms, may have some say for maintaining some of their preferences in order to feel some comfort there while are not in their home sign. To exchange this dignity between planets in a mutual reception is to have some benefit to accomidate each other in some way that is acceptable to each of each other though they have a different ruler, they can form a treaty or handle each other in their preferred manner in making the exchange to fulfill the aspect beneficially.

The dignity of face or decan refers to the decant meaning ten degrees sections throughout the zodiac assigned to various rulers. These do not rule the sign or have exaltation there, but have some dignity or status by that. Some refer to that as saving face or just being given a recognition and sometimes that can make a beneficial difference helping mitigate or affirm an aspect. Mutual reception by face, is like both nodding in agreement when meeting in the street or wherever it may be. They have some respect for each other and abide that with each other.

The lack of standing in any of own dignity is referred to as perigrine. This is a weakness of not having any of one’s own power by subject to other than themselves. They have no invested interest or aim and are like wild lost wanderers . If they find through aspect or such a mutual or mixed reception with another, they may be benefited and be put back to a more normal feeling, motivation and aim through that alliance.

The indignity of detriment is damaging and ruinous of better traits in that circumstance where are given in to being taken over and ruled by an enemy or where they are not safe and sound or have power to manage themselves well. To offer indignity to another is not beneficial nor attractive. They see by aspect in detriment of another, that it is some discomfort involved and some unacceptable trait or manner or feeling that they might identify badly in reference with them. Being in each others detriment are like in enemy camps and they do not wish each other the benefit of the doubt or enjoy any good benefit unless are also in some of their other dignities, which is mixed or ambivalent attitude where the bad outweighs the good, though they may wish to enjoy the mixed blessing through such an aspect. They don’t seem whole heartedly involved with it. There is mutual despise or disrespect as enemy influences or derisive discomfort is all that is afforded between those mutually in each others detriment. There is something abhorrent involved that is discomforting to both in the exchange. They may be bringing out some of the worst in each other. What signs they are in may impart or determine the nature of what that is worst of more exactly.

The indignity of being in fall, or fallen is a kind of disgrace. This is an overwhelm by an unfriendly influence or ruler that is like an enemy whose snare or pit they are in danger of suffering in or through. They fall short of their desires and potential and find it less than fulfilling to be put down there in humiliation or subjected derision that they don’t measure up good enough or well. To mutually exchange this is not beneficial to either and is less than ideal for both parties which may find it distasteful somehow or substandard. This is a low regard, the lowly, the lowbrow, the under achiever who may resort to less than proper means and methods of operating under this. A low battery or signal doesn’t create enough current to provide adequate power to meet safe and wholesomeness standards. Low esteem which cheapens the dignity by being in the fall of it.

The aspect that brings them into contact has one offering the other a different level of dignity in the reciprocation. Such as one planet is in the exaltation of the other, while the other is in the term which is not same level of dignity being exchanged.

Mutual Reception and RECIPROCATION of any sort is a kind of remedy for some of the difficulties and debilities that aspects might be succumbed to otherwise.

Dignities are useful in determining the Almuten of a degree. Which is the rather Midieval way to determine what planet has the most power of that particular degree. The degree in a given sign, of any point, house cusp or planet that might happen to be in or on that particular degree. The dignities are weighted in Classical Astrology for this kind of purpose though it wasn’t necessarily part of the way they were originally meant to be defined, by this concocted way of weighting them, that is. The Almutens were not used as significators to any extent judging according to the texts handed down over the centuries concerning their weights. Not until most recently, have some traditional kinds of modern day practitioners begun using them as such, when looking to examples. As an alternative co-significator is a use the Almuten might be put to. Some circumstances where a co or alternate might be looked for to be found.

The point system devised to weight the powers of dignity:

Sign of Rulership is given 5 points.

Sign of Exaltation whether or not in the degree of exaltation there = 4 points.

Triplicity is given 3 points, depending on if it is a day or night chart or if are using Participating triplicity. This is a warm friendly dignity given 3 points.

Term is a more limited dignity also called bounds which is given 2 points.

Face, saving face, also know as Decan (derived of 10 in Greek) given 1 point.

Ancient texts defining the lessor dignities seem to be lost or obscured when some of details concerning their translation took place, but it has been held that it wasn’t that those dignities of term and face were so scant, so much as it pertained to them, that they are ruled by another planet. They have some dignified standing, though the status is not as overlord, by comparison with the sign ruler.

The almuten for Part of Fortune for example may be different than it’s depositor which is generally looked at for signification of PoF. Almutens are used as significators or alternate co-rulers of houses that they hold the most power of natural dignity in the particular degree. The almuten of the chart is said to be the body that holds the most dignity, this is not quite the same as the final depositor. Almutens are not used that much, as many ancient and classical astrologers didn’t consider them by wieghts and made no mention of that when it was handed down or translated. It was devised as a way to wieght the powers of dignities.

Accidental dignity is taken by accident of being in or on an angle where it is made strong regardless of it’s inherit dignity or lack of thereof. Placement in and close to the degree of the angle gives it power to act in a cardinal house. Cardinal is said to be defined by movement. This is an action house of movers and shakers, so to speak. However, if there is some other debility to act or indignity, that may even out or if they are farther away from the angle into the next sign, they may not hold as much precedence being a bit over the horizon or in the dark side of the house, as some refer to that area when not using whole sign method of house division. Being placed in a bad house, which is associated especially, with the 8th and 6th, is accidental detriment on the other hand. The houses are weighted as to their quality and power of good and bad effectiveness. Having a mutual reception, is a way of getting back to normal by having an interaction that is beneficial. The interaction would be an aspect. It is traditionally supposed that mutual reception is to be channeled by an aspect and helps confirm and hold promise of a good aspect or help mitigate a harsh one. Mutual reception is when planets are in each others dignities of equal dignity such as sign or exaltation, but can be of lessor dignities which offer some portion of dignity or benefit to the other as reward or comfort which may be of mixed dignities between them referred to mixed reception. That is put under the umbrella of M/R.

A retrograde planet is said not as cooperative or likely to offer benefit of mutual reception because it is not returning the light properly or fully. It doesn’t help soon enough or too little too late or not in the right way to be of use. It begrudges or holds back and is introverted so that it doesn’t perfect the exchange properly. Retrograde is a debility to act in way or time as it should be or would expect of it as when it is direct. An intercepted planet or light is similar to retrograde in some ways also, it isn’t expressing or allowing to exhibit it’s qualities or dignities or hiding it’s indignity as the case may be. It would need a closer inspection how that is playing out, because is not as would ordinarily assume it should be. It is said to behave out of contrarity. That is not as dignified in way, time nor manner that would ordinarily assume it should act. So it is uncooperative and holds back some of the light and introverts it instead of reflecting it well enough, which may be somewhat disappointing to behold.

Added below are some graphs for Part of Fortune. In a bad house or sign or on a malefic fixed star, it can become accidentally unfortunate like the part of Misfortune in some regard. This helps illustrate house weighting and how accidental dignity is considered.

As mentioned above, certain non-zodiacal circumstances affect a planet’s strength, or ability to “perform” within a chart. For instance, certain houses strengthen planets, while others weaken them. Lilly ranked the strength of the houses in the following order: 1, 10, 7, 4, 11, 5, 9, 3, 2, 8, 6, 12. According to Anthony Louis, Lilly derived this ranking from Dorotheus, whose order was slightly different. To Dorotheus, the most harmful houses are (from least harmful to most) 3,2,8,6,12.

Traditional astrologers devised point systems to evaluate the strength of planets (and the Part of Fortune). The table below shows the point system used by Lilly and most present-day traditional astrologers to evaluate the strengths of planets and the Pars Fortuna. This system measures the combined effects of essential and accidental dignity. Dignities/Strengths are added, Debilities/weaknesses subtracted.



A Planet in its own sign or in mutual reception by sign +5 A planet in its Detriment -5
A planet in its exlatation, or in mutual reception by exaltation +4 In its Fall -4
In its own triplicity (day or night) +3 Peregrine -5
In its own term +2
In its own decanate or face +1



In the Midheaven or Ascendant +5 In the 12th House -5
In the 7th, 4th and 11th Houses +4 In the 8th and 6th -2
In the 2nd and 5th +3 Retrograde -5
In the 9th +2 Slower than average daily motion -2
In the 3rd House +1 Saturn, Jupiter, Mars Occidental -2
Direct (doesn’t apply to Sun and Moon) +4 Moon Decreasing in Light -2
Faster than Average Daily Motion +2 Combust the Sun (between 17′ and 8.5°) -5
Saturn, Mars, Jupiter Oriental +2 Under the Sun’s Beams (between 8.5° and 17° of Sun -4
Mercury, Venus Occidental +2 Partile conjunction with Moon’s south nodes -4
The Moon Occidental, or increasing in light +2 Beseiged between Saturn and Mars -5
Free from combustion and the Sun’s rays +5 Partile opposition of Saturn or Mars -4
Cazimi +5 Partile square of Saturn or Mars -3
Partile conjunction with Jupiter or Venus +5 Within 5° of Caput Agol -5
Partile conjunction with Moon’s North Node +4
Partile Trine with Jupiter or Venus +4
Partile sextile with Jupiter or Venus +3
Partile conjunction with Regulus. +6
Partile conjunction with Spica +5
[* Cor Leonis (Regulus) is at 29°50′ Leo in Jan. 2000] [*Caput Agol is at 26°10′ Taurus in January 2000
[**Spica is at 23d°50′ Libra in Jan. 2000]




In Taurus and Pisces +5 In Scorpio, Capricorn, or Aquarius -5
In Libra, Sagittarius, Leo, Cancer +4 In Aries 0
In Gemini +3 Partile conjunction Saturn or Mars -5
In terms of Venus and Jupiter when in Virgo +2 Partile opposition Saturn or Mars -4
Partile conjunction with Jupiter or Venus +5 Partile conjunction Moon’s South Node -3
Partile trine with Jupiter or Venus +4 In Terms of Saturn or Mars -2
Partile sextile of Jupiter or Venus +3 In the 12th House -5
Partile conjuntion with Moon’s North Node +3 In the 8th or 6th House -4
In the 1st or 10th House +5 Combust -5
In the 7th, 4th, 11th House +4 Conjunct Caput Algol -5
In the 2nd or 5th House +3
In the 9th House +2
In the 3rd House +1
Conjunct Regulus +6
Conjunct Spica +5
Neither Combust nor under the Sun’s Beams +5

Here are the average daily motion (i.e., per 24 hours) for the luminaries and traditional planets:

Planet/Luminary Avg. Daily Motion
Sun 0°59′
Moon 13°11′
Mercury 1°23′
Venus 1°12′
Mars 0°31′
Jupiter 0°05′
Saturn 0°02′

A body that is slower than average in motion, is said to be weakened in it’s ability to act, not having full speed. A body that is stationing is said to be in one of worst or severest debilities to act, as it has no momentum either way and is stagnant or rutted there without traction.

Love Horary

One of the most often kinds of questions asked, pertains to love relationships.  These are looked at in reference to the phrasing of the question at the time and place in a narrow scope with horary.   AC/7th House axis are the Querent and Quesited.  These are the main significators which the matter is judged.  They are the accidental Mars and Venus, if you will, of the situation.  Mars and Venus are the natural rulers of this axis and if are not the radix rulers of it in question, then are mere general types.   But, aside from that, by accident of the moment of asking, Mars and Venus are part of the collateral,  if they don’t happen to rule the 1/7 axis of the radix figure.  As in music, the key signiture, is what decides if it is played and read as F# or G flat in the composition of a song, for example.

First  considerations – If there is anything that would hamper or impede proper judgement before making any conclusions.  A good knowledge of what the considerations consist of, is therefore important.  If the Queren’t hasn’t rolled the question over for awhile, slept on it and then prayed on it, then it isn’t recommended that they ask in such a way, until having done so.  Then having erected the figure for the event of asking, it can be evaluated, as to it’s maturity and radicality otherwise, of how or whether to take it from there.  If some considerations are prevalent, they can be interpreted as to their meaning in the figure somewhat more aptly perhaps, as those are often warnings of something that should consider.

There are some considerations that are taken a different way in love horary at times, such as combustion of significator/s.  Sun in this case may be like the blind love stage of passion unless it involves the Moon which is interpreted differently by this condition.   Also, if it is a question of cheating, then there is  some blind spot or worry involved.  Sun can represent various kinds of things such as ego, pride, love, passion, fieriness, ambition, charisma, powerful feelings and heat and heart.  Too close to it and are overwhelmed.  Can’t function or perfect under that condition of combustion.  But, never say never as mutual mixed reception can help mitigate a signficator in peril.  It is often they are vulnerable and being taken to heart is the key.  Otherwise, they are playing with fire, if are not in an honest heart to heart felt undertaking.   Pride, shyness, embarrassment and worry threaten to overwhelm them in the game, instead of true love.  They can’t control the other person, and can only control how they love which is way that this fire can be useful.  It is then a burning passion, in that sense.  Although, sometimes it is projections that blind one.  As the old folk saying goes, under that guise or influence, one could fall in love with a goat.   So one has to have their moral compass set, before entering into such a thing, if one were to be wise.  Sometimes, this is what Saturn might represent, if it is a consideration by it’s ruling the 7th, aspecting the Moon or significators, or present in the 7th.   Saturn provides cautions and limitations or requirements that must be met,  It can stymie or stall or deny until things are correct.   It will not allow the development of the relationship if it is placed there and must be dealt with properly to get to the next level.   It causes fear and difficulty of responsibility and burden and doesn’t humor be taken lightly at first.

Look to the sign meaning where the significators are.  What is the basic meaning, such as fixed, cardinal or mutable.  Then to it’s water, air, earth or fire element.  Then to it’s general associated meaning in context to the question phrasiology.  Libra, for example being the 7th sign in a natural zodiac is symbolized by yoking and by the balance of scales which have to do with symmetry and fairness.  Uneven yoking is problematic.   Thus, if the significators are on the same page, conjunct, or trine, it is an easier match, than if are not so compatible.

Then examine the house placement, as to where it is found to be acting out or not, in the situation.  Cardinal houses are about acting with immediacy and movement taking place in such angles.   Succedent houses are following up upon what happens in Cardinal signs and not the initiators so much as they are responding or reactionary and this is not as immediate.  Thus, the 2nd house is said by some to be the short term future by this principle.  Cadent houses take innevitable time that is indefinite in general.   It is not immediate or reactive respondent as the other houses are.  It is a debility to act, when significator is placed therein.  It is better that the malefics are there where they have least power to act or harm rather than the significators being there.   It is said that when the significator is in the 6h they may be ill such as love sick in a love horary or may need to clean up their act to prepare to enter into the realm of the relationship.  They may need some grooming there before entering into 7H.  They may need to process things there before can step into the relationship wholeheartedly, not just the technical side of it.   If in the 9H, it takes faith and prayer because it might take a long time to fulfill the promises made from there, if ever.   In 12H, it is exiled out of sight of the AC.  This takes a long time as well to find occasion or opportunity, especially when the Part of Fortune is there.  It is the private secret house of subconscious areas.   Where the ideals are, that can’t always quite put a finger on as it is ephemeral area in the recesses.  The 3rd house is joy of Moon, a communications house, of local comings and goings and neighbors or brothers and sisters, learning and study.  Being there, they might accidentally bump into each other in such a way and converse without being actively involved otherwise for some time.  The house cusp that a significator is in is determined to be relevant to a house within 5 degrees of the cusp and effective to that house where it begins, when using the Regiomontanus divisional method.

If signficators have no debility to act, and have applying aspect that has no interference or prohibition or refranation involved, it is considered likely to perfect.  Always look for the 3 confirmations of a thing before making a conclusion of the most likely outcome.  The first is the ability to act and having an aspect to act through.   A trine is good as it flows effortlessly and smoothly.  A sextile requires concerted effort to grasp for a positive flow together.  Sextile may need reinforcement such as Mutual/Reception or mixed mutual reception, for the bond to take hold as it is not as strong as a trine.  Antiscia aspects are shadowy behind scenes aspect that are not expressed in light of the chart, out in the open.   That is a whole other realm of shadow story going on, then in the back story.   Square aspects are difficult and make it seem not worthwhile because are grating, conducive to hard feelings and negative vibes.  This can be mitigated by M/R, but takes a lot of energy.  Reason being that Rewarding things are more likely to be sought than unrewarding things, in general.  Squares are not a comfortable tension to easily be dealt with.   A Cardinal or Mutable sign might not have patience to endure putting up with a square and not stick it out.  The Cardinal would want to take some action on it and the mutable would waiver as to what action to take, while the fixed would stubbornly remain as is in their heart.    An opposition tears things by pulling in different directions antagonizing them to separate corners.  It would require M/R to help solve and compromise the extremes.  Some mutual respect and bonding interest that would help overcome the challenges that could benefit both and put things back to normal.   Could agree to disagree about an issue, but not put it into the personal realm of the relationship as in the form of a slight or insult or fault.  That is why mutual reception has a role as it is where the dignities are or rewarded or lacking that can help confirm an aspect and in that regard, a matter by being mutually rewarding and benefitial to solve some of the various discomforts that might effect it otherwise and also help assure a good bond.  Otherwise, an opposition is a parting of ways after coming together for just the one thing or time without further interest.

The Moon aspecting one or preferebly both without interruption with soft aspect from good house can be a 3rd confirmation of the outcome of the matter .  Also, the significators and Moon in such a translation of light to be in some of each other’s and Moon’s dignities and some of Venus’ as well for good measure in general.

If something is amiss and the signficators nor Moon are well placed and do not have good aspect and have some debility to act, then the nature of the problem can be identified there where it lays, to look into possible options and remedies for it.  Even prohibition can be overcome in some instances.  But, perfection is generally denied .so are then looking for the next best thing as solution, perhaps.  Or may need to approach things from a different angle.  But shouldn’t ask on it until circumstances have changed drastically, as it starts to muddle and tamper the the question and answer by doing so, once it has been put out there.  It should be allowed to play out before going back into it.   Can choose not to do something that is shown to be detrimental, if the outcome seems negative by confirmations.

After all, love is the most important thing universally, and we learn love and relating from mother and parents, family and even pets as our first experiences of it.   Through that we can understand the love of God.  That mating is part of the plan and design, rest assured.  The unconditional love is what everyone wants and needs.  It is how we love that matters, as we cannot control others, but this power can transform and meld us together with them as one.  That is the most exquisite ideal.   Having a mate that mirrors us in a way that brings the best out in us and us in them as we learn and develop in a fulfilling way.

Abomination of Desolation

excerpted from from Gary Gibbs

“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) Then let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains. . . For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24: 15, 16, 21).Jesus tells us that our study of the abomination of desolation should focus on the book of Daniel (Matthew 24:15). When one makes a careful study of this book, he discovers that the abomination of desolation can be divided into three parts. These parts are: the abomination of desolation in Daniel’s day (involving the first temple); the abomination of desolation in Jesus’ day (involving the second temple); and finally the abomination of desolation in the time of the end (involving the whole Christian church). The issues that come into play in the abomination of desolation as treated in the book of Daniel remain consistent in each of its three phases. Therefore they are types, or examples, of each other.



The key that unlocks the mystery of this prophetic event is found in the first two verses of Daniel. “In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and beseiged it. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god” (Daniel 1:1,2). In these two short sentences Daniel provides a concise historical background to the remainder of the book which follows.

Further study of Daniel’s prologue reveals the abomination of desolation was existent in his time and led to Jerusalem’s captivity. The Chronicler reveals the reason the Jewish kings fell to Babylon. “Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign… and he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord his God.” It was because of Jehoiakim’s iniquitous life that God allowed him to be taken captive.

The significant feature of this is that Jehoiakim’s evil deeds are described this way: “Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and his abominations which he did, and that which was found in him, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead” (2 Chronicles 36:5-8). It was specifically the abominations of Jehoiakim that led him and his city to forfeit God’s protection and thus fall to Nebuchadnezzar.

Unfortunately Jehoiachin, his son, didn’t do much better. Scripture tells us he also did “that which was evil in the sight of the Lord.” Consequently he too was taken captive to Babylon, and “Zedekiah his brother” was placed as king over Judah and Jerusalem (v. 9-11).
The Bible goes on to record that not only did Zedekiah turn out to be just as evil as his two predecessors, but “moreover all the chief of the priests, and the people, transgressed very much after all the abominations of the heathen” (v. 12-14). God’s political and religious leaders, as well as the people, adopted heathen ways as their own. They did this at the expense of God’s revealed truth. Notice where these abominations were committed: the people “transgressed very much after all the abominations of the heathen; and polluted the house of the Lord which he had hallowed in Jerusalem” (v. 14). These abominations were standing in God’s consecrated holy place, the “house of the Lord.”      The religious leaders of the day had purposefully led the people to adopt heathen worship practices and incorporated them into their worship of God. In substituting for God’s commandments the vain notions of men, the leaders of God’s heritage provoked his wrath. The people rejected God’s calls to repentance and reformation and were left to reap the consequences. “Therefore, he brought upon them the king of the Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary” (v. 17).
This judgment was felt not only in the spilling of the blood, but in the complete destruction of the city and sanctuary (v. 19). This all was done “To fulfill the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath to fulfill threescore and ten years” (v. 21). The result of God’s people practicing the religious abominations of the heathen was the desolation of their land, city and sanctuary.

Breaking The Sabbath
Brought Desolation

Just what were these abominations that resulted in such desolation? Since this was all done “To fulfill the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah,” then Jeremiah should be able to tell us what substitutions in worship had been made. In Jeremiah 17 the prophet is told to stand in the gate of the people and prophesy. Under a divine mandate, Jeremiah told the people that if they would honor God’s seventh-day Sabbath their city would remain forever, and that this faithful obedience would lead them into such a relationship with Himself that they would be used to convert the surrounding heathen nations (ch. 17:19-26).
On the other hand, if they would not keep the Sabbath day holy God would allow their city to be desolated. “But if ye will not hearken unto me to hallow the Sabbath day, and not to bear a burden, even entering in at the gates of Jerusalem on the Sabbath day; then I will kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be quenched” (v. 27).

Sadly, the Jews chose to continue breaking God’s Sabbath and thus inaugurated their own destruction and captivity. The abomination that led to their desolation was breaking the Sabbath. Thus, we see the significance of 2 Chronicles 36:21: “To fulfill the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her Sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept Sabbath.”

Ezekiel, who lived during the same time, also tells us about the abominations God’s people were practicing in the holy place. In Ezekiel 8, the prophet was brought by vision to the door of the inner gate. God proceeded to show his servant the progressively greater outrages His people were committing. In verses 5 and 6 He speaks of an image that provoked Him to jealousy. In an escalation of outrage, unclean beasts had been brought into the house of God, women were weeping for Tammuz (See Linked Details) and the greatest abomination of all was twenty-five men standing in God’s holy place “with their backs toward the temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” (Ezekiel 8:16).

God had instructed the Jews to erect the temple in a manner that would discourage the imitation of their heathen neighbors in sun worship. The ark of the covenant, the very focal point of the Jews’ worship, was placed at the western end of the tabernacle. Thus the children of Israel would face the west, their backs to the rising sun, when they worshipped the true God. Yet the entrance of paganism among God’s people had grown to such proportions that Judah’s leading men were actually turning their backs on the temple of God. This was a significant act of apostasy.
Both Ezekiel and Jeremiah list the heathen practices that had been incorporated into the worship of God. Whether it was breaking the second commandment by idol worship, adoring unclean beasts, worshipping Tammuz, the mythological god of the pagans, or breaking God’s holy Sabbath and worshiping the sun on the day consecrated to it, these practices all were classed by God as abominations. It was because the Jews persisted in justifying their own course and continued in these heathen customs that God permitted the desolation of their city.

Daniel himself agrees that it was the sins committed by God’s people that caused their desolation. “O Lord, according to all thy righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain: because for our sins, and the iniquities of our fathers…. cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate…. open thy eyes, and behold our desolations…” (Daniel 9:16-18).      It is important to note that the abominations were done by the apostate people of God. This in turn resulted in their forfeiture of God’s protection and called down His judgments and chastisement in their desolation. This scenario of the abomination of desolation in Daniel’s day, involving the first Jewish temple period, prefigures the two other abominations of desolation prophesied in Daniel. The next one we shall consider is the one that concerns the second Jewish temple period.


After their release from Babylonian captivity and rebuilding the city and temple, the Jewish leaders erected a mountain of rules and regulations designed to protect them from repeating the sins that had led to their bondage. The fourth commandment’s seventh-day Sabbath became a special object of amendment. The Jews reasoned that since it was transgression of the Sabbath that led to their captivity, they needed to define in minute detail how the Sabbath should be kept.

Over 500 rules concerning Sabbathkeeping eventually resulted. Some of these Sabbath laws were as ridiculous as this: one could not leave an egg in the sun on the Sabbath because the sun might cook it, and cooking on the Sabbath was a violation of the fourth commandment. Of course, this only resulted in a system of pure legalism. At last the people began to believe that favor with God depended on how well they obeyed the traditions of their elders.

Ultimately the people were led full circle to disobedience again. Jesus comments that in spite of their apparent religiosity they were still breaking God’s law even as their forefathers had during Isaiah’s and Daniel’s day. “Well hath Isaiah prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoreth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men… full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition… making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered” (Mark 7:6-13). Once again the people found themselves immersed in vain and rebellious worship.

Even though their apostasy expressed itself in legalism instead of laxness, it was still based on the same principle upon which all pagan religions are based – that man can save himself by his own works. Jesus, like Jeremiah of old, rebuked this religious system and called it an abomination. “Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God” (Luke 16:15).

Jesus expressed His displeasure for their abominations on numerous occasions. Most notable were the two times He cleansed the temple. On these times He expressed His anger at the desecration of His holy place. The controversy between Jesus and the Jews steamed, boiled and spewed over religion. The religious leaders hated Him because He didn’t look like the Messiah, He didn’t respect their traditions and most notably He didn’t keep the Sabbath in the manner they thought it should be kept. This latter issue infuriated the Jews and led them to seek Jesus’ death (See John 5:10-16; Matthew 12:1-4; Mark 3:1-6).
In spite of the religious leaders’ resistance, Jesus sought time and again to bring them to repentance and reformation. Often He reproved them for their erroneous ways and pointed the way to true and undefiled religion that is of great price in the sight of God. Yet they hardened their hearts and beat back the waves of God’s mercy.

As Jesus entered Jerusalem for the last time, His prophetic eye saw the consequences of their constant rebellion. With a grief-stricken heart and tears coursing down His cheeks, He prophesied the coming doom of the city: “For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side and shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation” (Luke 19:41-44).

After teaching in the temple for several days, Jesus left its precincts for the last time. Again He was choked with anguish as He saw the ultimate result of His people’s apostasy. He exclaimed, “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings and ye would not! Behold your house is left unto you desolate” (Matthew 23:37,38).

On both these occasions Jesus placed the guilt upon the people by stating, “they knew not the time of their visitation” and “ye would not.” As a result of not responding to God’s call to turn from their abominations, their temple was to be desolated. This prophecy was fulfilled in 70 A.D. when the Roman armies of Titus burned the temple to the ground. This second desolation of the temple perfectly paralleled its first destruction. On both occasions the abominations were done by the apostate people of God and the desolation was an act of judgment performed by a heathen army.

This desolation of Jerusalem was prophesied by Daniel to come as a result of the people rejecting Messiah the prince. A careful study of Daniel 9:25-27 will show this to be the case. In verse 25 Messiah is promised to Israel and the city’s restoration is also predicted. But then, ominously, all is prophesied for doom again. Verse 26 speaks of Messiah being killed by His own people and of how this act would cause their city and sanctuary to be desolated once again.
As Daniel heard Gabriel relay this prophecy, it was to his mind a replay of what he had seen happen to the Jerusalem of his day. The prophecy indicated that history would repeat itself, and this is exactly what happened. The abominations that God’s people committed resulted, in both 586 B.C. and 70 A.D., in the destruction of their sanctuary and city — first by Nebuchadnezzar, then by Titus.

Because Israel rejected the Messiah they lost their place as God’s favored people. Jesus predicted this would take place by saying, “The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof” (Matthew 21:43). Israel forfeited their franchise of the gospel by their own obstinate sin.
Who would be the new nation to receive the kingdom of God and bring forth the fruits thereof? The Bible provides a clear and concise answer in the apostle Peter’s letter to the Gentile converts who “In time past were not a people, but are now the people of God.” Of the converts to Christianity, the new people of God, he further says, “But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvelous light” (1 Peter 2:9,10).

In the new dispensation God bestows upon the converted Christians all the privileges and promises that had been made to the literal seed of Abraham (see Galatians 3:26-29). Now converted Christians assume the role of Israel, and the Christian church absorbs the status of the temple or sanctuary of God. The Scriptures make this abundantly clear in such texts as Romans 2;28,29; Ephesians 2:11-13; 19-22; and 1 Peter 2:5.


     It is in the light of this New Testament principle of spiritual Israel that Daniel speaks of the abomination of desolation the third and final time. These references can be found in Daniel 8:13; 11:31; and 12:11. Discerning students of prophetic history realize that these verses predict the formation and ascension of power by the Papacy. It is an indisputable fact of history that the Papacy brought into the Christian church the very same practices of paganism for which ancient Jerusalem was destroyed. One has to do only a little study to see how image worship, Tammuz worship, and sun worship were introduced to Christianity during the Dark Ages. Many of these abominations are still with us in the form of statues, candles for the saints, rosary beads, Easter sunrise services and Sunday worship.

By no means does the papal apostasy exonerate Protestantism. Most Protestant churches accede to the apostasy by continuing the practice of abominations that have their roots firmly fixed in ancient pagan religions, which were established to destroy God’s truth. Both Catholicism and Protestantism have fostered abominations in God’s holy place, His church. The Christian church is mirroring literal Israel, repeating many of the same sins and will consequently reap the same punishment of desolation, unless are willing to read the handwriting on the wall and flee from Babylon.

It is clear that the three occasions of abomination of desolation found in Daniel result from apostasy on the part of God’s people, but what is the sign that will tell us when the desolation is nigh?
In Luke 21:20 Jesus told His disciples what would be the last sign of the imminent destruction of Jerusalem. He said, “And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh.” This text does not indicate that the armies are the abomination, but rather that the armies were the instrument to cause desolation. Through the Roman armies God would execute “the days of vengeance” for Israel’s abominations.

When the Roman armies surrounded Jerusalem, it was a sign that most of the city’s leaders and inhabitants had passed the boundaries of grace and had filled their cup of iniquity. To the Christians living in the city, this was to be a sign that Jerusalem would soon suffer God’s judgment. As soon as the first opportunity arose, these Christians were to “flee to the mountains” (v. 21). In 66 A.D. when Cestius, the Roman general, surrounded the city the Christians knew the promised sign had arrived and the time had come to flee. At their first opportunity to escape they did so, and not one Christian died in the horrible destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

Just as God gave the early Christians a sign of when to flee Jerusalem, so He has given us a sign. He has made it possible for every reader to know when this world’s probationary hour is nearing its close.
In Revelation 13 and 14 John records a list of omens that will tell us just how close we are to the end. The sign that will show this nation has filled its cup of iniquity will be when it makes an image to the Papacy by uniting church and state. How much more neatly could this be effected than by the passage of a national Sunday law commanding everyone to honor a pagan day of worship? Such an event will be a direct fulfillment of Revelation 13:15-17, and provide assurance that the end of this earth’s time is quickly approaching.

One author describes coming events this way: “As the approach of Roman armies was a sign to the disciples of the impending destruction of Jerusalem, so may this apostasy be a sign to us that the limit of God’s forbearance is reached, that the measure of our nation’s iniquity is full, and that the angel of mercy is about to take her flight.” When the churches have apostasized in their abominations to such a degree that they enact legislation of a religious law which displaces God’s holy Sabbath with a pagan holiday, we may leave our cities, knowing that a time of trouble will be forthcoming.

The abomination of desolation is an important subject in these last days. If we study this prophecy carefully, we will find that in each of its three fulfill-ments refers to a national apostasy by God’s people that ends in their tragic destruction. We are now living in the time of the Chistian church’s final apostasy, which makes of none effect the commandments of God. We need to see that we are in the midst of fulfilling prophecy and keep our eyes open for the culmination of all things.

Our only sure protection against the abomination of desolation is to give our lives unreservedly to Jesus, loving others as He loves them and worshiping Him in the way that His word teaches. The greatest commandment is simply to love God with all our heart and soul and strength. If we have such love, it will be natural for us to do all things to please and honor Him. In return, He will see us safely through the desolation that will close this earth’s history just before He comes again.



ba’-bel, bab’-i-lon (Topographical): Babylon was the Greek name of the city written in the cuneiform script of the Babylonians, bab-ili, which means in Semitic, “the gate of god.” The Hebrews called the country, as well as the city, Babhel. This name they considered came from the’ root, balal, “to confound” (Genesis 11:9). The name in Sumerian ideographs was written Din-tir, which means “life of the forest,” and yet ancient etymologists explained it as meaning “place of the seat of life” (shubat balaTe). Ka-ding’irra, which also means “gate of god,” was another form of the name in Sumerian. It was also called Su-anna (which is of uncertain meaning) and Uru-azagga, “the holy city.”

Herodotus, the Greek historian, has given us a picture of Babylon in his day. He says that the city was a great square, 42 miles in circuit. Ctesias makes it 56 miles. This, he writes, was surrounded by a moat or rampart 300 ft. high, and 75 ft. broad. The earliest mention of Babylon is in the time of Sargon I, about 2700 B.C. That monarch laid the foundations of the temple of Annnit, and also those of the temple of Amal. In the time of Dungi we learn that the place was sacked. The city evidently played a very unimportant part in the political history of Babylonia of the early period, for besides these references it is almost unknown until the time of Hammurabi, when its rise brought about a new epoch in the history of Babylonia. The seat of power was then transferred permanently from the southern states. This resulted in the closing of the political history of the Sumerians. The organization of the empire by Hammurabi, with Babylon as its capital, placed it in a position from which it was never dislodged during the remaining history of Babylonia.

The mounds covering the ancient city have frequently been explored, but systematic excavations of the city were not undertaken until 1899, when Koldewey, the German excavator, began to uncover its ancient ruins in a methodical manner. In spite of what ancient writers say, certain scholars maintain that they grossly exaggerated the size of the city, which was comparatively small, especially when considered in connection with large cities of the present era.

In the northern part of the city there was situated what is called the North Palace on the east side of the Euphrates, which passed through the city. A little distance below this point the Arakhtu canal left the Euphrates, and passing through the southern wall rejoined the river. There was also a Middle and Southern Palace. Near the latter was located the Ishtar gate. The temple E-makh was close to the east side of the gate. Other canals in the city were called Merodach and Libilkhegala. In the southern portion of the city was located the famous temple E-sag-ila. This temple was called by the Greek historian, “the temple of Belus.” Marduk or Merodach (as written in the Old Testament), the patron deity of the city, received from Enlil, as Hammurabi informs us, after he had driven the Elamites out of Babylonia, the title “bel matate,” “lord of lands,” not the name which Enlil of Nippur had possessed. In the past there has been a confusion. The idcogram Enlil or Ellil had been incorrectly read Bel. This necessitated speaking of the old Bel and the young Bel. Beyond being called bel, “lord,” as all other gods were called; Enlil’s name was not Bel. Marduk is the Bel of the Old Testament, as well as the god called Bel in the Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions.

The temple area included an outer, central and inner court. The shrine of Ishtar and Zamama occupied the central court, and the ziggurrat the inner court. In the temple proper, the shrine Ekua was located, in which stood the golden image of Marduk. This, the ancient writers say, was 40 ft. high. On the topmost stage there was a shrine dedicated to Marduk. It is assumed that it was 50 ft. long by 70 ft. broad and 50 ft. in height. Nabopolassar rebuilt the temple and its tower. Nebuchadrezzar enlarged and embellished the sanctuary. He raised the tower so that “its head was in the heavens,” an expression found in the story of the Tower of Babel in Genesis, as well as in many of the building inscriptions. See Clay, LOTB, Babel, 121, and the article on BABEL, TOWER OF. One of the chief works of Nebuchadrezzar was the building of Aiburshabu, the famous procession street of the city, which extended from the Ishtar gate to E-sag-ila. It was a great and magnificent causeway, built higher than the houses. Walls lined it on either side, which were decorated with glazed tiles, portraying lions, life size in relief. The pavement was laid with blocks of stone brought from the mountains. This procession street figured prominently on the New Year’s festal day, when the procession of the gods took place.

A knowledge of the work Nebuchadrezzar did serves as a fitting commentary to the passage in Daniel 4:30: “Is not this great Babylon, which I have built?” He had made the city one of the wonders of the world.

The two sieges by Darius Hystaspes and the one by Xerxes destroyed much of the beauty of the city. Alexander desired to make it again a great center and to build an immense fortress in the city; but in the midst of this undertaking he was murdered, while living in the palace of Nebuchadrezzar. The temple, though frequently destroyed, was in existence in the time of the Seleucids, but the city had long since ceased to be of any importance.


A. T. Clay


babhel; Assyro-Bab Bab-ili, (Bab-ilani, “gate of god,” or “of the gods,” rendered in Sumerian as Ka-dingira, “gate of god,” regarded as a folk-etymology):

See BABEL, TOWER OF, section 14.

1. Names by Which the City Was Known

2. Probable Date of Its Foundation

3. Its Walls and Gates from Herodotus

4. Its Position, Divisions, Streets and Temple

5. The Works of Semiramis and Nitocris

6. Ctesias’ Description-the Palaces and Their Decorated Walls

7. The Temple of Belus and the Hanging Gardens

8. Other Descriptions

9. Nebuchadrezzar’s Account

10. Nebuchadrezzar’s Architectural Work at Babylon

11. The Royal Palaces

12. Quick Building

13. The Temples Restored by Nebuchadrezzar

14. The Extent of Nebuchadrezzar’s Architectural Work

15. Details Concerning the City from Contract-Tablets

16. Details Concerning Babylon from Other Sources

17. Modern Exploration

18. Description of the Ruins-the Eastern Walls

19. The Western Walls

20. The Palaces

21. The Site of Babylon’s Great Tower

22. The Central and Southern Ruins

23. A Walk through Babylon

24. The Ishtar-Gate and the Middle Palace

25. The Festival-Street

26. The Chamber of the Fates

27. The Northern Palace and the Gardens

28. Historical References to Babylonian Buildings


1. Names by Which the City Was Known:

The name of the great capital of ancient Babylonia, the Shinar of Genesis 10:10; Genesis 14:1, other names of the city being Tin-dir, “seat of life,” E (ki), probably an abbreviation of Eridu (ki) “the good city” (=Paradise), Babylonia having seemingly been regarded as the Garden of Eden (PSBA, June 1911, p. 161); and Su-anna, “the high-handed” (meaning, apparently, “high-walled,” “hand” and “defense” being interchangeable terms). It is possible that these various names are due to the incorporation of outlying districts as Babylon grew in size.

2. Probable Date of Its Foundation:

According to Genesis 10:9, the founder of Babylon was Nimrod, but among the Babylonians, it was Merodach who built the city, together with Erech and Niffer (Calneh) and their renowned temples. The date of its foundation is unknown, but it certainly went back to primitive times, and Babylon may even have equaled Niffer in antiquity (the American explorers of that site have estimated that its lowest strata of habitations go back to 8,000 years B.C.). Babylon’s late assumption of the position of capital of the country would therefore be due to its rulers not having attained power and influence at an earlier period. Having once acquired that position, however, it retained it to the end, and its great god, Merodach, became the head of the Babylonian pantheon-partly through the influence of Babylon as capital, partly because the city was the center of his worship, and the place of the great Tower of Babel, concerning which many wonderful things were said.


3. Its Walls and Gates from Herodotus:

According to Herodotus, the city, which lay in a great plain, was square in its plan and measured 120 furlongs (stadia) each way-480 in all. Each side was therefore about 14 miles long, making a circuit of nearly 56 miles, and an area of nearly 196 square miles. As the space enclosed is so great, and traces of the walls would seem to be wanting, these figures may be regarded as open to question. Around the city, Herodotus says, there was a deep and broad moat full of water, and then came a wall 50 royal cubits thick and 200 cubits high, pierced by 100 gateways with brazen gates and lintels. Reckoning the cubit at 18 2/3 inches, this would mean that Babylon’s walls were no less than 311 ft. high; and regarding the royal cubit as being equal to 21 inches, their thickness would be something like 87 ft. Notwithstanding that Babylon has been the quarry of the neighboring builders for two millenniums, it is surprising that such extensive masses of brickwork should have disappeared without leaving at least a few recognizable traces.

4. It Position, Divisions, Streets, and Temple:

The city was built on both sides of the Euphrates, and at the point where the wall met the river there was a return-wall running along its banks, forming a rampart. The houses of Babylon were of 3 and 4 stories. The roads which ran through the city were straight, and apparently intersected each other at right angles, like the great cities of America. The river-end of each of the streets leading to the river was guarded by a brazen gate. Within the great outer wall was another, not much weaker, but enclosing a smaller space. Each division of the city contained a great building, the one being the king’s palace, strongly fortified around, and the other the temple of Zeus Boles-an erection with brazen gates measuring two furlongs each way. Within this sacred precinct was a solid tower measuring a furlong each way, and surmounted by other towers to the number of eight. An ascent ran around these towers, with a stopping-place about the middle where the visitor might rest. Upou the topmost tower a large cell was built, wherein was a couch and a golden table. No image was placed in the cell, and no one passed the night there, except a woman of the people, chosen by the god. In another cell below was a golden image of Zeus sitting, his seat and footstool being likewise of gold, with, near by, a large golden table. The total weight of the precious metal here was 800 talents. Upon a small golden altar outside the cell young sucklings only were sacrificed, and upon another (not of gold) full-grown animals were offered.

5. The Works of Semiramis and Nitocris:

The hydraulic works of Babylon are attributed by Herodotus to two queens, Semiramis and Nitoeris. The former made banks of earth on the plain which were worth seeing, preventing the river from flooding the plain like a sea. The second, Nitocris, altered the channel of the river in such a way that it flowed three times in its course to the village Andericca, and the traveler by water therefore took three days to pass this spot. She also raised the banks of the river, and dug a great lake above Babylon. The place which was dug out she made into a swamp, the object being to retard the course of the river. The many bends and the swamp were on the shortest route to Media, to prevent the Medes from having dealings with her kingdom and learning of her affairs. Other works were a bridge across the Euphrates, and a tomb for herself over the most frequented gate of the city.

Both Herodotus and Ctesias were eyewitnesses of the glory of Babylon, though only at the period when it had begun to wane. It is exceedingly probable, however, that their accounts will be superseded in the end, by those of the people who best knew the city, namely, the inhabitants of Babylon itself.

6. Ctesias’ Description-the Palaces and Their Decorated Walls:

According to Ctesias, the circuit of the city was not 480, but. 360 furlongs-the number of the days in the Babylonian year-and somewhat under 42 miles. The East and West districts were joined by a bridge 5 furlongs or 1,080 yards long, and 30 ft. broad. At each end of the bridge was a royal palace, that on the eastern bank being the more magnificent of the two. This palace was defended by three walls, the outermost being 60 furlongs or 7 miles in circuit; the second, a circular wall, 40 furlongs (4 1/2 miles), and the third 20 furlongs (2 1/2 miles). The height of the middle wall was 300 ft., and that of its towers 420 ft., but this was exceeded by the height of the inmost wall. Ctesias states that the walls of the second and third enclosures were of colored brick, showing hunting scenes-the chase of the leopard and the lion, with male and female figures, which he regarded as Ninus and Semiramis. The other palace (that on the West bank) was smaller and less ornate, and was enclosed only by a single wall 30 furlongs (3 1/2 miles) in circuit. This also had representations of hunting scenes and bronze statues of Ninus, Semiramis and Jupiter-Belus (Bel-Merodach). Besides the bridge, he states that there was also a tunnel under the river. He seems to speak of the temple of Belus (see BABEL, TOWER OF) as being surmounted by three statues-Bel (Bel-Merodach), 40 ft. high, his mother Rhea (Dawkina, the Dauke of Damascius), and Bel-Merodach’s spouse Juno or Beltis (Zer-panitum).

7. The Temple of Belus and the Hanging Gardens:

The celebrated Hanging Gardens he seems to describe as a square of which each side measured 400 ft., rising in terraces, the topmost of which was planted with trees of various kinds. If this was the case, it must have resembled a temple-tower covered with verdure. The Assyrian sculptures, however, indicate something different (see section 27).

8. Other Descriptions:

With regard to the size of the city as given by other authorities, Pliny copies Herodotus, and makes its circuit 480 furlongs (Nat. Hist. vi.26); Strabo (xvi. i. section 5), 385; Q. Curtius (v. i. section 26), 368; Clitarchus (apud Diod. Sic. ii.7), 365. Though the difference between the highest and the lowest is considerable, it is only what might be expected from independent estimates, for it is doubtful whether any of them are based on actual measurements. Diodorus (ii.9, end) states that but a small part of the enclosure was inhabited in his time (he was a contemporary of Caesar and Augustus), but the abandonment of the city must then have been practically completed, and the greater part given over, as he states, to cultivation-even, perhaps, within the space enclosed by the remains of walls today. It is noteworthy that Q. Curtius says (v. i. section 27) that as much as nine-tenths consisted, even during Babylon’s most prosperous period, of gardens, parks, paradises, fields and orchards; and this the later contract-tablets confirm. Though there is no confirmation of the height of the walls as given by these different authorities, the name given to the city, Su-anna, “the high walled” (see above), indicated that it was renowned for the height of its defensive structures.

9. Nebuchadrezzar’s Account:

Among the native accounts of the city, that of Nebuchadrezzar is the best and most instructive. From this record it would seem that there were two principal defensive structures, Imgur-Enlil and Nemitti-Enlil-“Enlil has been gracious” and “Enlil’s foundation” respectively. The construction of these, which protected the inner city only, on the eastern and western sides of the Euphrates, he attributes to his father Nabonidus, as well as the digging of the moat, with the two “strong walls” on its banks, and the embankment of the Arabtu canal. He had also lined the Euphrates with quays or embankments-probably the structures to which the Greek writers refer-but he had not finished the work. Within Babylon itself he made a roadway from Du-azaga, the place where the fates were declared, to Aa-ibur-sabu, Babylon’s festival-street, which lay by the gate of Beltis or Mah, for the great New-Year’s festival of Merodach and the gods.

10. Nebuchadrezzar’s Architectural Work at Babylon:

Nebuchadrezzar, after his accession, completed the two great walls, lined the ditches with brick, and increased the thickness of the two walls which his father had built. He also built a wall, traces of which are apparently extant, on the West side of Babylon (he apparently refers to what may be called the “city,” in contradistinction to “greater Babylon”), and raised the level of Aa-ibur-sabu from the “holy gate” to the gate of Nana; together with the gateways (in consequence of the higher level of the pathway) through which it passed. The gates themselves were constructed of cedar overlaid with copper (bronze), most likely in the same manner as the gates of Imgur-Bel (Balawat) in Assyria (reign of Shalmaneser II, circa 850 B.C.). Probably none of Babylon’s gates were of solid bronze, notwithstanding the statements of Herodotus; but the thresholds were wholly of that metal, stone being very rare, and perhaps less durable. These gates were guarded by images of bulls and giant serpents or composite dragons of the same metal. Nebuchadrezzar also built a wall on the East bank of the river, 4,000 cubits distant, “high like a mountain,” to prevent the approach of an enemy. This wall also had cedar gates covered with copper. An additional defense made by him was an enormous lake, “like unto the broad sea to cross,” which was kept in by embankments.

11. The Royal Palaces:

The royal palaces next claimed the great king’s attention. The palace in which Nabopolassar had lived, and wherein, in all probability, Nebuchadrezzar had passed his younger days, had suffered from the floods when the river was high. The foundations of this extensive edifice, which extended from the wall called Imgur-Enlil to Libil-hegala, the eastern canal, and from the banks of the Euphrates to Aa-ibur-sabu, the festival-street, were thoroughly repaired with burnt brick and bitumen, and the doorways, which had become too low in consequence of the raising of that street, were raised to a suitable height. He caused the whole to tower aloft, as he has it, “mountainlike” (suggesting a building more than one story high). The roof of this palace was built of cedar, and the doors were of the same wood covered with bronze. Their thresholds, as in other cases, were bronze, and the interior of the palace was decorated with gold, silver, precious stones and other costly material.

12. Quick Building:

Four hundred and ninety cubits from Nemitti-Enlil lay, as the king says, the principal wall, Imgur-Enlil, and in order to guarantee the former against attack, he built two strong embankments, and an outer wall “like a mountain,” with a great building between which served both as a fortress and a palace, and attached to the old palace built by his father. According to Nebuchadrezzar’s account, which is confirmed by Berosus (as quoted by Josephus and Eusebius), all this work was completed in 15 days. The decorations were like those of the other palace, and blocks of alabaster, brought, apparently, from Assyria, strengthened the battlements. Other defenses surrounded this stronghold.

13. The Temples Restored by Nebuchadrezzar:

Among the temples which Nebuchadrezzar restored or rebuilt may be mentioned E-kua, the shrine of Merodach within E-sagila (the temple of Belus); the sanctuary called Du-azaga, the place of fate, where, on every New-Year’s festival, on the 8th and 9th of Nisan, “the king of the gods of heaven and earth” was placed, and the future of the Babylonian monarch and his people declared. Every whit as important as E-sagila, however, was the restoration of E-temen-an-ki, called “the Tower of Babylon” (see BABEL, TOWER OF), within the city; and connected, as will be seen from the plan, with that structure. Among the numerous temples of Babylon which he rebuilt or restored were E-mah, for the goddess Nin-mah, near the Ishtar-gate; the white limestone temple for Sin, the Moon-god; E-ditur-kalama, “the house of the judge of the land,” for Samas, the Sun-god; E-sa-tila for Gula, the goddess of healing; E-hursag-ella, “the house of the holy mountain,” etc.

14. The Extent of Nebuchadrezzar’s Architectural Work:

The amount of work accomplished by this king, who, when walking on the roof of his palace, lifted up with pride, exclaimed “Is not this great Babylon, which I have built?” (Daniel 4:30), was, according to his own records and the Greek writers, enormous, and the claim he made fully justified. But if he boasts of the work he did, he is just in attributing much to his father Nabopolassar; though in connection with this it is to be noted that his ascribing the building of the walls of Babylon to his father is not to be taken literally in all probability he only restored them, though he may have added supplementary defenses, as Nebuchadrezzar himself did.

15. Details Concerning the City from Contract-Tablets:

Besides Nebuchadrezzar’s inscriptions, various other texts give details concerning the topography of Babylon, among them being the contract-tablets, which mention various districts or quarters of the city, such as Te which is within Babylon; the city of Sula which is within Babylon; the new city which is within Babylon, upon the new canal. Within the city were also several Hussetu-perhaps “farms,” such as Hussetu sa Iddina-Marduk, “Iddina-Marduk’s farm,” etc. The various gates are also referred to, such as the gate of Samas, the city-gate of Uras, and the gate of Zagaga, which seems to have lain in “the province of Babylon,” and had a field in front of it, as had also the gate of Enlil.

16. Details Concerning Babylon from Other Sources:

According to an Assyrian and a Babylonian list of gates, the streets bore names connected with those of the gates to which they led. Thus, the street of the gate of Zagaga, one of the gods of war, was called “the street of Zagaga, who expels his enemies”; that of the gate of Merodach was “the street of Merodach, shepherd of his land”; while the street of Ishtar’s gate was “the street of Ishtar, patron of her people.” The city-gates named after Enlil, Addu (Hadad or Rimmon), Samas the Sun-god, Sin the Moon-god, etc., had streets similarly indicated. Certain of the streets of Babylon are also referred to on the contract-tablets, and such descriptive indications as “the broad street which is at the southern gate of the temple E-tur-kalama” seem to show that they were not in all cases systematically named. If the streets of Babylon were really, as Herodotus states, straight, and arranged at right angles, this was probably outside the walls of the ancient (inner) city, and most likely due to some wise Babylonian king or ruler. Details of the streets have been obtained at the point called Merkes (sec. 22) and elsewhere, and seem to show that the BabyIonians liked the rooms of their houses to be square. Such streets as slanted were therefore full of rectangles, and must have presented a quite peculiar appearance.

17. Modern Exploration:

It is this inner city which has most attracted the attention of explorers, both English and German, and it is on its site that the latter have carried on their systematic excavations. Indeed, it is probable that the houses of the most numerous class of the people-artisans, merchants, workmen, etc-lay outside the walls to which the Babylonian royal inscriptions refer. It may be supposed that the houses in this district were mainly low buildings of unbaked city (of which, indeed, portions of the temples and palaces were built), and these would naturally disappear more easily than if they had been built of baked brick. Even when baked, however, the brick-built ruins of Babylonia Assyria have a tendency to disappear, owing to the value which bricks, both baked and unbaked, have for the erection of new houses in the neighborhood. Concerning the extent of the exterior city much doubt naturally exists, but it may well have covered the tract attributed to it (see section 3, above). Nineveh, at the time of its prosperity, also had enormous suburbs (see NINEVEH).

18. Description of the Ruins-The Eastern Walls:

The ruins of Babylon lie between 80 and 90 kilometers (50 miles or less) from Bagdad. The first thing seen on approaching them is the broad high ridge of Babil, which marks the site of the ruins of the Northern Palace. After some time, the ruins of the ancient walls are reached. They are still several yards high, and slope down gently to the plain. Starting to the North of Babil, the wall stretches for about 875 yds. due East, and then runs southwards for another 930 yds., taking at that point a course to the Southeast for about 2 miles 160 yds. (3,300 meters). A wide gap occurs here, after which it runs to the Southwest, and is lost in the open fields at the end of about miles (2 kilometers). “That this is the old citywall,” says Weissbach, “there can be no doubt, and the name Sur, `city-wall,’ given it by the Arabs, proves that they have fully recognized its nature.” At the northern end it exists in its original extent, the plain out of which it rises being the old bed of the Euphrates, which, in the course of the centuries, has become filled up by the desertsand. At the period of Babylon’s glory, the river had a much straighter course than at present, but it reoccupies its old bed about 600 meters (656 yds.) South of Babil, leaving it afterward to make a sharp bend to the West. From the point where the city wall first becomes recognizable on the North to its apparent southernmost extremity is about 3 miles.

19. The Western Walls:

On the West side of the river the traces of the wall are much less, the two angles, with the parts adjoining them, being all that is recognizable. Beginning on the North where the Euphrates has reached its midpoint in its course through the city, it runs westward about 547 yds. (500 meters) West-Southwest, and then, bending almost at a right angle South-Southeast, turns East again toward the Euphrates, but is lost in the plain before reaching the river. The distance of the two angles from each other is about 1 mile, 208 yds. (1,800 meters), and its distance from the Euphrates is at most 5/8 of a mile (1 kilometer). The western portion of the city therefore formed a rectangle with an area of about 1.8 miles, and the eastern quarter, with the projection on the North, 6 1/4 square miles. According to Fried. Delitzsch, the size of Babylon was about the same as Munich or Dresden. This, of course, is an estimate from the extant remains-as has been indicated above, there was probably a large suburban extension beyond the walls, which would account for the enormous size attributed to the city by the ancients.

20. The Palaces:

Among the Arabs, the northern ruin is called Babil, though it is only the remains of a palace. Its present height is 30 meters (98 feet, 5 inches), and its rectangular outline is still easily recognizable. Its sides face the cardinal points, the longest being those of the North and South. This building, which measures 100 meters (109 yds.), was well protected by the city wall on the North and East, the Euphrates protecting it on the West. Continuing to the South, the path at present leads through orchards and palm-groves, beyond which is a rugged tract evidently containing the remains of ancient structures, probably of inconsiderable height. After further palm groves, an enormous ruin is encountered, steep on the East and South, sloping on the North and West. This is the Gasr (Qasr), also called Emjellibeh (Mujellibah), “the overturned,” identical with the great palace of Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadrezzar, referred to so prominently by the latter king in his records. Its longest side skirts the old Euphrates bed, and measures 300 meters (328 yds.). Its surface is very uneven, projections of 15 meters (over 49 ft.) alternating with deep depressions. On the Northwest side enormous walls of exceedingly hard yellow brick still tower to a considerable height. South of this the plain, broken only by a few inconsiderable mounds, extends for a distance of half a kilometer (5/16 mile), and terminates on the South with another enormous ruin-mound, called Ishan Amran ibn `Ali. It measures 600 meters (656 yds.) from North to South, and 400 (437 yds.) from East to West, its average height being 25 meters (82 ft.). About the middle, and close to each other, are two Moslem domed tombs, the first called Ibrahim al-Khalil (“Abraham the Friend” (of God)-probably a late addition to the name of another Abraham than the Patriarch), and the other Areran ibn `Ali, from which the ruin receives its modern name.

21. The Site of Babylon’s Great Tower:

Near the South termination of the plain on which the village of Jim-jimeh lies, there is a square depression several yards deep, measuring nearly 100 meters (over 100 yds.) each way. In the middle of this depression, the sides of which do not quite face the cardinal points, there rises, to a height of about 13 ft., a platform of sun-dried brick about 60 meters (197 ft.) each way, its sides being parallel with the outer boundary of the depression. This depression, at present called Sahan, “the dish,” is partly filled with foundation-water. Centered in its southern side is a rectangular hollowing-out similarly formed, about 50 meters (164 ft.) long, extending toward the ruin called Areran.

22. The Central and Southern Ruins:

East of the Qasr and Emjellibeh are several mounds bearing the name of Ehmereh, so called from the principal mound on the Southeast, named Ishan al-Oheimar, “the red ruin,” from the color of its bricks. Close to the Southeast corner of the Qasr lies the ruin called Merkes, “the central-point,” and to the South of that again is a long and irregularly shaped mound bearing the name of Ishan al-Aswad, “the black ruin.” From this enumeration of the principal remains on the site of Babylon, it will be easily seen that public buildings in this, the most ancient quarter of the city, were exceedingly numerous. Indeed, the district was regarded as being of such importance that the surrounding walls were not thought altogether sufficient to protect it, so another seemingly isolated rampart, on the East, was built, running North and South, as an additional protection. The remains on the western side of the river are insignificant, the changed course of the river being in all probability responsible for the destruction of at least some of the buildings.

23. A Walk through Babylon:

There is much work to be done before a really complete reconstruction of the oldest quarter of Babylon can be attempted; but somc thing may be said about the sights to be seen when taking a walk through the more interesting portion, which, as we know from Herodotus’ narrative, could be visited by strangers, though it is possible that permission had to be obtained beforehand. Entering by the Urash-gate, some distance to the East of the Euphrates, one found oneself in Aa-ibursabu, the Festival-street, which was a continuation of the royal roadway without the inner wall, coming from the South. This street ran alongside the Arahtu canal, on its western bank. After a time, one had the small temple of Ninip on the right (on the other side of the canal), and E-sagila, the great temple of Belus, on the left. This celebrated shrine was dedicated to Merodach and other deities associated with him, notably his spouse Zer-panitum (= Juno), and Nebo, “the teacher,” probably as the one who inculcated Merodach’s faith. The shrine of Merodach therein, which was called E-kua, is said by Nebuchadrezzar to have been magnificently decorated, and into the temple itself that king had caused to be brought many costly gifts, acquired by him in the lands over which he had dominion. Connected with E-sagila on the Northwest by a causeway and probably a staircase, was the great temple-tower E-temen-an-ki, which, as is indicated above, is not now represented by a tower, but by a depression, the bricks having been employed, it is said, to repair the Hindiyeh canal. This great building was a striking monument of the city, and must have been visible for a considerable distance, its height being something over 300 ft. The stages of which it was composed are thought to have been colored like those of the similar tower laid bare by the French excavations at Khorsabad (DurSarru-ukin) in Assyria. Causeways or streets united this building with Aa-ibur-sabu, the festival-street along which the traveler is supposed to be proceeding. Continuing to the North, the visitor crossed a canal at right angles, named Libilhegalli, “may he (the god) bring fertility,” and found himself immediately opposite the royal palace-the extensive building now known as the Qasr. According to Weissbach, its area occupied no less than 4 1/2 hectares (rather more than 11 acres) and it was divided, as we know from the inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar, into two parts, connected by a corridor. The building was richly decorated, as the Babylonians understood such things, the interior walls being lined with enameled brick and other material.

Passing along the eastern side of the palace, the visitor came to the Ishtar-gate-a massive doorway faced with enameled brick in Nebuchadrezzar’s time, and decorated with colored enameled reliefs of the lion, the bull and the dragon of Babylon. On the right of this gateway was to be seen the temple of the goddess Nin-mah, Merodach’s spouse-a temple of sun-dried brick with traces of white coloring. It was a celebrated shrine of the Babylonians, in the usual architectural style with recessed buttresses, but modest from our modern point of view. Nin-mah was the goddess of reproduction, who, under the name of Aruru, had aided Merodach to create mankind, hence the honor in which she was held by the Babylonians.

24. The Ishtar-Gate and the Middle Palace:

The Ishtar-gate was apparently a part of the more ancient fortifications of Babylon, but which portion of the primitive city it enclosed is doubtful. In the time of Nebuchadrezzar it pierced the continuation, as it were, of the wall on the western bank of the river. Passing through this gateway, the visitor saw, on the West, the “middle-palace,” an enormous structure, built by Nebuchadrezzar, as he boasts, in 15 days-a statement which seems somewhat of an exaggeration, when we come to consider the massiveness of the walls, some of which have a thickness of several yards. He describes this as having been “a fortress” (duru), “mountainlike” (sadanis), and on its summit he built an abode for himself-a “great palace,” which was joined with his father’s palace on the South of the intervening wall. It is possibly this latter which was built in 15 days-not the whole structure, including the fortress. It was raised “high as the forests,” and decorated with cedar and all kinds of costly woods, its doors being of palm, cedar, cypress, ebony(?) and ivory, framed in silver and gold, and plated with copper. The thresholds and hinges of its gates were bronze, and the cornice round its top was in (an imitation of) lapis-lazuli. It was a house for men to admire; and it is not improbable that this was the palace upon which he was regarded as having been walking when he referred to “great Babylon,” which he had built.

25. The Festival-Street:

But the street Aa-ibur-sabu, along which the visitor is conceived to be walking, was also a highly decorated causeway, fitted for the pathway of the great gods. Its width varied from 11 to 22 yds., and it was paved with regularly hewn and fitted natural stones-limestone and a brownish-red stone with white veins-while its walls were provided with a covering of brick enameled in various colors with representations of lions, some of them in relief. The inscriptions which it bore were white on a rich dark-blue ground, also enameled. There were various other streets in Babylon, but these have still to be identified.

26. The Chamber of the Fates:

At the end of the Procession-street, and at right angle to it, was the Merodach canal, which communicated directly with the Euphrares. At this point also, and forming its end-portion, was the Chamber of Fates (Patak simate), where, yearly, the oracles were asked and declared. In close connection with this was the Temple of Offerings (Bit nike) or festival-house (Bit akiti). Concerning these places more information is needed, but it would seem that, before Nebuchadrezzar’s time, the Chamber of Fates was simply decorated with silver-he, however, made it glorious with pure gold. It is at this point that the Procession-street is at its widest.

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Babylon Babulon, is used in New Testament in at least two different senses:

1. Mesopotamian Babylon:

In Matthew 1:11, 12, 17 Acts 7:43 the old Mesop city is plainly meant. These all refer to the captivity in Babylon and do not demand any further discussion.

2. Symbolic Sense:

All the references to Babylon in Re are evidently symbolic. Some of the most important passages are Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, 10, 21. In Revelation 17:5 Babylon is designated as musterion. This undoubtedly in dicates that the name is to be under stood figuratively. A few interpreters have believed that Jerusalem was the city that was designated as Babylon, but most scholars hold that Rome was the city that was meant. That interpretation goes back at least to the time of Tertullian (Adv. Marc., iii. 13). This interpretation was adopted by Jerome and Augustine and has been commonly accepted by the church. There are some striking facts which point to Rome as the city that is designated as Babylon.

(1) The characteristics ascribed to this Babylon apply to Rome rather than to any other city of that age:

(a) as ruling over the kings of the earth (Revelation 17:18);

(b) as sitting on seven mountains (Revelation 17:9);

(c) as the center of the world’s merchandise (Revelation 18:3, 11-13);

(d) as the corrupter of the nations (Revelation 17:2; Revelation 18:3; Revelation 19:2);

(e) as the persecutor of the saints (Revelation 17:6).

(2) Rome is designated as Babylon in the Sibylline Oracles (5 143), and this is perhaps an early Jewish portion of the book. The comparison of Rome to Babylon is common in Jewish apocalyptic literature (see 2 Esdras and the Apocrypha Baruch).

(3) Rome was regarded by both Jews and Christians as being antagonistic to the kingdom of God, and its downfall was confidently expected, This conception is in accord with the predicted downfall of Babylon (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 18:2, 10-21). As Babylon had been the oppressor of Israel, it was natural that this new power, which was oppressing the people of God, should be designated as Babylon.

3. In 1 Peter:

In 1 Peter 5:13 Babylon is designated as the place from which 1Pe was written. Down to the time of the Reformation this was generally under stood to mean Rome, and two cursives added “en Roma.” Since the Reformation, many scholars have followed Erasmus and Calvin and have urged that the Mesopotamian Babylon is meant. Three theories should be noted:

(1) That the Egyptian Babylon, or Old Cairo; is meant. Strabo (XVII, 807) who wrote as late as 18 A.D., says the Egyptian Babylon was a strong fortress founded by certain refugees from the Mesop Babylon. But during the 1st century this was not much more than a military station, and it is quite improbable that Peter would have gone there. There is no tradition that connects Peter’ in any way with Egypt.

(2) That the statement is to be taken literally and that the Mesop Babylon is meant. Many good scholars hold to this view, and among these are Weiss and Thayer, but there is no evidence that Peter was ever in Babylon, or that there was even a church there during the 1st century. Mark and Silvanus are associated with Peter in the letter and there is no tradition that connects either of them with Babylon. According to Josephus (Antiquities, XVIII, ix, 5-9), the Jews at this time had largely been driven out of Babylon and were confined to neighboring towns, and it seems improbable that Peter would have made that his missionary field.

(3) That Rome was the city that was designated as Babylon. The Apocalypse would indicate that the churches would understand the symbolic reference, and it seems to have been so understood until the time of the Reformation. The denial of this position was in line with the effort to refute Peter’s supposed connection with the Roman church. Ancient tradition, however, makes it seem quite probable that Peter did make a visit to Rome (see Lightfoot, Clement, II, 493).

Internal evidence helps to substantiate theory that Rome was the place from which the letter was written. Mark sends greetings (1 Peter 5:13), and we know he had been summoned to Rome by the apostle Paul (2 Timothy 4:11). The whole passage, “She that is in Babylon, elect together with you, saluteth you,” seems to be figurative, and that being true, it is natural that Babylon should have been used instead of Rome. The character of the letter as a whole would point to Rome as the place of writing. Ramsay thinks this book is impregnated with Roman thought beyond any other book in the Bible (see The Church in the Roman Empire, 286).




1. Mounds

2. Explorations

3. Names

4. Semites

5. Sumerians

6. Home of the Semites

7. Immigration

8. Language

9. Script

10. Architecture

11. Art

12. Literature

13. Libraries

14. Personal Names

15. History of Kingdoms

16. Kish

17. Lagash

18. Adab

19. Nippur

20. Erech

21. Larsa

22. Shuruppak

23. Kisurra

24. Umma

25. Accad

26. Opis

27. Basime

28. Drehem

29. Urumma

30. First Dynasty of Babylon

31. Sealand Dynasty

32. Cassite Dynasty

33. Cassite Rule

34. Isin Dynasty

35. Nebuchadrezzar I

36. Sealand Dynasty

37. Bit-Bazi Dynasty

38. Other Rulers

39. Babylonian Dynasty

40. Neo-Babylonian Rulers

41. Persian Rulers of Babylon


Babylonia is a plain which is made up of the alluvial deposits of the mountainous regions in the North, where the Tigris and Euphrates have their source. The land is bounded on the North by Assyria and Mesopotamia; on the East by Elam, separated by the mountains of Elam; on the South by the sea marshes, and the country Kaldu (Chaldaea); and on the West by the Syrian desert. Some of the cities of the lower country were seaport towns in the early period, but now are far inland. This land-making process continues even at the present time at the rate of about 70 ft. a year.

This plain, in the days when Babylonia flourished, sustained a dense population. It was covered with a network of canals, skillfully planned and regulated, which brought prosperity to the land, because of the wonderful fertility of the soil. The neglect of these canals and doubtless, also, the change of climate, have resulted in altered conditions in the country. It has become a cheerless waste. During some months of the year, when the inundations take place, large portions of the land are partially covered with swamps and marshes. At other times it looks like a desolate plain.

1. Mounds:

Throughout the land there are seen, at the present time, ruin-hills or mounds of accumulation of debris, which mark the site of ancient cities. Some of these cities were destroyed in a very early era, and were never rebuilt. Others were occupied for millenniums, and their history extends far into the Christian era. The antiquities generally found in the upper stratum of the mounds which were occupied up to so late a period, show that they were generally inhabited by the Jews, who lived there after the Babylonians had disappeared.

2. Explorations:

The excavations conducted at various sites have resulted in the discovery, besides antiquities of almost every character, of hundreds of thousands of inscriptions on clay and stone, but principally on the former material. At Tello more than 60,000 tablets were found, belonging largely to the administrative archives of the temple of the third millennium B.C. At Nippur about 50,000 inscriptions were found, many of these also belonging to temple archives. But about 20,000 tablets and fragments found in that city came from the library of the school of the priests, which had been written in the third millennium B.C. At Sippar, fully 30,000 tablets were found, many being of the same general character, also representing a library. At Delehem and Djokha, temple archives of the same period as those found at Tello have come to light in great numbers, through the illicit diggings of Arabs. Babylon, Borsippa, Kish, Erech and many other cities have yielded to the explorer and the Arab diggers inscribed documents of every period of Babylonian history, and embracing almost every kind of literature, so that the museums and libraries of America and Europe have stored up unread inscriptions numbering hundreds of thousands. Many also are in the possession of private individuals. After the work of excavating Babylonia has been completed and the inscriptions deciphered, many of the pro-Christian centuries in Babylonian history will be better known than some of those of our Christian era. The ancient history of the Babylonians will be reconstructed by the help of these original sources. Lengthy family genealogies will be known, as indeed in some instances is now the case, as well as the Babylonian contemporaries of Ezekiel, Abraham and all the other Biblical characters.

3. Names:

The Greek name of Babylonia which is in use at the present time is derived from the name of the city of Babylon, the capital and chief city of the land from the time of the First Dynasty of Babylon, about 2000 B.C. (see BABYLON). The name of the land in the very earliest period which is represented by antiquities, and even inscribed objects, is not known. But in a comparatively early age the northern part is called Uri, and the southern part, Engi or En-gira. The second part of the latter name is perhaps the same as in Su-gir, which is thought to be the origin of the Old Testament Shinar. Su-gir and Su-mer are names of the same country. And inasmuch as Mer and Gir were names of the same west Semitic deity, who played an important role in the early history of Babylonia, it is not improbable that the element Su is also to be identified with the ancient name of Mesopotamia. Su is also in Su-bartu, the name of the country to the North. This name is also written Su-Gir.

Subsequent to 2000 B.C. the ideograms read in Sumerian, Uri and Engi, were pronounced in SemBab, Accad and Sumer. The former received its name from the capital of the kingdom Accad, one of the cities mentioned in Genesis 10:10. The title, “king of Accad and Sumer” was used by rulers as late as the 1st millennium B.C. The name by which the land is known in the second millennium B.C. is Kar-Duniash, the exact derivation of which is in doubt. Kar means “garden, land” in Semitic and Sumerian; and Duniash being preceded by the determinative for deity, has been regarded as a name of a Cassite god. A more recently advanced explanation is that Duniash is equivalent to Bel-malati, which means “lord of lands.” The meaning of the name, as stated, must be regarded as undetermined.

In the time of the late Assyrian empire a nation in the extreme southern part of the land, called by the Greeks Chaldea, which is derived from the name Kaldu, came into existence. In the Assyrian historical inscriptions the land is usually called Bit-Yakin. This people seems to have issued from Aramaic Under Biblical. Merodach-baladan they ruled Babylonia for a time. The Neo-Bab Dynasty, founded by Nabopolassar, is supposed to be Chaldean in origin, in consequence of which the whole land in the Greek period was called Chaldea.

4. Semites:

Two distinct races are found occupying the land when we obtain the first glimpses of its history. The northern part is occupied by the Semites, who are closely allied to the Amorites, Arameans and Arabs; and the southern part by a non-Sem people called Sumerians. Their cultures had been originally distinct, but when they first become known to us there has taken place such an amalgamation that it is only by the knowledge of other Semitic cultures that it is possible to make even a partial differentiation of what was Sem-Bab and what was Sumerian. The Semites, it would almost seem, entered the land after the Sumerians had established themselves, but this can only be re garded as a conjecture.

5. Sumerians:

Although the earliest Sumerian settlement belongs to a remote period, few traces of the pre-historic Sumerian have been found. The archaeological remains indicate that this non-Sem race is not indigenous to the land, and that when they came into the country they had already attained to a fair degree of culture. But there is no evidence, as yet, in what part of the ancient world the elements of their culture were evolved, although various attempts have been made by scholars to locate their original home.

6. Home of the Semites:

The home of the Semites has been placed in different parts of the ancient world. A number of scholars look to Arabia and others to Africa for their original habitation, although their theories generally are not based upon much archaeological evidence. Unquestionably, the previous, if not the original home of the Semitic Babylonians, is to be found in the land of the Amorites, that is in Syria. In the earliest known period of Babylonian history, which apparently belongs to the age not very far removed from the time when the Semites entered Babylonia, Amurru was an important factor in the affairs of the nations, and it was a land which the world conquerors of Babylonia, both Sumerian and Semitic, endeavored to subjugate. This points to the fact that the culture of Amurru was then already old. Egyptian inscriptions fully substantiate this. We look to the land of the Arnorites as the home of the Semitic Babylonians, because of the important part played by the chief god of that land Amurru or Uru, in the Babylonian religion and nomenclature. In fact nearly all of the original names of the Semitic Babylonian sun-deities are derived from the names and epithets of the great Sun-god of the Amorites and Arameans (see Amurru, 108). These and many other considerations point to Amurru, or the land of the Amorites, as the previous home of the Semites who migrated into Babylonia and who eventually became masters of the land.

7. Immigration:

The original settlements in Babylonia, as stated above, belong to a prehistoric time, but throughout the history of the land fresh Semitic migrations have been recognized. In the Isin and First Dynasty of Babylonia, Amorites or Canaanites seem to flood the country. In the second millennium a foreign people known as Cassites ruled Babylonia for nearly six centuries. The nomenclature of the period shows that many Hittites and Mittanaeans as well as Cassites lived in Babylonia. In the first millennium the thousands of names that appear in the contract literature indicate a veritable Babel of races: Egyptians, Elamites, Persians, Medes, Tabalites, Hittites, Cassites, Ammorites, Edomites, notably Hebrews, are among the peoples that occupied the land. The deportation of the Israelites by the Assyrian kings and of the Jews by the Babylonian kings, find confirmation besides the historical inscriptions in the names of Hebrews living in Babylonia in the corresponding periods.

8. Language:

The languages of Babylonia are Semitic and Sumerian. The latter is an agglutinative tongue like the Turkish, and belongs to that great unclassifiable group of languages, called for the sake of convenience, Turanian. It has not been shown, as yet, to be allied to any other known language. The Semitic language known as the Babylonian, with which the Assyrian is practically identical, is of the common Semitic stock. After the Semites entered the land, their language was greatly influenced by the Sumerian tongue. The Semites being originally dependent upon the Sumerian scribes, with whom the script had originated, considered in connection with the fact that the highly developed culture of the Sumerians greatly influenced that of the Semites, brought about the peculiar amalgamation known as Babylonian. The language is, however, distinctively Semitic, but it has a very large percentage of Sumerian loan-words. Not knowing the cognate tongues of the Sumerian, and having a poor understanding of the pronunciation of that language, it is impossible to ascertain, on the other hand, how much the Sumerian language was influenced by the Semites.

In the late period another Semitic tongue was used extensively in the land. It was not because of the position occupied by the Arameans in the political history of western Asia, that their language became the lingua franca of the first millennium B.C. It must have been on account of the widespread migrations of the people. In the time of Sennacherib it seems to have been used as the diplomatic language in Assyria as well as among the Hebrews, as the episode in 2 Kings 18:26 would show. Then we recall the story of Belshazzar, and the edicts of the late period referred to in the Old Testament, which were in Aramaic (Ezra 4:7, etc.). In Assyria and Babylonia, many contract tablets have been found with Aramaic reference notes written upon them, showing that this was the language of those who held the documents. The Hebrews after the exile used Aramaic. This would seem to point to Babylonia as the place where they learned the language. The Babylonian language and the cuneiform script continued to be used until the 3rd or 2nd century B.C., and perhaps even later, but it seems that the Aramaic had generally supplanted it, except as the literary and legal language. In short the tongue of the common people or the spoken language in all probability in the late period was Aramaic.

9. Script:

The cuneiform writing upon clay was used both by the Sumerians and the Semites. Whether this script had its origin in the land, or in the earlier home of the Sumerians, remains a question. It is now known that the Elamites had their own system of writing as early as that of the earliest found in Babylonia; and perhaps it will be found that other ancient peoples, who are at the present unknown to us, also used the cuneiform script. A writing similar to the Babylonian was in use at an early time in Cappadocia. The Hittites and other peoples of that region also employed it. The origin of the use of clay as a writing material, therefore, is shrouded in mystery, but as stated above, the system used by the Semites in Babylonian ylonia was developed from the Sumerian.

The script is not alphabetic, but ideographic and phonetic, in that respect similar to the Chinese. There are over 500 characters, each one of which has from one to many values. The combination of two or more characters also has many values. The compilation of the values of the different signs used in various periods by both the Sumerians and Assyrians numbers at the present about 25,000, and the number will probably reach 30,000.

10. Architecture:

The architecture of Babylonia is influenced by the fact that the building material, in this alluvial plain, had to be of brick, which was largely sun-dried, although in certain prosperous eras there is much evidence of kiln-dried bricks having been used. The baked brick used in the earliest period was the smallest ever employed, being about the size of the ordinary brick used at the present time. The size of the bricks in the era prior to the third millennium varied from this to about 6 x 10 x 3 inches at Nippur, Sargon and his son Naram-Sin used a brick, the largest found, about 20 inches square, and about 4 inches in thickness. Following the operations of these kings at Nippur is the work of Ur-Engur, who used a brick about 14 inches square and nearly 4 inches in thickness. This size had been used at Tello prior to Sargon’s time, and was thereafter generally employed. It re mained the standard size of brick throughout the succeeding centuries of Babylonian history. Adobes, of which the greater portion of the buildings were constructed, were usually double the thickness of kiln-dried bricks. The pillar made of bricks, as well as the pilaster constructed of the same material, seems to have come into use at a very early age, as is shown by the excavations at Tello.

A large number of Babylonian builders had the brick makers employ brick stamps which gave their names and frequently their titles, besides the name of the temple for which the bricks were intended. These enable the excavator to determine who the builders or restorers were of the buildings uncovered. Naturally, in a building like the temple of Enlil at Nippur, inscribed bricks of many builders covering a period of over 2,000 years were found. These by the help of building inscriptions, which have been found, enable scholars to rewrite considerable of the history of certain Babylonian temples. The walls of the city were also built of clay bricks, principally adobes. The walls usually were of very great thickness.

Clay was also employed extensively in the manufacture of images, weights, drains, playthings, such as animals, baby rattles, etc., and of inscriptions of every kind. Pottery, with the exception of the blue glaze employed in the late period, was usually plain, although some traces of painted pottery have been found. Although every particle of stone found in Babylonia was carried into the country, either by man or by inundations, still in certain periods it was used freely for statues, steles, votive objects, and in all periods for door sockets, weights and seal cylinders. Building operations in stone are scarcely known in Babylonia until perhaps the time of the greatest of all ancient builders, Nebuchadrezzar II, who laid a pavement in the causeway of Babylon, Aa-ibur-sabu, with blocks of stone from a mountain quarry.


11. Art:

The sculpture of the Sumerians, although in most instances the hardest of materials was used, is one of the great achievements of their civilization. Enough examples have been found to trace the development of their art from comparatively rude reliefs of the archaic period to the finished sculpture of Gudea’s time, third millennium B.C., when it reached a high degree of excellence. The work of the sculpture of this age shows spirit and originality in many respects unique. In the earliest period the Babylonians attempted the round, giving frequently the main figures in full face. The perfection of detail, in their efforts to render true to life, makes their modeling very superior in the history of article The Sumerian seems to have been able to overcome difficulties of technique which later sculptors systematically avoided.

Practically every Babylonian had his own personal seal. He used it as the signature is used at the present time or rather as the little stamp upon which is engraved the name of the individual at the present time, in the Orient, to make an impression upon the letter which was written for him by a public scribe. Thousands of these ancient seals have been found. They were cut out of all kinds of stone and metal. The style in the early period was usually cylindrical, with a hole passing lengthwise through them. In the late period the signet was commonly used. Many of these gems were exquisitely cut by lapidists of rare ability. Some of the very best work of this art belongs to the third millennium B.C. The boldness in outline, and the action displayed are often remarkable. The most delicate saws, drills and other tools must have been employed by the early lapidist. Some of his early work is scarcely surpassed in the present age.

The gold and silver smiths of the early age have left us some beautiful examples of their art and skill. A notable one is the silver vase of Entemena of Lagash, mounted on a bronze pedestal, which stands on four feet. There is a votive inscription engraved about its neck. The bowl is divided into two compartments. On the upper are engraved seven heifers, and on the lower four eagles with extended wings, in some respects related to the totem or the coat of arms of Lagash. While attention to detail is too pronounced, yet the whole is well rendered and indicates remarkable skill, no less striking than the well-known work of their Egyptian contemporaries. Bronze was also used extensively for works of art and utensils. Some remarkable specimens of this craft have been found at Tello.

In studying the magnificent remains of their art, one is thoroughly impressed with the skill displayed, and with the fact that there must have been a long period of development prior to the age to which these works belong, before such creations could have been possible. Although much of the craftsman’s work is crude, there is considerable in the sculpture and engraving that is well worthy of study. And in studying these remains one is also impressed with the fact that they were produced in an alluvial plain.

12. Literature:

The literature in a narrow sense is almost entirely confined to the epics, which are of a religious character, and the psalms, hymns, incantations, omens, etc. These are the chief remains of their culture.


In a general sense almost every kind of literature is found among the hundreds of thousands of clay tablets unearthed in Babylonia. The inscribed votive objects are of all kinds and descriptions. The stone vase taken in booty was dedicated to the deity of the conqueror. The beautiful piece of lapis lazuli, agate, cornelian, etc., obtained, was inscribed and devoted in the same way. Slabs, tablets and cones of all shapes and sizes, were inscribed with the king’s name and titles, giving the different cities over which he ruled and referring especially to the work that he had accomplished for his deity. From the decipherment of these votive objects much valuable data are gathered for the reconstruction of the ancient history of the land.

The same is true of what are known as building inscriptions, in which accounts of the operations of the kings in restoring and enlarging temples, shrines, walls and other city works are given. Canal digging and dredging, and such works by which the people benefited, are frequently mentioned in these inscriptions.

Epistolary literature, for example, the royal letters of Hammurabi, the diplomatic correspondence found in Egypt (see TELL EL-AMARNA) or the royal letters from the Library of Ashurbanipal (see ASHURBANIPAL), as well as the private correspondence of the people, furnishes valuable historical and philological data.

The thousands of tablets found in the school libraries of Sippar and Nippur, as well as of the library of Ashurbanipal, among which are all kinds of inscriptions used in the schools of the priests and scribes, have furnished a great deal of material for the Assyrian dictionary, and have thrown much light upon the grammar of the language. The legal literature is of the greatest importance for an understanding of the social conditions of the people. It is also valuable for comparative purposes in studying the codes of other peoples.


The commercial or legal transactions, dated in all periods, from the earliest times until the latest, also throw important light upon the social conditions of the people. Many thousands of these documents have been found, by the help of which the very life that pulsated in the streets of Babylonian cities is restored.

The administrative documents from the temple archives also have their value, in that they furnish important data as regards the maintenance of the temples and other institutions; and incidentally much light on the nationality and religion of the people, whose names appear in great numbers upon them. The records are receipts of taxes or rents from districts close by the temples, and of commercial transactions conducted with this revenue. A large portion of these archives consists of the salary payments of storehouse officials and priests. There seems to have been a host of tradesmen and functionaries in connection with the temple. Besides the priest, elder, seer, seeress, sorcerer, sorceress, singer, etc., there were the farmer, weaver, miller, carpenter, smith, butcher, baker, porter, overseer, scribe, measurer, watchman, etc. These documents give us an insight into Babylonian system of bookkeeping, and show how carefully the administrative affairs of the temple were conducted. In fact the temple was provided for and maintained along lines quite similar to many of our modern institutions.

13. Libraries:

The discovery of the Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh speaks volumes for the culture of Assyria, but that culture was largely borrowed from the Babylonians. Much that this library contained had been secured from Babylonian libraries by the scribes employed by Ashurbanipal. In every important center there doubtless existed schools and libraries in connection with the temples. At Nippur, in 1890, Dr. J. P. Peters found such a library, but unfortunately, although he termed it such, his Assyriologists did not recognize that one of the greatest discoveries of antiquity had been made. It remained for Dr. J. H. Haynes, a decade later, to discover another portion of this library, which he regarded as such, because of the large number of tablets which he uncovered. Pere Scheil, prior to Dr. Haynes’ discovery, had the good fortune while at Sippar to discover a part of the school and library of that important center. Since Professor Scheil’s excavations, Arabs have unearthed many inscriptions of this library, which have found their way to museums and into the hands of private individuals.

The plan of the Nippur Library, unearthed by Dr. Haynes, has been published by Mr. C. Fisher, the architect of the Nippur expedition (see Clay, Light on the Old Testament from Babel, 183). Professor Scheil, in publishing his results, has also given a plan of the school he discovered, and a full description of its arrangements, as well as the pedagogical methods that had been employed in that institution of learning. This has also been attempted by others, but in a less scientific manner. One of the striking features of these libraries is the use of the large reference cylinders, quadrangular, pentagonal and hexagonal in shape. There was a hole cut lengthwise through them for the purpose of mounting them like revolving stands. These libraries, doubtless, contained all the works the Babylonians possessed on law, science, literature and religion. There are lexical lists, paradigm tablets, lists of names, of places, countries, temples, rivers, officers, stones, gods, etc. Sufficient tablets have been deciphered to determine their general character. Also hundreds of exercise tablets have been found, showing the progress made by pupils in writing, in mathematics, in grammar, and in other branches of learning. Some tablets appear to have been written after dictation. Doubtless, the excavators found the waste heaps of the school, where these tablets had been thrown for the purpose of working them over again as raw material, for new exercises. The school libraries must have been large. Considering for instance that the ideographic and phonetic values of the cuneiform signs in use numbered perhaps 30,000, even the syllabaries which were required to contain these different values must have been many in number, and especially as tablets, unlike books made of paper, have only two sides to them. And when we take into consideration all the different kinds of literature which have been found, we must realize that these libraries were immense, and numbered many thousands of tablets.

14. Personal Names:

In modern times the meaning of names given children is rarely considered; in fact, in many instances the name has suffered so much through changes that it is difficult to ascertain its original meaning. Then also, at present, in order to avoid confusion the child is given two or more names. It was not so with the ancient Babylonian. Originally the giving of a name was connected with some special circumstance, and though this was not always the case throughout the history of Babylonia, the correct form of the name was always preserved.

The name may have been an expression of their religious faith. It may have told of the joy experienced at the birth of an heir. It may even betray the suffering that was involved at the birth of the child, or the life that the parents had lived. In short, the names afford us an intimate glimpse into the everyday life of the people.

The average Babylonian name is theophorous, and indicates one of the deities worshipped by the family, and often the city. For example, it is suggestive that persons with names compounded with Enlil and Ninib hailed from Nippur. Knowing the deities of the surrounding people we have also important evidence in determining the origin of peoples in Babylonia having foreign names. For example, if a name is composed of the Hittite deity Teshup, or the Amorite deity Amurru, or the Aramean god Dagan, or the Egyptian god Esi (Isis), foreign influence is naturally looked for from the countries represented. Quite frequently the names of foreign deities are compounded with Babylonian elements, often resulting from mixed marriages.

Theophorous names are composed of two, three, four and even five elements. Those having two or three elements predominate. Two-element names have a diety plus a verbal form or a subst.; or vice versa: for example, Nabu-na’id (Nabonidus), “Nebo is exalted,” or Shulman-asharedu (Shaimaneser), “Shalman is foremost.” Many different combinations are found in three-element names which are composed of the name of the deity, a subst., a verbal form, a pronominal suffix, or some other form of speech, in any of the three positions. Explanations of a few of the familiar Biblical. names follow: Sin-akhe-erba (Sennacherib), “Sin has increased the brothers”; Marduk-apal-iddin (Mero-dach-baladan), “Marduk has given a son”; Ashurakh-iddin (Esarhaddon), “Ashur has given a brother”; Ashur-bani-apal, “Ashur is creating a son”; Nabu-kudurri-usur (Nebuchadrezzar), “O Nebo, protect the boundary”; Amel-Marduk (Evil Merodach), “Man of Marrink”; Bel-shar-usur (Belshazzar), “O Bel, protect the king.” Some Babylonian names mentioned in the Bible are really of foreign origin, for example, Amraphel and Sargon. Amraphel originally is west Semitic and is written Hammurabi (pronounced Chammu-rabi, the first letter being the Semitic cheth). Sargon was perhaps originally Aramean, and is composed of the elements shar and the god Gan. When written in cuneiform it was written Shargani, and later Sharrukin, being translated “the true king.” Many names in use were not theophorous; for example, such personal names as Ululd, “the month Ulul”; names of animals, as Kalba, “dog,” gentilic names, as Akkadai, “the Akkadian,” names of crafts, as Pacharu, “potter,” etc.

The literature abounds in hypochoristica. One element of a name was used for the sake of shortness, to which usually a hypochoristica suffix was added, like Marduka (Mordecai). That is, the ending a or ai was added to one of the elements of a longer name.

15. History of Kingdoms:

The written history of Babylonia at the present begins from about 4200 B.C. But instead of finding things crude and aboriginal in this, the earliest period, the remains discovered show that the people had attained to a high level of culture. Back of that which is known there must lie a long period of development. This is attested in many ways; for instance, the earliest writing found is so far removed from the original hieroglyphs that it is only possible to ascertain what the original pictures were by knowing the values which the signs possessed. The same conclusion is ascertained by a study of the art and literature. Naturally, as mentioned above, it is not impossible that this development took place in a previous home of the inhabitants.

The history of early Babylonia is at present a conflict of the kings and patesis (priest-kings) of the different city-kingdoms, for supremacy over each other, as well as over the surrounding peoples. The principal states that figure in the early history are: Kish, Lagash, Nippur, Akkad, Umma, Erech, Ur and Opis. At the present time more is known of Lagash, because the excavations conducted at that site were more extensive than at others. This makes much of our knowledge of the history of the land center about that city. And yet it should be stated that the hegemony of Lagash lasted for a long period, and the kingdom will ultimately occupy a prominent position when the final history of the land is written.

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1. First Period

2. Second Period

3. Third Period




1. Enlil, Ellil

2. Anu

3. Ea

4. Sin

5. Shamash

6. Ishtar

7. Marduk (Old Testament Merodach)

8. Nabu (Old Testament Nebo)

9. Nergal, the city god of Kutu (Old Testament Guthah)

10. Ninib

11. Ramman

12. Tammuz

13. Asshur



1. Maqlu

2. Shurpu






I. Definition.

The religion of Babylonia and Assyria is that system of belief in higher things with which the peoples of the Tigris and Euphrates valley strove to put themselves into relations, in order to live their lives. The discoveries of the past century have supplied us with a mass of information concerning this faith from which we have been able to secure a greater knowledge of it than of any other ancient oriental religion, except that of Israel. Yet the information which is thus come into our hands is embarrassing because of its very richness, and it will doubtless be a long time before it is possible to speak with certainty concerning many of the problems which now confront us. Progress in the interpretation of the literature is however so rapid that we may now give a much more intelligible account of this religion than could have been secured even so recently as five years ago.

For purposes of convenience, the religion of Babylonia and Assyria may be grouped into three great periods.

1. First Period:

The first of these periods extends from the earliest times, about 3500 B.C., down to the union of the Babylonian states under Hammurabi, about 2000 B.C.

2. Second Period:

The second period extends to the rise of the Chaldean empire under Nabopolassar, 625 B.C., and

3. Third Period:

The third period embraces the brief history of this Chaldean or neo-Babylonian empire under Cyrus, 538 B.C.

The Assyrian religion belongs to the second period, though it extends even into the third period, for Nineveh did not fall until 607 B.C.

II. The Sources.

The primary sources of our knowledge of this religion are to be found in the distinctively religious texts, such as hymns, prayers, priestly rituals and liturgies, and in the vast mass of magical and incantation literature. The major part of this religious literature which has come down to us dates from the reign of Ashurbanipal (668-625 B.C.) though much of it is quite clearly either copied from or based upon much older material. If, however, we relied for our picture of the Babylonian and Assyrian religion exclusively upon these religious texts, we should secure a distorted and in some places an indefinite view. We must add to these in order to perfect the picture practically the whole of the literature of these two peoples.

The inscriptions upon which the kings handed down to posterity an account of their great deeds contain lists of gods whom they invoked, and these must be taken into consideration. The laws also have in large measure a religious basis, and the business inscriptions frequently invoke deities at the end. The records of the astronomers, the state dispatches of kings, the reports of general officers from the field, the handbooks of medicine, all these and many other divisions of a vast literature contribute each its share of religious material. Furthermore, as the religion was not only the faith of the king, but also the faith of the state itself, the progress of the commonwealth to greater power oftentimes carried some local god into a new relationship to other gods, or the decadence of the commonwealth deprived a god of some of his powers or attributes, so that even the distinctively political inscriptions have importance in helping us to reconstruct the ancient literature.

III. The History.

The origin of the Babylonian religion is hid from our eyes in those ancient days of which we know little and can never hope to know much. In the earliest documents which have come down to us written in the Sumerian language, there are found Semitic words or constructions or both. It seems now to be definitely determined that a Sumerian people whose origin is unknown inhabited Babylonia before the coming of the Semites, whose original home was in Arabia. Of the Sumerian faith before a union was formed with the Semites, we know very little indeed. But we may perhaps safely say that among that ancient people, beneath the belief in gods there lay deep in their consciousness the belief in animism. They thought that every object, animate or inanimate, had a zi or spirit. The word seems originally to have meant life. Life manifests itself to us as motion; everything which moves has life. The power of motion separates the animate from the inanimate. All that moves possesses life, the motionless is lifeless or dead.

Besides this belief in animism, the early Sumerians seem to have believed in ghosts that were related to the world of the dead as the zi was related to the world of the living. The lil or ghost was a night demon of baleful influence upon men, and only to be cast out by many incantations. The lil was attended by a serving-maid (ardat lili, “maid of night”) which in the later Semitic development was transformed into the feminine lilitu. It is most curious and interesting that this ghost demon of the Sumerians lived on through all the history of the Babylonian religion, and is mentioned even in one of the Old Testament prophets (Isaiah 34:14; Hebrew Lillith, translated “night monster”). The origin of the Semitic religion brought by the ancient Semitic people and united with this Sumerian faith is also lost in the past.

It seems to be quite clear that the gods and the religious ideas which these Semites brought with them from the desert had very little if any importance for the religion which they afterward professed in Babylonia. Some of the names of their gods and images of these they very probably brought with them, but the important thing, it must always be remembered, about the gods is not the names but the attributes which were ascribed to them, and these must have been completely changed during the long history which follows their first contact with the Sumerians. From the Sumerians there flowed a great stream of religious ideas, subject indeed to modifications from time to time down the succeeding centuries. In our study of the pantheon we shall see from time to time how the gods changed their places and how the ideas concerning them were modified by political and other movements. In the very earliest times, besides these ideas of spirits and ghosts, we find also numbers of local gods. Every center of human habitati on had its special patron deity and this deity is always associated with some great natural phenomenon. It was natural that the sun and moon should be made prominent among these gods, but other natural objects and forces were personified and deified, streams, stones and many others.

Our chief source of information concerning the gods of the first period of religious development before the days of Hammurabi is found in the historical inscriptions of the early kings and rulers. Many of these describe offerings of temples and treasures made to the gods, and all of them are religious in tone and filled with ascriptions of praise to the gods. From these early texts Professor Jastrow has extricated the names of the following deities, gods and goddesses. I reproduce his list as the best yet made, but keep in mind that some of the readings are doubtful and some were certainly otherwise read by the Babylonians or Sumerians, though we do not now know how they ought to be read. The progress of Assyrian research is continually providing corrected readings for words hitherto known to us only in ideograms. It is quite to be expected that many of these strange, not to say grotesque, names will some day prove to be quite simple, and easy to utter: En-lil (Ellil, Bel) Belit, Nin-khar-sag, Nin-gir-su, wh o also appears as Dun-gur, Bau, Ga-tum-dug, Nin-dindug, Ea, Nin-a-gal, Gal-dim-zu-ab, Nin-ki, Damgal-nun-na, Nergal, Shamash, A or Malkatu, the wife of Shamash, Nannar, or Sin, Nin-Urum, Innanna, Nana, Anunit, Nina, Ishtar, Anu, Nindar-a, Gal-alim, Nin-shakh, Dun-shagga, Lugalbanda, with a consort Nin-sun, Dumu-zi-zu-ab, Dumu-zi, Lugal-Erim, Nin-e-gal and Ningal, Nin-gish-zi-da, Dun-pa-uddu, Nin-mar, Pa-sag, Nidaba, Ku(?)-anna, Shid, Nin-agid-kha-du, Ninshul-li, En-gubarra, Im-mi-khu(?), Ur-du-zi, Kadi, Nu-ku-sir-da, Ma-ma, Za-ma-ma, Za-za-ru, Impa-ud-du, Ur-e-nun-ta-ud-du-a, Khi-gir-nunna, Khi-shagga, Gur-mu, Zar-mu, Dagan, Damu, Lama, Nesu, Nun-gal, An-makh, Nin-si-na, Nin-asu. In this list great gods and goddesses and all kinds of minor deities are gathered together, and the list looks and sounds hopeless. But these are local deities, and some of them are mere duplications. Nearly every place in early times would have a sun-god or a moon-god or both, and in the political development of the country the moon-god of the conquering city displaced or absorbed the moon-god of the conquered. When we have eliminated these gods, who have practically disappeared, there remains a comparatively small number of gods who outrank all the others.

In the room of some of these gods that disappeared, others, especially in Assyria, found places. There was, however, a strong tendency to diminish the number of the gods. They are in early days mentioned by the score, but as time goes on many of these vanish away and only the few remain. As Jastrow has pointed out, Shalmaneser II (859-825 B.C.) had only eleven gods in his pantheon: Ashur, Anu, Bel, Ea, Sin, Shamash, Ninib, Nergal, Nusku, Belit and Ishtar. Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) usually mentions only eight; namely, Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Bel (that is, Marduk), Nabu, Nergal, Ishtar of Nineveh and Ishtar of Arbela. But we must not lay much emphasis upon the smallness of this number, for in his building inscriptions at the end he invokes twenty-five deities, and even though some of these are duplicates of other gods, as Jastrow correctly explains, nevertheless the entire list is considerably increased over the eight above mentioned. In the late Babylonian period the worship seems chiefly devoted to Marduk, Nabu, Sin, Shamash and Ishtar. Often there seem little faint indications of a further step forward. Some of the hymns addressed to Shamash seem almost upon the verge of exalting him in such a way as to exclude the other deities, but the step is never taken. The Babylonians, with all their wonderful gifts, were never able to conceive of one god, of one god alone, of one god whose very existence makes logically impossible the existence of any other deity. Monotheism transcends the spiritual grasp of the Babylonian mind.

Amid all this company of gods, amid all these speculations and combinations, we must keep our minds clear, and fasten our eyes upon the one significant fact that stands out above all others. It is that the Babylonians were not able to rise above polytheism; that beyond them, far beyond them, lay that great series of thoughts about God that ascribe to him aloneness, to which we may add the great spiritual ideas which today may roughly be grouped under ethical monotheism. Here and there great thinkers in Babylonia grasped after higher ideas, and were able only to attain to a sort of pantheism of a speculative kind. A personal god, righteous and holy, who loved righteousness. and hated sin, this was not given to them to conceive.

The character of the gods changed indeed as the people who revered them changed. The Babylonians who built vast temples and composed many inscriptions emphasizing the works of peace rather than of war, naturally conceived their deities in a manner different from the Assyrians whose powers were chiefly devoted to conquests in war, but neither the Babylonians nor the Assyrians arose to any such heights as distinguish the Hebrew book of Psalms. As the influence of the Babylonians and Assyrians waned, their go ds declined in power, and none of them survived the onrush of Greek civilization in the period of Alexander.

IV. The Pantheon.

The chief gods of the Babylonian and Assyrian pantheon may now be characterized in turn.

1. Enlil, Ellil:

In the earliest times known to us the greatest of the gods is the god of Nippur whose name in the Sumerian texts is Enlil or Ellil. In the Semitic pantheon of later times he was identified with the god Bel, and it is as Belhe has been chiefly known. During the whole of the first epoch of Babylonian history up to the period of Hammurabi, he is the Lord of the World and the King of the Land. He was originally the hero of the Flood story, but in the form in which it has come down to us Marduk of Babylon has deprived him of these honors. In Nippur was his chief temple, called E-kur or “mountain house.” It was built and rebuilt by the kings of Babylonia again and again from the days of Sargon I (3800 B.C.) onward, and no less than twenty kings are known to us who pride themselves on their work of rebuilding this one temple. He is saluted as “the Great Lord, the command of whose mouth cannot be altered and whose grace is steadfast.” He would seem, judging from the name of his temple and from some of his attributes, to have been originally a god of the mountains where he must have had his original dwelling-place.

2. Anu:

The name of the god Anu was interpreted as meaning heaven, corresponding to the Sumerian word ana, “heaven,” and he came thus to be regarded as the god of heaven as over against Enlil who was the god of earth, and Ea who was the god of the waters. Anu appears first among the great gods in an inscription of Lugalsaggi, and in somewhat later times he made his way to the top of the earliest triad which consists of Ann, Enlil and Ea. His chief seat of worship was Uruk, but in the Assyrian period he was associated with the god Adad in a temple in the city of Asshur. In the myths and epics he fills an important role as the disposer of all events, but he cannot be thought of as quite equal in rank with Enlil in spite of his position in the heavens. Antu or Anatu is mentioned as the wife of Ann, but hers is a colorless figure, and she may probably be regarded as little else than a grammatical invention owing to the desire of the Semites to associate the feminine with the masculine in their languages.

3. Ea:

The reading of the name of the god Ea still remains uncertain. It may perhaps have been Ae, as the Greek Aos would seem to indicate. His chief city of worship was Eridu, which in the earliest period was situated on the Persian Gulf, near the mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris. His temple was there called E-absu, which means “house of the deeps,” interpreted also as “house of wisdom.” He must have been a god of great importance in early times, but was left behind by the growing influence of Ellil and in a later period retained honor chiefly because he was assumed to be the. father of the god Marduk, and so was reverenced by the people of the city of Babylon. As the lord of wisdom he filled a great role in exorcisms down to the very last, and was believed to be the god who was most ready to respond to human need in direful circumstances. Ea’s wife is called Damkina.

4. Sin:

Sin was the city god of Urn (Ur of the Chaldeans in the Old Testament). He was originally a local god who came early to a lofty position in the canon because he seems always to have been identified with the moon, and in Babylon the moon was always of more importance than the sun because of its use in the calendar. His temple was called E-kishshirgal, i.e. “house of light.” His worship was widespread, for at a very early date he had a shrine at Harran in Mesopotamia. His wife is called Ningal, the Great Lady, the Queen, and his name probably appears in Mt. Sinai. He is addressed in hymns of great beauty and was regarded as a most kindly god.

5. Shamash:

The Sun-god, Shamash, ranks next after Sin in the second or later triad, and there can be no doubt that he was from the beginning associated with the sun in the heavens. His seats of worship were Larsa in southern Babylonia and Sippar in northern Babylonia in both of which his temple was called E-bab-bar, “shining house.” He also is honored in magnificent hymns in which he is saluted as the enemy and the avenger of evil, but as the benignant furtherer of all good, especially of that which concerns the races of men. All legislation is ascribed to him as the supreme judge in heaven. To him the Babylonians also ascribe similar powers in war to those which the Egyptians accorded to Re. From some of the texts one might have supposed that he would have come to the top of the triad, but this appears not to have been the case, and his influence extended rather in the direction of influencing minor local deities who were judged to be characterized by attributes similar to those ascribed to him in the greater hymns.

6. Ishtar:

The origin and the meaning of the name of the goddess Ishtar are still disputed, but of her rank there can be no doubt. In the very earliest inscriptions known to us she does not seem to have been associated with the planet Venus as she is in later times. She seems rather to have been a goddess of fruitfulness and of love, and in her temple at Uruk temple-prostitution was a feature. In the mythological literature she occupies a high place as the goddess of war and of the chase. Because of this later identification she became the chief goddess of the warlike Assyrians. Little by little she absorbed all the other goddesses and her name became the general word for goddess. Her chief seats of worhip were Uruk in southern Babylonia, where she was worshipped in earliest times under the name of Nana, and Akkad in northern Babylonia, where she was called Anunitu, and Nineveh and Arbela in Assyria. Some of the hymns addressed to her are among the noblest products of Babylonian and Assyrian religion and reach a considerable ethical position. This development of a sexual goddess into a goddess who severely judged the sins of men is one of the strangest phenomena in the history of this religion.

7. Marduk:

Marduk (in the Old Testament Merodach) is the city-god of Babylon where his temple was called E-sagila (“lofty house”) and its tower E-teme nanki (“house of the foundation of heaven and earth”). His wife is Sarpanitu, and, as we have already seen, his father was Ea, and in later days Nabu was considered his son. The city of Babylon in the earliest period was insignificant in importance compared with Nippur and Eridu, and this city-god could not therefore lay claim to a position comparable with the gods of these cities, but after Hammurabi had made Babylon the chief city of all Babylonia its god rapidly increased in importance until he absorbed the attributes of the earlier gods and displaced them in the great myths. The speculative philosophers of the neo-Babylonian period went so far as to identify all the earlier gods with him, elevating his worship into a sort of henotheism. His proper name in the later periods was gradually displaced by the appellativc Belu “lord,” so that finally he was commonly spoken of as Bel, and his consort was called Belit. He shares with Ishtar and Shamash the honor of having some of the finest hymns, which have come down to us, sung to his name.

8. Nabu:

Nabu (in the Old Testament Nebo) was the city-god of Bor-sippa. His name is clearly Semitic, and means “speaker” or “announcer.” In earlier times he seems to have been a more important god than Marduk and was worshipped as the god of vegetation. His temple in Borsippa bore the name E-zida (“perpetual house”) with the tower E-uriminanki (“house of the seven rulers of heaven and earth”). In later times he was identified with the planet Mercury.

9. Nergal:

Nergal, the city-god of Kutu (in the Old Testament Cuthah), was the god of the underworld and his wife Eresh-kigal was the sovereign lady of the under-world. He was also the god of plague and of fever, and in later days was associated with the planet Mars, though scholars who are attached to the astral theory (see below) think that he was identified at an earlier date with Saturn. For this view no certain proof has yet been produced.

10. Ninib:

Unfortunately the correct pronunciation of the name of the god Ninib has not yet been secured. He seems originally to have been a god of vegetation, but in the later philosophical period was associated with the planet Saturn, called Kaitaann (Kewan, Chiun, Amos 5:26 the King James Version, the English Revised Version). As a god of vegetation he becomes also a god of healing and his wife Gula was the chief patroness of physicians. He comes also to be regarded as a mighty hero in war, and, in this capacity generally, he fills a great role in the Assyrian religion.

11. Ramman:

Ramman is the god of storms and thunder among the Babylonians and in the Assyrian pantheon he is usually called Adad. This form of the name is doubtless connected with the Aramaic god Hadad. In the Sumerian period his name seems to have been Ishkur. His wife is called Shala.

12. Tammuz:

The name Tammuz is derived from the Sumerian Dumuzi-zuab (“real child of the water depths”). He is a god of vegetation which is revived by the rains of the spring. Tammuz never became one of the great gods of the pantheon, but his popularity far exceeded that of the many gods who were regarded as greater than he. His worship is associated with that of Ishtar whose paramour he was, and the beautiful story of the descent of Ishtar to Hades was written to describe Ishtar’s pursuit of him to the depths of the under-world seeking to bring him up again. His disappearance in the under-world is associated with the disappearance of vegetation under the midsummer heat which revives again when the rain comes and the god appears once more on the earth. The cult of Tammuz survived the decay of Babylonian and Assyrian civilization and made its way into the western world. It was similar in some respects to that of Osiris in Egypt, but was not so beautiful or so humane.

13. Asshur:

The supreme god of Assyria, Asshur, was originally the local god of the city which bears the same name. During the whole of Assyrian history his chief role is as the god of war, but the speculative philosophers of Assyria absorbed into him many of the characteristics of Ellil and Marduk, going even so far as to ascribe to him the chief place in the conflict with the sea monster Tiamat in the creation epoch.

V. Hymns and Prayers.

The religious literature of the Babylonians and Assyrians culminated in a great series of hymns to the gods. These have come down to us from almost all periods of the religious history of the people. Some of them go back to the days of the old city-kingdoms and others were composed during the reign of Nabonidus when the fall of Babylon at the hands of Cyrus was imminent. The greatest number of those that have come down to us are dedicated to Shamash, the Sun-god, but many of the finest, as we have already seen, were composed in honor of Sin, the Moon-god. None of these reached monotheism. All are polytheistic, with perhaps tendencies in the direction of pantheism or henotheism. This incapacity to reach monotheism may have been partially due to the influence of the local city whose tendency was always to hold tightly to the honor of the local god. Babylonia might struggle never so hard to lift Marduk to high and still higher position, but in spite of all its efforts he remains to the very end of the days only one god among many. And even the greatest of the Babylonian kings, Nebuchadrezzar and Nabonidus, continued to pay honor to Shamash in Sippar, whose temple they continually rebuilt and adorned with ever greater magnificence. Better than any description of the hymns is a specimen adequately to show their quality. Here are some lines taken from an ancient Sumerian hymn to the Moon-god which had been copied and preserved with an Assyrian translation in the library of Ashurbanipal: + O Lord, chief of the gods, who alone art exalted on earth and in heaven, Father Nannar, Lord, Anshar, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, Lord, great Ann, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, Lord, Sin, chief of the gods, Father Nanbar, Lord of Ur, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, Lord of E-gish-shir-gal, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, Lord of the veil, brilliant one, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, whose rule is perfect, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, who does march in great majesty, chief of the gods, O strong, young bull, with strong horns, perfect in muscles, with beard of lapis lazuli color, full of glory and perfection, Self-created, full of developed fruit, beautiful to look upon, in whose being one cannot sufficiently sate himself; Mother womb, begetter of all things, who has taken up his exalted habitation among living creatures; O merciful, gracious father, in whose hand rests the life of the whole world, O Lord, thy divinity is full of awe, like the far-off heaven and the broad ocean. O creator of the land, founder of sanctuaries, proclaimer of their names, O father, begetter of gods and men, who dost build dwellings and establish offerings, Who dost call to lordship, dost bestow the scepter, determinest destinies for far-off days. Much of this is full of fine religious feeling, and the exaltation of Sin sounds as though the poet could scarcely acknowledge any other god, but the proof that other gods were invoked in the same terms and by the same kings is plentiful.

Some of these hymns are connected with magical and incantation literature, for they serve to introduce passages which are intended to drive away evil demons. A very few of them on the other hand rise to very lofty conceptions in which the god is praised as a judge of righteousness. A few lines from the greatest of all the hymns addressed to Shamash, the Sun-god, will make this plain:

COLUMN II + Who plans evil-his horn thou dost destroy, 40 Whoever in fixing boundaries annuls rights. The unjust judge thou restrainest with force. Whoever accepts a bribe, who does not judge justly-on him thou imposest sin. But he who does not accept a bribe, who has a care for the oppressed, To him Shamash is gracious, his life he prolongs. 45 The judge who renders a just decision Shall end in a palace, the place of princes shall be his dwelling. – COLUMN III + The seed of those who act unjustly shall not flourish. What their mouth declares in thy presence Thou shalt burn it up, what they purpose wilt thou annul. 15 Thou knowest their transgressions: the declaration of the wicked thou dost cast aside. Everyone, wherever he may be, is in thy care. Thou directest their judgments, the imprisoned dost thou liberate. Thou hearest, O Shamash, petition, prayer, and appeal. Humility, prostration, petitioning, and reverence. 20 With loud voice the unfortunate one cries to thee. The weak, the exhausted, the oppressed, the lowly, Mother, wife, maid appeal to thee. He who is removed from his family, he that dwelleth far from his city. – There is in this hymn no suggestion of magic or sorcery. We cannot but feel how close this poet came to an appreciation of the Sun-god as a judge of men on an ethical basis. How near he was to passing through the vale into a larger religious life!

The prayers are on the whole upon a lower plane, though some of them, notably those of Nebuchadrezzar, reach lofty conceptions. The following may serve as a sufficient example:

O eternal ruler, lord of all being, grant that the name of the king that thou lovest, whose. name thou hast proclaimed. may flourish as seems pleasing to thee. Lead him in the right way. I am the prince that obeys thee, the creature of thy hand. Thou hast created me, and hast entrusted to me dominion over mankind. According to thy mercy, O Lord, which thou bestowest upon all, may thy supreme rule be merciful! The worship of thy divinity implant in my heart! Grant me what seems good to thee, for thou art he that hast fashioned my life.

VI. Magic:

Next in importance to the gods in the Babylonian religion are the demons who had the power to afflict men with manifold diseases of body or mind. A large part of the religion seems to have been given up to an agonized struggle against these demons, and the gods were everywhere approached by prayer to assist men against these demons. An immense mass of incantations, supposed to have the power of driving the demons out, has come down to us. The use of these incantations lay chiefly in the hands of the priests who attached great importance to specific words or sets of words. The test of time was supposed to have shown that certain words were efficacious in certain instances. If in any case the result was not secured, it could only be ascribed to the use of the wrong formula; hence there grew up a great desire to preserve exactly the words which in some cases had brought healing. Later these incantations were gathered into groups or rituals classified according to purpose or use. Of the rituals which have come down to us, the following are the most important:

1. Maqlu:

Maqlu, i.e. “burning,” so called because there are in it many symbolic burnings of images or witches. This series is used in the delivering of sufferers from witches or sorcerers.

2. Shurpu:

Shurpu is another word for burning, and this series also deals much in symbolic burnings and for the same purposes as the former. In these incantations we make the acquaintance of a large number of strange demons such as the rabisu, a demon that springs unawares on its victims; the labartu, which attacks women and children; and the lilu and the lilitu, to which reference has been made before, and the utuku, a strong demon.

These incantations are for the most part a wretched jargon without meaning, and a sad commentary on the low position occupied by the religion which has attained such noble heights as that represented in the hymns and prayers. It is strange that the higher forms of religion were not able to drive out the lower, but these incantations continued to be carefully copied and used down to the very end of the Babylonian commonwealth.

VII. The Last Things.

In Babylonia, the great question of all the ages-“If a man die shall he live again?”-was asked and an attempt made to answer it. The answer was usually sad and depressing. After death the souls of men were supposed to continue in existence. It can hardly be called life. The place to which they have gone is called the “land of no return.” There they lived in dark rooms amid the dust and the bats covered with a garment of feathers, and under the dominion of Nergal and Ereshkigal. When the soul arrived among the dead he had to pass judgment before the judges of the dead, the Annunaki, but little has been preserved for us concerning the manner of this judgment. There seems to have been at times an idea that it might be possible for the dead to return again to life, for in this underworld there was the water of life, which was used when the god Tammuz returned again to earth. The Babylonians seem not to have attached so much importance to this after-existence as did the Egyptians, but they did practice burial and not cremation, and placed often with the dead articles which might be used in his future existence. In earlier times the dead were buried in their own houses, and among the rich this custom seems to have prevailed until the very latest times. For others the custom of burying in an acropolis was adopted, and near the city of Kutha was an acropolis which was especially famous. In the future world there seem to have been distinctions made among the dead.

Geneology Table of Nations

T A B L E O F N A T I O N S (70)
Ham, Shem & Japheth

———- HAM – (cham; Cham) ———-

1. The Youngest Son of Noah:
The youngest son of Noah, from whom sprang the western and southwestern nations known to the Hebrews. His name first occurs in Genesis 5:32, where, as in 6:10 and elsewhere, it occupies the second place. In Genesis 9:18 Ham is described as “the father of Canaan”.

2. Ham as a Nationality (30 Nations came out of Ham):
The name given, in Psalms 105:23,17; 106:22 (compare 78:51), to Egypt as a descendant of Ham, son of Noah. As Shem means “dusky,” or the like, and Japheth “fair,” it has been supposed that Ham meant, as is not improbable, “black.” This is supported by the evidence of Hebrew and Arabic, in which the word chamam means “to be hot” and “to be black,” the latter signification being derived from the former.

It is interesting to note that the Biblical record defines Egypt as the Land of Ham.
— Psalm 105: 23 “Israel also came into Egypt…the land of Ham.”

3. Meaning of the Word:
That Ham is connected with the native name of Egypt, Kem, or, in full pa ta’ en Kem, “the land of Egypt,” in Bashmurian Coptic Kheme, is unlikely, as this form is probably of a much later date than the composition of Gen, and, moreover, as the Arabic shows, the guttural is not a true kh, but the hard breathing h, which are both represented by the Hebrew cheth.

4. The Nations Descending from Ham:
First on the list, as being the darkest, is Cush or Ethiopia (Genesis 10:6), after which comes Mitsrayim, or Egypt, then PuT or Libyia, and Canaan last. The sons or descendants of each of these are then taken in turn, and it is noteworthy that some of them, like the Ethiopians and the Canaanites, spoke Semitic, and not Hamitic, languages–Seba (if connected with the Sabeans), Havilah (Yemen), and Sheba, whose queen visited Solomon. Professor Sayce, moreover, has pointed out that Caphtor is the original home of the Phoenicians, who spoke a Semitic language.

The explanation of this probably is that other tongues were forced upon these nationalities in consequence of their migrations, or because they fell under the dominion of nationalities alien to them. The non-Sem Babylonians, described as descendants of Nimrod (Merodach), as is well known, spoke Sumerian, and adopted Semitic Babylonian only on account of mingling with the Semites whom they found there.

Another explanation is that the nationalities described as Hamitic–a parallel to those of the Semitic section–were so called because they fell under Egyptian dominion. This would make the original Hamitic race to have been Egyptian and account for Ham as a (poetical) designation of that nationality. Professor F. L. Griffith has pointed out that the Egyptian Priapic god of Panopolis (Akhmim), sometimes called Menu, but also apparently known as Khem, may have been identified with the ancestor of the Hamitic race–he was worshipped from the coast of the Red Sea to Coptos, and must have been well known to Egypt’s eastern neighbors. He regards the characteristics of Menu as being in accord with the shamelessness of Ham as recorded in Genesis 9:20.

4. Four Sons of Ham (see map below):
1. Mizraim (Egypt)
2. Cush (Sudan, Ethiopia)
3. Put (Lybia)
4. Canaan (Hivites, Jebusites, Arvadites, Girgashites, Amorites, Arkites, Sinites, Hittites,
Sidonians, Perizzites, Zemarites)

1. Canaan was cursed, not Ham. (Gen. 9:25, “…cursed be Canaan…”
2. Genesis 9:25-27 “…servitude to his brothers…”
3. Exodus 20:5 –” A curse lasts three to four generations…”
4. Canaan does not exist as a nation today.
Other three nations exist — Egypt, Ethiopia
and Lybia.

———- SHEM – shem (shem; Sem) ———-

1. Position in Noah’s Family:
His Name:
The eldest son of Noah, from whom the Jews, as well as the Semitic (“Shemitic”) nations in general have descended. When giving the names of Noah’s three sons, Shem is always mentioned first (Genesis 9:18; 10:1, etc.); and though “the elder” in “Shem the brother of Japheth the elder” (Genesis 10:21 margin) is explained as referring to Shem, this is not the rendering of Onkelos.

His five sons peopled the greater part of West Asia’s finest tracts, from Elam on the East to the Mediterranean on the West. Though generally regarded as meaning “dusky” (compare the Assyr-Babylonian samu–also Ham–possibly = “black,” Japheth, “fair”), it is considered possible that Shem may be the usual Hebrew word for “name” (shem), given him because he was the firstborn–a parallel to the Assyr-Babylonian usage, in which “son,” “name” (sumu) are synonyms (W. A. Inscriptions, V, plural 23, 11,29-32abc).

2. History, and the Nations Descended from Him (26 Nations came out of Shem):
Shem, who is called “the father of all the children of Eber,” was born when Noah had attained the age of 500 years (Genesis 5:32). Though married at the time of the Flood, Shem was then childless. Aided by Japheth, he covered the nakedness of their father, which Ham, the youngest brother, had revealed to them; but unlike the last, Shem and Japheth, in their filial piety, approached their father walking backward, in order not to look upon him. Two years after the Flood, Shem being then 100 years old, his son Arpachshad was born (Genesis 11:10), and was followed by further sons and daughters during the remaining 500 years which preceded Shem’s death.

Noah’s prophetic blessing, on awakening from his wine, may be regarded as having been fulfilled in his descendants, who occupied Syria (Aramaic), Palestine (Canaan), Chaldea (Arpachshad), Assyria (Asshur), part of Persia (Elam), and Arabia (Joktan). In the first three of these, as well as in Elam, Canaanites had settled (if not in the other districts mentioned), but Shemites ruled, at some time or other, over the Canaanites, and Canaan thus became “his servant” (Genesis 9:25,26). The tablets found in Cappadocia seem to show that Shemites (Assyrians) had settled in that district also, but this was apparently an unimportant colony. Though designated sons of Shem, some of his descendants (e.g. the Elamites) did not speak a Semitic language, while other nationalities, not his descendants (e.g. the Canaanites), did.

3. Five Sons of Shem (see map below):
1. Elam (Arabia)
2. Asshur (Assyria)
3. Lud (Lydians)
4. Aram (Aramaic, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Syria)
5. Arphaxad (From which Abraham descended)

—– JAPHETH – ja’-feth (yepheth; yapheth; Iapheth) —–

1. Etymologies of Japheth:
This name, in Genesis 9:27, seems to be explained by the phrase “may God make wide (yapht, the American Standard Revised Version “enlarge”) for Japheth,” where yapht and Japheth are represented by the same consonants, but with different vowel-points. The root of yapht is pathach, “to make wide.”

This etymology, however, is not universally accepted, as the word-play is so obvious, and the association of Japheth with Shem (“dark”) and Ham (“black”) suggests a name on similar lines–either gentilic, or descriptive of race. Japheth has therefore been explained as meaning “fair,” from yaphah, the non-Sem and non-Hamitic races known to the Jews being all more or less whiteskinned. The Targum of Onkelos agrees with the English Versions of the Bible, but that of Jonathan has “God shall beautify Japheth,” as though from yaphah.

2. His Descendants (14 Nations came out of Japheth):
The immediate descendants of Japheth were seven in number, and are represented by the nations designated Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Mesech, and Tiras; or, roughly, the Armenians, Lydians, Medes, Greeks, Tibarenians, and Moschians, the last, Tiras, remaining still obscure. The sons of Gomer (Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah) were all settled in the West Asian tract; while the sons of Javan (Elisah, Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim or Rodanim) occupied the Mediterranean coast and the adjacent islands.

3. His Place among the Sons of Noah:
In Genesis 9:27, as in other passages, Japheth occupies the 3rd place in the enumeration of the sons of Noah, but he is really regarded as the 2nd son, Ham being the youngest. In the genealogical table, however (Genesis 10:1), the descendants of Japheth are given first, and those of Shem last, in order to set forth Semitic affinities at greater length. Though this would seem to indicate that the fair races were the least known to the Jews, it implies that the latter were well disposed toward them, for Japheth was (ultimately) to dwell in the tents of Shem, and therefore to take part in Shem’s spiritual privileges.

4. Seven Sons of Japheth (see map below):
1. Javan (Greece, Romans, Romance — French, Italians, Spanish, Portuguese)
2. Magog (Scythians, Slavs, Russians, Bulgarians, Bohemians, Poles, Slovaks, Croatians)
3. Madai (Indians & Iranic: Medes, Persians, Afghans, Kurds)
4. Tubal (South of Black Sea)
5. Tiras (Thracians, Teutons, Germans, Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Jutes)
6. Meshech (Russia)
7. Gomer (Celtic)



* Genesis 12:16 – Not only Hagar, but many of Abraham’s servants were gifts from
Pharaoh. (approx. 1921 BC)
* Genesis 13: 6-8 – Abraham had a large number of herdsmen and 318 male servants who
were born into his house.
* Genesis 25 – Isaac, Abraham’s son and then Jacob inherited everything.

* Jacob’s son, Joseph, married a wife who was an Egyptian.
* When the Israelites were bondsmen under the Egyptians, they and their former
servants were now all defined as Israel together; an opportunity that intermarriage could have taken place.
* Exodus 12:38 – After 400 years, a “mixed multitude” left Egypt during the Exodus.

* Rahab of Jericho, a Cannonite, and her family were received into Isreal, apparently by

marriage. Joshua 6:23.

* Ruth, a Moabite, married Boaz, bore Obed, who son was Jessie, father to King David.

In geneology of Christ (Mathhew 1:5) the name Rachab with the names of three other

women, Ruth, Thamar (Tamar) and Bath-Sheba.

* Solomon was given the daughter of Pharoah to marry as his first wife.

* Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Kings 10:1-13 (and in 2 Chronicles 9:1–12). The account of the Queen of Sheba is thereby interpreted by Christians as being both a metaphor and an analogy: the Queen’s visit to Solomon has been compared to the metaphorical marriage where Solomon is the anointed one as was the messiah and Sheba represents a Gentile population come to reverence to the messiah; the Queen of Sheba’s chastity has also been depicted as a foreshadowing of the Virgin Mary; and the three gifts that she brought (gold, spices, and stones) have been seen as analogous to the gifts of the Magi (gold, frankincense, and myrrh). The latter is emphasized as being consistent with a passage from Isaiah 60:6; And they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring forth gold and incense; and they shall show forth the praises of the Lord.[11] This last connection is interpreted[who?] as relating to the Magi, the learned astronomers of Sheba who saw a new star and set off on a journey to find a new ruler connected to the new star, that led them to Bethlehem.

Josephus says in his Antiquity of the Jews, book 8 chapter 6, that it was the “queen of Egypt and Ethiopia” who visited King Solomon.

RRecent archaeological discoveries in Mareb, Yemen support the view that the Queen of Sheba ruled over southern Arabia, with evidence suggesting that the area was the capital of the Kingdom of Sheba.

e there are no known traditions of matriarchal rule in Yemen during the early first millennium BC, the earliest inscriptions of the rulers of Dʿmt in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea mention queens of very high status, possibly equal to their kings.

Qur’anic and other Middle Eastern accounts

The Queen of Sheba, Bilqis, shown in a Persian miniature reclining in a garden – tinted drawing on paper c. 1595

The Qur’an, the central religious text of Islam, mentions the kingdom of the Queen by name (Sheba) in the 34th Chapter. Arab sources name her Balqis, Bilqis or Bilquis. The Qur’anic narrative, from sura 27 (An-Naml),[4] has Suleiman getting reports from the Hoopoe bird about the kingdom of Saba (Sheba), ruled by a queen whose people worship the sun instead of God. Suleiman sends a letter inviting her to submit fully to the One God, Allah, Lord of the Worlds according to the Islamic text. The Queen of Sheba is unsure how to respond and asks her advisors for counsel. They reply by reminding her that they are “of great toughness” in a reference to their willingness to go to war should she choose to. She replies that she fears if they were to lose, Suleiman may behave as any other king would: ‘entering a country, despoiling it and making the most honorable of its people its lowest’. She decides to meet with Suleiman in order to find out more. Suleiman receives her response to meet him, and asks if anyone can bring him her throne before she arrives. A jinn under the control of Suleiman proposed that he will bring it before Suleiman rises from his seat. One who had knowledge of the “Book” proposed to bring him the throne of Bilqis ‘in the twinkling of an eye’ and accomplished that immediately.[5] The queen arrives at his court, is shown her throne and asked: does your throne look like this? She replied: (It is) as though it were it. When she enters his crystal palace she accepts Abrahamic monotheism and the worship of one God alone, Allah.
Found in the scriptures where the priest’s daughters married gentiles / other Arabs, so wouldn’t the priest sons have also done this? Yes in the book of Ezra we find the Levites had married the Arab women around them and produced children with them. These women and children were sent back to their Arab families.

Through out Europe, there are a multitude of family records where “Jews” married others and they married Germans up until 1938 when it was made illegal.

Through out Europe there are hundreds of thousands of marriage records between goys and Jews.


After a dispute about the homosexuals who murdered the wife of an Israelite, the tribe of Benjamin had a civil war with the rest of the Israelites and thousands were killed.
After the smoke cleared, they were sorry and there was a big problem, because the 11 tribes had promised they would no longer trade their sons and daughters with the Benjamites in marriage.

JUDGES 21:5 And the children of Israel said, Who is there among all the tribes of Israel that came not up with the congregation to the Lord? For they had made a great oath concerning him that came not up to the Lord to Mizpeh, saying, He shall surely be put to death.
JUDGES 21:6 And the children of Israel repented them for Benjamin their brother, and said, There is one tribe cut off from Israel this day.
JUDGES 21:7 How shall we do for wives for them that remain, seeing we have sworn by the Lord that we will not give them of our daughters to wives?
When the rest of the tribes began to fight the Benjamites, they promised they excluded the Benjamites in the practice of swapping sons and daughters between tribes.


Exod 2:15 Moses split to Midian… that is in area of present day Saudia Arabia. (Moses was a Levite), Exod 2:21 Moses married Zipporah .. the Midianite.

EXODUS 6:23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
NUMBERS 1:7 Of Judah; Nahshon the son of Amminadab.
NUMBERS 2:3 .. Nahshon the son of Amminadab shall be captain of the children of Judah.
The sons of Judah came out of a non Levite (Tribe of Judah)

Lev 22:12 If the daughter of a priest marries a stranger (Levites wed to non Israelite)
she may not eat any of the sacred contributions.

EZRA 9:1 The princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.
EZRA 9:2 For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons: so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the people of those lands:
(this is just a small fraction of the marriages of with non Israelites… i.e. even Solomon had a thousand women)

EZRA 10:2 We have … have taken strange wives of the people of the land

EZRA 10:3 Let us make a convenient with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them … There went children of priests and all kinds of isrealites back into all those nations.

EZRA 10:9 It was the ninth month, on the twentieth day of the month
EZRA 10:11 … separate yourselves from the strange wives.
EZRA 10:13 we are not able to do this in one day or two
EZRA 10:15 Jonathan and Jahaziah and Meshullam and were put in charge.

EZRA 10:16 Ezra the priest, with certain chief of the fathers were separated, and sat down in the first day of the tenth month to examine the matter.
EZRA 10:17 And they made an end with all the men that had taken strange wives by the first day of the first month.
First day of the 10th month to the first day of the first month (Jan 1) would be 2 months, so it took 2 months of processing by all these Israelites to get rid of these wives and their children

EZRA 10:18 And among the sons of the priests there were found that had taken strange wives: namely, of the sons of Jeshua and his brethren; Maaseiah, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Gedaliah.
EZRA 10:23 Also of the Levites; Jozabad, and Shimei, and Kelaiah, (the same is Kelita,) Pethahiah, Judah, and Eliezer.
EZRA 10:44 All these had taken strange wives… by whom they had children.

Israelites were produced by a mix that came to include Egyptians, Moabites and Canaanites.
David is a descendant of Moabites, The tribe of Judah and Simeon came out of Canaanite women and the tribe of Joseph came out of an Egyptian mother.
Abraham and Sarah were Chaldeans (Iraq and Jordan in modern terms), Rebekah, Lean and Rachel were Syrians, the mother of Rehoboam an Ammonite, the mother of the children of Moses a Midianite (Saudia Arabian), Jezebel the Lebanese (Zidionian) mother of kings of Israel…Isrealites share DNA markers with their Arab neighbors, since having been a tribe of the region.

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